Psych 200 Learning

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Psych 200 Learning

  1. 1. Learning<br />Chapter 6<br />
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes<br />
  3. 3. Definition:<br />Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that arises from practice or experience.<br />According to cognitive psychologists, learning may be a mental change that may not be associated with changes in behavior.<br />Learning is demonstrated by changes in behavior, but learning itself is a mental process.<br />Learning<br />
  4. 4. Classical Conditioning<br />Learning What Is Linked To What<br />
  5. 5. Classical conditioning is a simple form of associative learning that enables organisms to anticipate events.<br />Reflexes: <br />simple automatic responses to stimuli. <br />Stimulus: <br />an environmental condition that evokes a response from an organism.<br />Pavlov discovered that reflexes can also be learned through association.<br />These learned reflexes are referred to as conditioned responses (CR).<br />Classical Conditioning<br />
  6. 6. Controversy In Psychology: <br />Why did Pavlov’s dogs learn to salivate in response to the bell?<br />Organisms form associations between stimuli because the stimuli are contiguous – that is they occur at about the same time.<br />Cognitive psychologists view classical conditioning as the learning of relationships among events. <br />The focus is on the information gained by the organism which is not how the behaviorists see it (Stimulus leads to response).<br />
  7. 7. Classical Conditioning<br />Figure 6.2A Schematic Representation of Classical Conditioning. Prior to conditioning, food elicits salivation. The bell, a neutral stimulus, elicits either no response or an orienting response. During conditioning, the bell is rung just before meat is placed on the dog’s tongue. After several repetitions, the bell, now a CS, elicits salivation, the CR.<br />
  8. 8. Stimuli and Responses in Classical Conditioning.<br />Unconditioned stimulus (US) is unlearned: <br />Pavlov’s meat powder elicits salivation, an unconditioned response (UR).<br />When the dogs learned to salivate to the sound of a bell (previously neutral) the bell became the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the salivation in response to the bell is a conditioned response (CR).<br />Classical Conditioning<br />
  9. 9. Taste Aversion: Are All Stimuli Created Equal? <br />Taste aversions are examples of classical conditioning. <br />Taste aversions are adaptive to the organism as they motivate them to avoid potentially harmful food.<br />Different than classical conditioning because:<br />Only one association may be required.<br />The US and CS do not have to be contiguous.<br />The Evolution of Taste Aversion.<br />The evolutionary perspective suggests that animals and humans would be biologically predisposed to develop aversions that are adaptive in their environmental settings.<br />Classical Conditioning<br />
  10. 10. Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery help us adapt by updating our expectations about the changing environment.<br />Extinction: <br />the process by which a CS lose the ability to elicit CRs because the CS is no longer paired with the US.<br />Spontaneous Recovery: <br />recovery of a CR after extinction. A function of the passage of time. <br />Spontaneous recovery, like extinction, is adaptive.<br />Classical Conditioning<br />
  11. 11. Classical Conditioning<br />Figure 6.3Learning and Extinction Curves. Actual data from Pavlov (1927) compose the jagged line, and the curved lines are idealized. In the acquisition phase, a dog salivates (shows a CR) in response to a bell (CS) after a few trials in which the bell is paired with meat powder (the US). Afterward, the CR is extinguished in about ten trials during which the CS is not followed by the US. After a rest period, the CR recovers spontaneously. A second series of extinction trials leads to more rapid extinction of the CR.<br />
  12. 12. Generalization and Discrimination.<br />Generalization <br />the tendency for a conditioned response to be evoked by stimuli similar to the stimulus to which the response was conditioned.<br />Discrimination: organisms must learn that:<br />Many stimuli perceived as being similar are functionally different.<br />The organism must respond adaptively to each.<br />Higher Order Conditioning<br />In Higher Order Conditioning a previously neutral stimulus comes to serve as a learned or CS after being paired repeatedly with a stimulus that has already become learned. <br />Classical Conditioning<br />
