9 sexual assualt


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9 sexual assualt

  1. 1. Chapter Nine
  2. 2.  Defining Rape  Multiple definitions  May be a discrepancy between the legal definition and common definition  Definition used by this textbook-an unwanted act of oral, vaginal, or anal penetration committed though the use of force, threat of force, or when incapacitated Benchmark Study: National Violence Against Women Survey (National Institute of Justice and Centers for Disease Control, 1998)  1 in 6 (17%) women and 1 in 33 (3%) men have experienced an attempted or completed rape (in the United States)
  3. 3.  Underreporting  Other studies report 15-33% of women and 10-15% of men experienced an attempted or completed rape (in the United States)  3 out of 5 sexual assault victims stated the offender was an intimate, relative, friend, or acquaintance which leads to underreporting  Sexual abuse of children under the age of 12 is rarely reported The Unique Situation of Sexual Abuse/Rape Survivors  Crises resulting from sexual abuse and rape differ in nature, intensity, and extent from other forms of crisis
  4. 4.  Social/Cultural Factors  Four different factors:  Gender inequality  Pornography  Social disorganization  Legitimization of violence  Historically, the crime of rape has been seen as:  A crime against the woman’s father or her husband  Psychosocial means by which the victors in wars reward themselves and humiliate their opponents
  5. 5.  Personal and Psychological Factors of Rapists  Acts hostile but often feels weak  Lacks interpersonal skills  May need to exercise power  May show sadistic patters  Sees women as sexual objects  Holds stereotypical and rigid views of males and females  Harbors chronic feelings of anger toward women and seeks to control them Rape as an exercise in power and control Four categories of rapists:  Anger  Power exploitative  Power reassurance  Sadistic
  6. 6.  Rape is just rough sex.  Equating rape and sex is perhaps the most destructive myth of all. Women “cry rape” to gain revenge.  People do not want to believe that rape really occurs  Serves to focus the blame for sexual violence on victims rather than perpetrators  Easier to believe than knowing rape can happen to anyone Rape is motivated by lust. Rapists are psychotic or weird. Survivors of rape provoked the rape. Only bad women are raped.
  7. 7.  Rape happens only in bad parts of town, at night, or by strangers with weapons. If the woman does not resist, she must have wanted it. Males cannot be victims. Homosexuals are usually the perpetrators of sexual abuse of boys. Boys are less traumatized than girls. Boys abused by males will later become homosexual or rapists. If a person experiences sexual arousal, this means it is not rape. A female can not rape a male.
  8. 8.  Date Rape Risk  Child sexual abuse is a risk factor for both heightened sexual activity and sexual victimization in dating.  Alcohol and drug use (by both the survivor and the perpetrator) is a risk factor for acquaintance rape. Preventing Date, Acquaintance, and Other Forms of Rape  Educational programs, especially at the secondary school level, have been recommended as preventive measures in reducing acquaintance rape.  Results show changes are only short-term.
  9. 9.  Empathy Builda Working Alliance Use Support Systems Stop Secondary Victimization  Police, medical professionals, significant others Responses  May exhibit no emotions  May feel humiliated  May suffer immediate and long-term trauma  May blame themselves  May be reluctant to go to the police or rape crisis center
  10. 10.  Critical Needs  Continuing medical treatment  Support system (family, friends, work, etc.)  Understanding without pressure regarding further sexual contact Critical Supports  Understanding mood swings  Ensuring safety without overprotection  Allowing the victim to make decisions regarding reporting the rape  Allowing the victim to talk about the trauma without disclosing the information to others  Recognize that loved ones also exhibit issues
  11. 11.  PTSD • Rape ranks second in the potential for PTSD • EMDR as a first option for treatment • Cognitive-behavioral treatment • Exposure treatment • Affect regulation • Cognitive therapy
  12. 12.  Psychological Trauma and Sequelae  Effects on Adult Survivors  Higher incidence of:  Depression and anxiety  Borderline personality disorder and Dissociative disorder  PTSD  Social stigmatization and alienation  Somatic complaints  Negative self-image  Revictimization  Early assault is additive False Memories  Controversial topic  False Memory Syndrome Foundation  “Recovered memory” survey
  13. 13.  Assessment  Can be difficult to assess and diagnose due to multiple ways it may manifest Treatment of Adults  Treat in a similar way to PTSD Grounding  Have the client focus on the therapist and the “here and now”  Ask the client to describe current INTERNAL experiences  Orient the client to the current environment  Use relaxation techniques Validation  Validate that the trauma did occur even if it is denied by the client’s family  Advocate for the client  Reinforce the resourcefulness of the client  Be a role model to help the client with childhood developmental tasks
  14. 14.  Extinguishing Trauma  The reduction or termination of a conditioned response as a result of the absence of the reinforcement Prolonged Exposure/Cognitive Restructuring  Reframing and relearning feelings Grief Resolution  Confrontation  Changing behavior through skill building and reconnecting Support Groups for Adult Survivors
  15. 15.  Dynamics of Sexual Abuse in Childhood Dynamics of Sexual Abuse in Families  Intergenerational transmission of sexual abuse  Female abusers Phases of Child Sexual Abuse  Engagement Phase  Sexual Interaction Phase  Secrecy Phase  Disclosure Phase  Suppression Phase  Survival Phase
  16. 16.  Assessment Therapeutic Options  Play Therapy  Cognitive-behavioral Therapy  Trauma Systems approach Affirmationand Safety Regaining a Sense of Control Education Assertiveness Training
  17. 17.  Interviewing the Child  Ensure safety  Collect appropriate evidence  Carl Perkins model Preparing the Child for Testimony  Education on the process  Role play possible situations  Orientation of the courtroom Aftermath  Counseling  Placement of the child
  18. 18.  Group Counseling Boundary Issues Group Support Work With Non-offending Parents Preventing Re-victimization Individual Counseling  Session 1: Establishing safe ground  Session 2: Introducing traumatic material  Crisis session  Last sessions: Transcending