Defining Rape Multiple definitions May be a discrepancy between the legal definition and common definition Definition used by this textbook-an unwanted act of oral, vaginal, or anal penetration committed though the use of force, threat of force, or when incapacitated Benchmark Study: National Violence Against Women Survey (National Institute of Justice and Centers for Disease Control, 1998) 1 in 6 (17%) women and 1 in 33 (3%) men have experienced an attempted or completed rape (in the United States)
Underreporting Other studies report 15-33% of women and 10-15% of men experienced an attempted or completed rape (in the United States) 3 out of 5 sexual assault victims stated the offender was an intimate, relative, friend, or acquaintance which leads to underreporting Sexual abuse of children under the age of 12 is rarely reported The Unique Situation of Sexual Abuse/Rape Survivors Crises resulting from sexual abuse and rape differ in nature, intensity, and extent from other forms of crisis
Social/Cultural Factors Four different factors: Gender inequality Pornography Social disorganization Legitimization of violence Historically, the crime of rape has been seen as: A crime against the woman’s father or her husband Psychosocial means by which the victors in wars reward themselves and humiliate their opponents
Personal and Psychological Factors of Rapists Acts hostile but often feels weak Lacks interpersonal skills May need to exercise power May show sadistic patters Sees women as sexual objects Holds stereotypical and rigid views of males and females Harbors chronic feelings of anger toward women and seeks to control them Rape as an exercise in power and control Four categories of rapists: Anger Power exploitative Power reassurance Sadistic
Rape is just rough sex. Equating rape and sex is perhaps the most destructive myth of all. Women “cry rape” to gain revenge. People do not want to believe that rape really occurs Serves to focus the blame for sexual violence on victims rather than perpetrators Easier to believe than knowing rape can happen to anyone Rape is motivated by lust. Rapists are psychotic or weird. Survivors of rape provoked the rape. Only bad women are raped.
Rape happens only in bad parts of town, at night, or by strangers with weapons. If the woman does not resist, she must have wanted it. Males cannot be victims. Homosexuals are usually the perpetrators of sexual abuse of boys. Boys are less traumatized than girls. Boys abused by males will later become homosexual or rapists. If a person experiences sexual arousal, this means it is not rape. A female can not rape a male.
Date Rape Risk Child sexual abuse is a risk factor for both heightened sexual activity and sexual victimization in dating. Alcohol and drug use (by both the survivor and the perpetrator) is a risk factor for acquaintance rape. Preventing Date, Acquaintance, and Other Forms of Rape Educational programs, especially at the secondary school level, have been recommended as preventive measures in reducing acquaintance rape. Results show changes are only short-term.
Empathy Builda Working Alliance Use Support Systems Stop Secondary Victimization Police, medical professionals, significant others Responses May exhibit no emotions May feel humiliated May suffer immediate and long-term trauma May blame themselves May be reluctant to go to the police or rape crisis center
Critical Needs Continuing medical treatment Support system (family, friends, work, etc.) Understanding without pressure regarding further sexual contact Critical Supports Understanding mood swings Ensuring safety without overprotection Allowing the victim to make decisions regarding reporting the rape Allowing the victim to talk about the trauma without disclosing the information to others Recognize that loved ones also exhibit issues
PTSD • Rape ranks second in the potential for PTSD • EMDR as a first option for treatment • Cognitive-behavioral treatment • Exposure treatment • Affect regulation • Cognitive therapy
Psychological Trauma and Sequelae Effects on Adult Survivors Higher incidence of: Depression and anxiety Borderline personality disorder and Dissociative disorder PTSD Social stigmatization and alienation Somatic complaints Negative self-image Revictimization Early assault is additive False Memories Controversial topic False Memory Syndrome Foundation “Recovered memory” survey
Assessment Can be difficult to assess and diagnose due to multiple ways it may manifest Treatment of Adults Treat in a similar way to PTSD Grounding Have the client focus on the therapist and the “here and now” Ask the client to describe current INTERNAL experiences Orient the client to the current environment Use relaxation techniques Validation Validate that the trauma did occur even if it is denied by the client’s family Advocate for the client Reinforce the resourcefulness of the client Be a role model to help the client with childhood developmental tasks
Extinguishing Trauma The reduction or termination of a conditioned response as a result of the absence of the reinforcement Prolonged Exposure/Cognitive Restructuring Reframing and relearning feelings Grief Resolution Confrontation Changing behavior through skill building and reconnecting Support Groups for Adult Survivors
Dynamics of Sexual Abuse in Childhood Dynamics of Sexual Abuse in Families Intergenerational transmission of sexual abuse Female abusers Phases of Child Sexual Abuse Engagement Phase Sexual Interaction Phase Secrecy Phase Disclosure Phase Suppression Phase Survival Phase
Assessment Therapeutic Options Play Therapy Cognitive-behavioral Therapy Trauma Systems approach Affirmationand Safety Regaining a Sense of Control Education Assertiveness Training
Interviewing the Child Ensure safety Collect appropriate evidence Carl Perkins model Preparing the Child for Testimony Education on the process Role play possible situations Orientation of the courtroom Aftermath Counseling Placement of the child
Group Counseling Boundary Issues Group Support Work With Non-offending Parents Preventing Re-victimization Individual Counseling Session 1: Establishing safe ground Session 2: Introducing traumatic material Crisis session Last sessions: Transcending