  13. 13. Counterconditioning: <br />a pleasant stimulus is repeatedly paired with a fear-evoking object, thereby counteracting the fear response.<br />Flooding and Systematic Desensitization.<br />Flooding: the client is exposed to the fear-evoking stimulus until the fear response is extinguished.<br />Flooding is usually effective but unpleasant.<br />Systematic desensitization: <br />the client is gradually exposed to fear-evoking stimuli under circumstances in which they remain relaxed.<br />The Bell and Pad Treatment for Bed Wetting.<br />Children are taught to wake up in response to bladder tension.<br />Applications of Classical Conditioning<br />
  14. 14. Operant Conditioning<br />Learning what does what to what<br />
  15. 15. Edward L. Thorndike<br />The Law of Effect: a response is strengthened in a particular situation by a reward (stamped in). Punishments stamp out stimulus-response connections.<br />Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904-1990).<br />Historical contributions: Skinner Box, programmed learning, and Walden II.<br />Concepts of Reinforcement <br />Organisms learn to do something because of the effects or consequences of that behavior.<br />Operant conditioning is a simple form of learning in which an organism learns to engage in certain behavior because of the effects of that behavior.<br />Operant Conditioning<br />
  16. 16. Methods of Operant Conditioning<br />Skinner’s book titled “The Behavior of Organisms” (1938).<br />Skinner devised an operant chamber (Skinner Box); a cage for animals used to study operant conditioning. <br />The chambers had a lever that the animals could press to obtain reinforcements and a turning drum or cumulative recorder to measure behavior (lever presses).<br />The First Correct Response: <br />it matters little how the first response that is reinforced is made (random or guided) <br />People can be verbally guided into the desired response.<br />Operant Conditioning<br />
  17. 17. Reinforcement<br />Figure 6.5The Effects of Reinforcement. One of the celebrities of modern psychology, an albino laboratory rat, earns its keep in a Skinner box. The animal presses a lever because of reinforcement—in the form of food pellets—delivered through the feeder.<br />
  18. 18. Any stimulus which increases the probability that responses preceding it will be repeated serves as a reinforcer.<br />Positive Reinforcers: <br />increase the probability the behavior will occur when applied.<br />Negative Reinforcers: <br />increase the probability of a behavior when removed.<br />With sufficient reinforcement operants become habits.<br />Immediate reinforcers are more effective than delayed reinforcers.<br />Primary and Secondary Reinforcers.<br />Primary reinforcers are effective because of an organism’s biological makeup (e.g. food and water).<br />Secondary reinforcers acquire their value through being associated with established reinforcers. Sometimes called conditioned reinforcers.<br />Operant Conditioning<br />
  19. 19. Positive and Negative Reinforcers<br />Figure 6.6Positive Versus Negative Reinforcers All reinforcers increase the frequency of behavior. However, negative reinforcers are aversive stimuli that increase the frequency of behavior when they are removed. In these examples, teacher approval functions as a positive reinforcer when students study harder because of it. Teacher disapproval functions as a negative reinforcer when its removal increases the frequency of studying. Can you think of situations in which teacher approval might function as a negative reinforcer?<br />
  20. 20. Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery<br />Extinction occurs as a result of repeated performance of operant behavior without reinforcement.<br />Spontaneous recovery occurs in operant conditioning. The reward returns and the behavior increases.<br />Reinforcers Versus Rewards and Punishments.<br />Reinforcers are known by their effects.<br />Rewards and punishments are known by how they feel.<br />Some psychologists refer to reward and positive reinforcement as being synonymous.<br />Punishments are aversive events that suppress or decrease the frequency of behavior they follow.<br />Punishment often fails to achieve the goals of parents, teachers, and others.<br />Operant Conditioning<br />
