Some people purchase a watch from a cognitive and rational viewpoint where as some may go for its styling or its association with a certain life style or status level this is an experimental emotional approach
The response wheel
Colored segment shows psychol-
Dec.process Route Products
Cognitive think/feel/do cars, new products
with high involvement
Impulse do/feel/think snacks, beverages,
small house holds
Experience feel/do/think restaurants, trade shows, new products
with sampling demonstration
Repeat/habit do/think/feel Low priced
Consumer Learning Process
Learning occurs intentionally (problem solving process) as well as un-intentionally.
learning and memory theories are useful in understanding that how consumers wants and motives are acquired and how their tastes are developed, how frequently we are going to repeat our advertising , how visuals ,symbols ,sounds and other techniques can facilitates promotion.
Can be defined as relatively permanent change on behavior occurring as a result of experience. (experience may be of purchase and consumption)
Types of learned behaviors
We learn many physical behaviors to respond to a situation e.g. learn to walk , talk , interact with others, and also the method of responding to various purchase situations.
Consumers learn certain physical activity through the process of modeling, in which they mimic the behavior of other individual such as celebrities.
Symbolic Learning and problem Solving
Traffic signs , McDonald's Golden arches, slogans etc. and also the cognitive process.
One can also engage in problem-solving process of thinking and insight relations.
Thinking involves the mental manipulation of symbols representing the real world to form meanings. This leads to insight that is relationships of products with problems .e.g u may be interested in buying an alarm for car due to certain symbols or ads but after some insight knowledge that ur car is always in secured parking lots u decide not ot waste money and spend it for some thing else.
People learn to value certain elements of their environment and dislike others. This means that consumers learn many of their wants ,needs, motives as well as what products satisfy these needs.
Learning also influence the consumers in developing a favorable or unfavorable attitudes towards some product.
4 Elements of learning
Motives arouse individuals and as a result they respond. This arousal function is essential because it activates the energy needed to engage in learning activity.
By achieving the goal ,the arousal reduces, but have a greater tendency to occur again, that is why marketers put their product in a way that when relevant consumer motive arouse their products are their to satisfy the need.
This result that consumer will learn a connection b/w the product and motive .
Capable of providing direction i.e. it influences the manner in which, to respond to motive.e.g. hungry man is guided by restaurant signs or aroma of food.
Mental or physical activity in reaction to a stimulus.
Anything that follows the response and increase the tendency of response to reoccur in a similar situation.
How Consumers Learn Conditioning Thinking Conditioning Based on conditioning through association or reinforcement Thinking Intellectual evaluation comparing attributes with values Modeling Based on emulation (copying) of respected examples
Consumer Learning Processes
Cognitive Learning (Thinking)
Consumers learn through information processing and problem solving
Behavioral Learning (Conditioning)
Learning via association (classical conditioning)
Learning via reinforcement (instrumental cond.)
Modeling Processes (Modeling)
Based on observation of outcomes and consequences experienced by others
Cognitive Learning Process Goals leads to purposive behavior which leads to insight and to goal achievement . Goal Goal achievement Insight Purposive behavior
Behavioral learning theory.
Based on the fact that learning occurs through the connection b/w an external stimuli and response (S-R).
Behavioral learning theory .
Two approaches of the theory
Says that learning is an associative process with an already existing relationship b/w a stimuli and response. e.g. of food and salivation that is not taught rather it already exists. or we can say food is unconditional stimuli and so as unconditional response salivation.
Classical Conditioning Process Association develops through contiguity and repetition Unconditioned stimulus ( Food , family events waterfall) Conditioned Stimulus ( bell , Lipton Tea ,Brita water filtration pitcher) Unconditioned response ( salivation , fun& enjoyment , purity ,freshness) Conditioned response ( salivation , fun& enjoyment , purity ,freshness)
This Brita ad uses classical conditioning
Considerations while applying the theory
Contiguity : unconditional and conditional stimuli must be close enough in time and space
Repetition: the more often the unconditional and conditional stumble occur together the stronger the association
The individual must actively operate or act on some aspect of environment for learning to ossur.Also called instrumental conditioning.
Is that learner or consumer will discover the appropriate response that will be reinforced. i.e. instead of dog put a pigeon in the box .
Instrumental Conditioning Process Behavior (consumer uses product or service) Increase or decrease in probability of repeat behavior (purchase) Positive or negative consequences occur (reward or punishment)
Distinction b/w theories
Involve an already established response to another stimuli
The outcome is not dependant on consumers actions
Influences and change the opinions
No previous stimuli –response relation
The outcome is dependent on learner’s action
Influences changes in goal –oriented behavior.
External Influences on Consumers Subculture Culture Social class Reference groups Situations
Environmental influences on consumer behavior
That includes knowledge , belief, art,morals,law, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. every thing that is socially learned and shared by the members of society.
Characteristics of culture
Culture is learned
From one generation to an other
Culture is socially shared
American culture in our society / TV programs etc.
Culture are similar but diff .
e.g. calendar / education/ family/ music/ gestures/ housing etc.
Cultural elements are handed down from generation to generations cant escape ur cultural heritage
But in spite of resistance culture is changing gradually rate of change varies.
Organized as well as integrated.
Tends to form a consistent and integrated as a whole.
Marketers can distinguish more homogeneous groups subgroups within the heterogeneous national society. Sindhi / Punjabi/ pathan etc.
Race , nationality, religion
Social class Vs Status
Both can be of same social class but diff. in status
Reference/ social groups
What role u are playing in the group
IMC Communications Task Grid Decision Role Communication Task Target Audience Where and When IMC Options Desired result or effect from communication Primary group to reach at each stage Best way to reach at each stage Best IMC tool to accomplish communication task Role in Decision Marking Process Initiator Influencer Decider Purchaser User