Nasogastric is a general
term that means pertaining
to the nasal cavity and
The term is often used to
Involves the insertion of a plastic tube
(nasogastric tube) through the nose and into the
stomach, passing through the throat.
Once the tube is inserted, a healthcare
provider can deliver food or medication
directly to the stomach or retrieve substances.
Most often, nasogastric intubation is used
when an individual person is unable to eat or
swallow on his/her own.
The patient can still digest food on his/her own,
but cannot eat or swallow independently.
Refers to the process of removing substances from the stomach
via nasogastric tube.
Used in patients with gastrointestinal obstructions (gastric
secretions and swallowed air)
The process is also used when an individual may have overdosed on a medication or swallowed a harmful substance.
Used in patients who have swallowed poisonous substances
NG intubation is a helpful method to determine how the
gastrointestinal tract is functioning as it can be used to remove
contents of the stomach for examination
Aspartate transaminase (AST)
An enzyme that is found in red blood cells,
the liver, heart, muscle tissue, pancreas, and
Commonly used as a marker for liver health, but also
is found in other organs
The blood usually has low levels of AST, but when a
tissue or organ is damaged, more AST is released in
The amount of AST measured in the bloodstream is directly
related to the severity of tissue or organ damage.
Elevated levels of AST may indicate:
Acute hemolytic anemia
Acute renal disease
Heart attack/heart failure
Hepatitis or cirrhosis
AST: Liver Function Test
Commonly measured (via blood draw) as a
part of a diagnostic liver test:
Peptic Ulcer Disease
by sores or ulcers
lining the stomach or
no known cause
results when there is
fluids in the stomach
and the duodenum
Causes of Peptic Ulcer Disease
The lining of the stomach and small intestine stops
protecting the stomach from the irritating acids that
are naturally produced by the stomach.
Stomach lining becomes inflamed, producing an ulcer
Most occur in the first lining of the stomach
Ulcers that protrude the stomach or duodenum
Bacteria called Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is
known to cause painful ulcers
Peptic Ulcer Disease
Risk of Peptic Ulcer Disease
Those who use aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen
or anti-inflammatory drugs regularly
Smokers and tobacco users
Those undergoing radiation
Symptoms of Peptic Ulcer Disease
Smaller ulcers may be asymptomatic
Symptoms of Peptic Ulcer Disease include:
Diagnosis & Treatment
of Peptic Ulcer Disease
or upper endoscopy)
For viewing the stomach and
Upper GI X-Rays
Medications to kill the H. pylori
bacteria (if present) and decrease
For those taking anti-inflammatory
medications on a regular basis
Protects the lining of the stomach
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
Chronic digestive disease
Occurs when stomach acid or bile flows back into
The acid irritates the lining of esophagus
Caused by permanent or temporary changes to the
barrier that protects the esophagus from the stomach
the lower esophageal sphincter relaxes
Symptoms of GERD
Pain in the chest or upper part of the abdomen.
Dry cough/trouble breathing
Burning sensation in chest and throat
GERD Risk Factors
Affects 10-20% of those living in the Western world.
Other contributions to GERD:
Treatment of GERD
Avoid certain foods and beverages:
Avoid laying down after eating
Lose weight if needed
Fregman, B and Frucht S. “Chapter 8. Digestive System.” Medical Terminology: A Living Language (5th edition). 2005.
Medicine.Net. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
(GERD, Acid Reflux, Heartburn). http://www.medicinenet.com/gastroesophageal_reflux_disease_gerd/article.htm#gerd_facts. 15 October
Medline Plus. Nasogastric feeding tube. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/patientinstructions/000182.htm. 14 October 2013.
Medline Plus. Peptic Ulcer. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000206.htm. 15 October 2013.
Paulev-Zubieta. Chapter 22: Gastrointestinal Function and Disorders. New Human Physiology.
http://www.zuniv.net/physiology/book/chapter22.html. 15 October 2013.
Shlamovitz et al. Nasogastric Tube. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/80925-overview. 14 October 2013.
U.S. Department of health and Human Services. National Digestive Diseases
Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC). http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/gerd/#GERD. 14 October 2013.
Wise Geek. The Digestive System. www.wisegeek.com/how-does-the-digestive-system-work.htm. 14 October 2013
Web MD. Digestive Disorders Health Center- Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST). http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/aspartateaminotransferase-ast. 14 October 2013