  21. 21. Negative Reinforcers verses Punishments<br />Figure 6.7Negative Reinforcers Versus Punishments Negative reinforcers and punishments both tend to be aversive stimuli. However, reinforcers increase the frequency of behavior. Punishments decrease the frequency of behavior. Negative reinforcers increase the frequency of behavior when they are removed. Punishments decrease or suppress the frequency of behavior when they are applied. Can you think of situations in which punishing students might have effects other than those desired by the teacher?<br />
  22. 22. Results of using punishment:<br />Children are less likely to develop internal moral standards.<br />Physical punishment is connected with poorer parent-child relationships.<br />Physically punished children are more likely to be aggressive toward other children.<br />Physically punished children are more likely to abuse their spouses or their own children.<br />Operant Conditioning<br />
  23. 23. Why not use physical punishment:<br />It hurts.<br />Punished individuals may withdraw from situation (family, school, etc.)<br />Children learn the responses that are punished.<br />Psychologists recommend rewarding good behavior or ignoring misbehavior by using time out.<br />We must pay attention to children when they are behaving well.<br />We must be certain that children are capable of performing desired behavior.<br />Operant Conditioning<br />
  24. 24. Discriminative stimuli act as cues by providing information about when an operant will be reinforced.<br />Operant Conditioning<br />
  25. 25. Schedules of Reinforcement: <br />Some responses are maintained by means of continuous reinforcement; reinforcement after every response. <br />New behaviors are acquired more rapidly through continuous reinforcement.<br />Partial reinforcement can also maintain behavior. <br />Behavior is more resistant to extinction when partial reinforcement is used.<br />Interval Schedules.<br />Fixed Interval: a fixed amount of time must elapse between the previous and subsequent times when reinforcement occurs.<br />Variable Interval: a variable amount of time occurs between reinforcements.<br />Operant Conditioning<br />
  26. 26. Fixed Interval Reinforcement<br />Figure 6.8 The Fixed Interval Scallop. Organisms who are reinforced on a fixed-interval schedule tend to slack off responding after each reinforcement. The rate of response picks up as they near the time when reinforcement will become available. The results on the cumulative recorder look like upward moving waves, or scallops.<br />
  27. 27. Schedules of Reinforcement: <br />Ratio schedules.<br />Fixed ratio: reinforcement is provided after a fixed number of correct responses have been made.<br />Variable ratio: Reinforcement is provided after a variable number of correct responses.<br />Both ratio schedules maintain high rates of responding.<br />Shaping reinforces progressive steps toward the behavioral goal.<br />Reinforce successive approximations of the goal.<br />Operant Conditioning<br />
  28. 28. Cognitive factors in Learning<br />
  29. 29. Cognitive psychologists use concepts such as mental structures, schemas, templates, and information processing.<br />Latent Learning:<br />Tolman showed that rats learn about their environment in the absence of reinforcement.<br />Learning might remain hidden or latent until they were motivated to behave.<br />Observational Learning: <br />Albert Bandura proposed that we can acquire operants by observing the behavior of others.<br />A person who engages in a response to be imitated is a model.<br />Observers are said to be vicariously reinforced.<br />Cognitive Factors in Learning<br />
  30. 30. Biofeedback Training: Gaining Bleep Control. <br />enabled people to learn to control autonomic responses in order to attain reinforcement.<br />Important innovation in treatment of health-related problems.<br />Reinforcement is given in the form of information.<br />Behavior Modification in the Classroom. <br />Teachers are taught to pay attention to children when they are behaving appropriately. Works well with younger children.<br />Older children: peer approval is often more powerful.<br />Programmed Learning: Step by Step. <br />Method assumes that any complex task can be broken down into a number of small steps. <br />The steps can be combined in sequence to form the correct behavioral chain.<br />Applications of Operant Conditioning<br />
  31. 31. Contingency theory: <br />suggests that learning occurs only when the conditioned stimulus provides information about the unconditioned stimulus.<br />Rescorla concluded that the co-appearance of two events cannot in itself explain classical conditioning. <br />Instead, learning occurs only when the conditioned stimulus provides information about the unconditioned stimulus.<br />Learning theory occurs because a conditioned stimulus indicates that the unconditioned stimulus is likely to follow.<br />A CLOSER LOOK: Contingency Theory<br />
  32. 32. Life Connections: <br />Violence in the Media and Aggression<br />If a child watches 2 to 4 hours of TV a day, he/she will have seen 8,000 murders and 100,000 acts of violence by the end of elementary school.<br />Bandura, Ross and Ross (1963) conducted a study using a BoBo doll. <br />They found that children who had observed the aggressive model showed significantly more aggressive behavior toward the doll themselves.<br />Observing the model also disinhibited previously learned aggressive responses.<br />Violence is often shown to have only temporary or minimal effects.<br />Few TV programs show harmful long-term effects.<br />
  33. 33. Life Connections: <br />Violence in the Media and Aggression<br />Ways in which depictions of violence contribute to violence:<br />Observational learning.<br />Disinhibition.<br />Increased emotional arousal.<br />Priming of aggressive thoughts and memories.<br />Habituation.<br />Assumption that violence is acceptable.<br />Decreases the likelihood that one will take action on behalf of a victim.<br />May lead to real-life violence.<br />
  34. 34. Life Connections: <br />Violence in the Media and Aggression<br />There is no simple one-to-one connection between media violence and violence in real life. <br />Family constellations may also contribute:<br />Parental substance abuse.<br />Paternal physical punishments.<br />Single motherhood.<br />Parental rejection.<br />
  35. 35. Life Connections: <br />Violence in the Media and Aggression<br />Teaching Children Not to Imitate Media Violence.<br />Children who watch violent shows act less aggressively when they are informed that:<br />The violent behavior they observe in the media does not represent the behavior of most people.<br />The apparently aggressive behaviors they watch are not real.<br />Most people resolve conflicts by nonviolent means.<br />The real-life consequences of violence are harmful to the victim.<br />
  36. 36. Chapter 6: Learning<br />
  37. 37. Learning Outcomes<br />Describe the learning process according to classical conditioning.<br />Describe the learning process according to operant conditioning.<br />Describe cognitive factors in learning.<br />
  38. 38. Truth or Fiction?<br /><ul><li>A single nauseating meal can give rise to a taste aversion that lasts for years.
  39. 39. Psychologists helped a young boy overcome his fear of rabbits by having him eat cookies while a rabbit was brought closer and closer.</li></li></ul><li>Truth or Fiction?<br /><ul><li>During World War II, a psychologist created a missile that would use pigeons to guide the missile to its target.
  40. 40. Slot machine players pop coins into the machines most rapidly when they have no idea when they might win.</li></li></ul><li>Truth or Fiction?<br /><ul><li>You can train a rat to climb a ramp, cross a bridge, climb a ladder, pedal a toy car, and do several other tasks – all in proper sequence.</li></li></ul><li>Truth or Fiction?<br /><ul><li>You have to make mistakes to learn.
  41. 41. Despite all the media hoopla, no scientific connection has been established between violence in the media and real-life aggression.</li></li></ul><li>What is Learning?<br />Related to behavior<br />Behaviorist Perspective<br />A relatively permanent change in behavior that arises from practice or experience<br />Cognitive Perspective<br />Mental change that may or may not be associatedwith changes in behavior<br />Related to thinking<br />
  42. 42. Classical Conditioning: Learning What is Linked to What<br />
  43. 43. Classical Conditioning<br />Simple form of associative learning that enables organisms to anticipate events<br />Previously neutral stimulus (CS) comes to elicit the response evoked by a second stimulus (UCS) as a result of repeatedly being paired with the second stimulus<br />
  44. 44. Contribution of Ivan Pavlov<br />While studying salivation in dogs, Pavlov “happened” upon the principles of conditioning<br />Reflexes (unlearned) can be learned (or conditioned) through association<br />
  45. 45. Features and Phases of Classical Conditioning<br />
  46. 46. Features and Phases of Classical Conditioning<br />
  47. 47. Why Did Pavlov’s Dogs Salivate?<br />Behaviorist perspective<br />Dog learned to salivate in response to the tone because the tone had been paired with the meat powder<br />Cognitive perspective<br />The dog salivated in response to the tone because the tone became mentally connected with the meat<br />
  48. 48. Stimulus and Response in Classical Conditioning<br />Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) <br />Unconditioned response (UCR)<br />Orienting response<br />Conditioned stimulus (CS)<br />Conditioned response (CR)<br />
  49. 49. ClassicalConditioning<br />
  50. 50. Taste Aversion<br />Example of classical conditioning<br />Adaptive; motivate organism to avoid harmful foods<br />Only one association may be required; time between unconditioned and conditioned stimulus can occur hours apart<br />
  51. 51. Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery<br />Extinction<br />CS no longer followed by an UCS - no longer elicits CR<br />Spontaneous Recovery<br />CS once again elicits CR<br />A function of time that has elapsed since extinction occurred<br />
  52. 52. Generalization and Discrimination<br />Generalization<br />Tendency for CR to be evoked by stimuli similar to the stimulus to which the response was conditioned<br />Discrimination<br />CR evoked by limited range of stimuli due to pairing only the limited stimulus with the US<br />
  53. 53. Higher-Order Conditioning<br />Previously neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus after being repeatedly paired with a stimulus that has already become a conditioned stimulus<br />Condition dog to salivate to tone<br />Repeatedly pair light with tone<br />Light evokes salivation<br />
  54. 54. Classical Conditioning of Emotional Responses<br />Little Albert conditioning for fear<br />Counterconditioningsubstituting pleasurable experience (cookies)<br />Floodingpresented continuously without the harm<br />Systematic desensitizationslowly getting used to it<br />
  55. 55. Little Albert<br />
  56. 56. Little Albert Grown Up<br />and no longer afraid of “fuzzy things”<br />
  57. 57. Operant Conditioning: Learning What Does What to What<br />
  58. 58. Operant Conditioning<br />Learn to do, or not do, things based on the consequences of the behavior<br />Behavior operates on, or manipulates, the environment<br />Voluntary responses are acquired or conditioned<br />
  59. 59. B.F. Skinner’s Contributions<br />Skinner focused on measurable behaviors<br />Behavior modification and programmed learning<br />Skinner box<br />Experimental conditions can be maintained<br />
  60. 60. Rat in a Skinner Box<br />
  61. 61. Types of Reinforcements<br />Reinforcer is any stimulus that increases the probability that responses preceding it will be repeated<br />Positive reinforcer<br />Increase probability behavior will occur when it is added<br />Negative reinforcer<br />Increase probability behavior will occur when it is removed<br />
  62. 62. Positive Versus Negative Reinforcers<br />
  63. 63. Immediate versus Delayed Reinforcers<br />Immediate reinforcers are more effective than delayed <br />Short-term consequences are more of incentive than long-term<br />
  64. 64. Primary and Secondary Reinforcers<br />Primary reinforcer effective because of biological makeup of organism<br />Food, water, warmth, pain (negative reinforcer)<br />Secondary reinforcer acquire value through association with established reinforcers<br />Conditioned reinforcers<br />Money – learn it may be exchanged for primary reinforcer<br />
  65. 65. Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery in Operant Conditioning<br />Extinction<br />Learned responses are extinguished after repeated performance without reinforcement<br />Spontaneous Recovery<br />Occurs as a function of time<br />
  66. 66. Reinforcers versus Rewards and Punishment<br />Reinforcers are known by their effect (increase response)<br />Rewards are pleasant events that affect behavior<br />Punishment are aversive events that decrease the frequency of the behavior they follow<br />
  67. 67. Negative Reinforcers Versus Punishment<br />
  68. 68. Discriminative Stimuli<br />Stimulus that indicates whether behavior will be reinforced<br />Behavior not reinforced will be extinguished<br />
  69. 69. Schedules of Reinforcement<br />Continuous reinforcement<br />Most rapid acquisition<br />Most easily extinguished<br />Partial reinforcement<br />
  70. 70. Interval Schedules of Reinforcement<br />Fixed-interval schedule<br />Fixed amount of time<br />Response rate falls off after each reinforcement and then picks up as reinforcer approaches<br />Variable-interval schedule<br />Unpredictable time elapses<br />Steadier but lower response rate (than fixed-interval)<br />
  71. 71. The Fixed-Interval Scallop<br />
  72. 72. Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement<br />Fixed-ratio schedule<br />Fixed number of correct responses <br />High response rate; higher immediately after reinforcement<br />Variable-ratio schedule<br />Unpredictable number of correct responses <br />High response rate<br />
  73. 73. Shaping<br />Reinforce progressive steps toward the behavioral goal<br />As training proceeds, reinforce successive approximations of the goal<br />
  74. 74. Cognitive Factors in Learning<br />
  75. 75. suggests that learning occurs only when the conditioned stimulus provides information about the unconditioned stimulus.<br />Rescorla concluded that the co-appearance of two events cannot in itself explain classical conditioning. <br />Instead, learning occurs only when the conditioned stimulus provides information about the unconditioned stimulus.<br />Learning theory occurs because a conditioned stimulus indicates that the unconditioned stimulus is likely to follow.<br />Contingency Theory<br />
  76. 76. Cognitive psychologists use concepts such as mental structures, schemas, templates, and information processing.<br />Latent Learning:<br />Tolman showed that rats learn about their environment in the absence of reinforcement.<br />Rats formed a cognitive map<br />Learning might remain hidden or latent until they were motivated to behave.<br />Cognitive Factors in Learning<br />
  77. 77. Observational Learning: <br />Albert Bandura proposed that we can acquire operants by observing the behavior of others.<br />A person who engages in a response to be imitated is a model.<br />Observers are said to be vicariously reinforced.<br />Cognitive Factors in Learning<br />
  78. 78. Applications of Operant Conditioning<br />Biofeedback Training<br />Behavior Modification<br />Programmed Learning<br />
  79. 79. Biofeedback Training: Gaining Bleep Control. <br />enabled people to learn to control autonomic responses in order to attain reinforcement.<br />Important innovation in treatment of health-related problems.<br />Reinforcement is given in the form of information.<br />Behavior Modification in the Classroom. <br />Teachers are taught to pay attention to children when they are behaving appropriately. Works well with younger children.<br />Older children: peer approval is often more powerful.<br />Programmed Learning: Step by Step. <br />Method assumes that any complex task can be broken down into a number of small steps. <br />The steps can be combined in sequence to form the correct behavioral chain.<br />Applications of Operant Conditioning<br />
  80. 80. What Are the Connections Between Media Violence and Aggressive Behavior?<br />
  81. 81. Violence in the Media and Aggression<br />Bandura and colleagues classic study of media violence – Bobo and preschool children<br />Children who saw aggressive model showed significantly more aggressive behavior toward the doll themselves<br />
  82. 82. Life Connections: <br />Violence in the Media and Aggression<br />If a child watches 2 to 4 hours of TV a day, he/she will have seen 8,000 murders and 100,000 acts of violence by the end of elementary school.<br />Violence is often shown to have only temporary or minimal effects. <br />
  83. 83. Life Connections: <br />Violence in the Media and Aggression<br />Ways in which depictions of violence contribute to violence:<br />Observational learning.<br />Disinhibition.<br />Increased emotional arousal.<br />Priming of aggressive thoughts and memories.<br />Habituation.<br />Assumption that violence is acceptable.<br />Decreases the likelihood that one will take action on behalf of a victim.<br />May lead to real-life violence.<br />
  84. 84. Sign-in Sheet<br />
  85. 85. Life Connections: <br />Violence in the Media and Aggression<br />There is no simple one-to-one connection between media violence and violence in real life. <br />Family constellations may also contribute:<br />Parental substance abuse.<br />Paternal physical punishments.<br />Single motherhood.<br />Parental rejection.<br />
  86. 86. Teaching Children Not to Imitate Media Violence.<br />Children who watch violent shows act less aggressively when they are informed that:<br />The violent behavior they observe in the media does not represent the behavior of most people.<br />The apparently aggressive behaviors they watch are not real.<br />Most people resolve conflicts by nonviolent means.<br />The real-life consequences of violence are harmful to the victim.<br />
  87. 87. Questions ?Comments ?Concerns ?<br />

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