2 culturally effective helping


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2 culturally effective helping

  1. 1. Chapter Two: Culturally Effective Helping©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  2. 2. What is Culture? Culture – “That complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, morals, customs, and capabilities acquired by a person as a member of society. It is a way of life of a group of people, the configuration of all the more or less stereotyped patterns of learned behavior which are handed down from one generation to the next through the means of language and imitation” (Adler 1997).©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  3. 3. Four Attributes of Effective Multiculutral Crisis Intervention (Kiselica, 1998) Knowledge of one’s own cultural biases. Basic knowledge about a variety of cultures. Willingness and ability to use skills and techniques that better match the culture of the client in crisis. Experience in counseling and crisis intervention with clients of a different culture.©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  4. 4. Ten Culturally Biased Assumptions (Pederson, 1987) There is a universal measure of “normal” behavior. Individuals, rather than groups, are the foundation of all societies. Definitions of presenting problems are limited by professional disciplines. Western culture relies on abstract thinking. Independence is valued over dependence. Professional Counseling is better than natural support systems.©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  5. 5. Ten Culturally Biased Assumptions Cont. (Pederson, 1987) Linear causality is more accurate than circular causality. Individuals need to change to fit the system. The client’s history does not affect the current situation. Interventionists are aware of ALL of their biases. ALL TEN ASSUPMPTIONS ARE FLAWED!©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  6. 6. Multicultural View of Crisis Intervention Universal vs. Focused Universal View examines racial and ethnic minorities, as well as special populations. Focused View examines only “visible and racial ethnic minorities.” Etic vs. Emic Etic – one dimensional or linear lens Emic – gestalt or circular lens©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  7. 7. Worldviews What is the client’s world view? Self-concept, sense of well-being, emotional control, and relational and attributional styles Opposing Views Individualism vs. Collectivism High-Content vs. Low-Content High-Uncertainty vs. Low-Uncertainty©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  8. 8. Multicultural perspectives in Crisis Intervention Victims of a crisis base their ability to overcome the trauma by relying on their own set of cultural survival skills. May be significantly different from the cultural skills of the crisis worker. Not recognizing the client’s worldview may lead the crisis worker to make grievous errors in assessment and treatment of crisis intervention.©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  9. 9. Individualism Vs. Collectivism Individualism Collectivism Centralizes the personal and Assumes that the individual is peripheralizes the social group. simply a component of the larger Prefer low-context direct social group. communication. Prefer high-context indirect Prefer a confrontation and communication. arbitration approach to conflict Prefer an accommodation resolution. approach to conflict resolution. No difference regarding one’s “sense of family obligation.”©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  10. 10. High-Content Vs. Low-Content High-Content Low-Content Self-image and worth are defined in reference to a Self-image and worth are group. defined in individual terms. Information is expressed Information is expressed implicitly and non-verbally. explicitly. May become embarrassed Does not like the use of when talking directly about stories, proverbs, metaphors, the crisis event. etc. as a method of communication.©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  11. 11. High-Uncertainty Vs. Low-Uncertainty High-Uncertainty Low-Uncertainty Abides by a broad range Abides by a more laid- of rigid rules, back attitude of regulations, and acceptance of the procedures that cover a situation and gratitude multitude of situations. for survival. “I’m alive, that’s all that matters, I’ll figure the rest out later.”©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  12. 12. Social Locations What is your identity? Employee Mother Musician Wife Recovering Alcoholic Daughter Alumni of Indiana Sister University Friend Member of Junior Auxiliary Athlete Raised in a small town Lives in an urban area Catholic©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  13. 13. Social Location Models RESPECTFUL Religious/Spiritual Economic class Sexual identity Psychological development Ethnic/racial Chronological age Traumatic threats Family Unique physical issues Language/location of residence©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  14. 14. Social Location Models Cont. ADDRESSING Age Development Disability Religion Ethnicity Social class Sexual orientation Indigenous heritage National orientation Gender For a complete list, include geographic location, living area (urban, suburban, rural), occupation, education, and marital/partner status.©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  15. 15. Social Locations Graph Ecology – the living environment in which the intervention occurs.©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  16. 16. Shortcomings of a Multiculturalist Approach to Crisis Intervention Lack of consensus on key terms. Ethnicity Race Ethnic and racial identity Culture Inaccurate assumption that current theories of counseling, psychotherapy, and crisis intervention are inherently biased and oppressive.©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  17. 17. Shortcomings Cont. Much of the literature on multicultural competencies has not been peer reviewed or is not based on empirical research. False acceptance of the division between collectivist and individualist cultures.©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  18. 18. Characteristics of Effective Multicultural Counselors Empathic Caring Demonstrates positive regard Advocates Genuine belief that humans are more alike than they are different©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  19. 19. Effective Strategies of Multicultural Crisis Intervention Do’s Examine and understand the client’s worldview. Use alternative roles that are appealing to the client. Assist the client in utilizing culturally indigenous support systems. Take your time to fully triage the situation. If possible, normalize the reaction to a traumatic event. Empower the client. Don’ts Impose personal values and expectations onto the client. Stereotype the client, client behaviors, or culture. Force unimodal counseling approaches upon the client. Interfere with long-held issues ingrained in the client.©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  20. 20. Obstacles to Effective Multicultural Crisis Intervention Language Barriers Confidentiality Translators Family member vs. professional translator Religion/Spirituality often mistakenly avoided by the crisis worker Religion, spirituality, and faith are often a large part of the crisis response. Do NOT merely suggest the client consult with their religious/spiritual leader as a means to abdicate your responsibility as a crisis worker.©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  21. 21. Obstacles Cont. Social Support System May not be used in a linear way. “Family” may not be limited to those living in the house of the client. Using professional services may be taboo in some cultures. Occupation Many crisis workers often mistakenly fail to address this significant social location. Rural Geographic Locale Typically lack resources and do not have the population to warrant federal aid. May be suspicious of professional service workers from other communities.©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  22. 22. More Obstacles definition of “help” may differ between the crisis worker and the client. Who’s turf is it? Cultural differences are exacerbated when an “outsider” crisis worker enters the “turf” of the client. “Outsider” could mean from a different geographic region, state, county, or even town. Crisis workers need to be aware of the cultural subtleties.©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  23. 23. The Dilemma of Local Consultation Local leaders know the infrastructure of the community. Using local leaders may provide a model of cooperation for community members. Local leaders may have their own agendas rather than maintaining objectivity. Non-local crisis workers should not attempt to address social injustices ingrained in the community.©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
  24. 24. Who Receives Services? People most likely to receive services are: YAVIS Young Attractive Verbal Intelligent Socially well connected People most likely NOT to receive services are: Low-income, elderly, limited-education, and ethnic minorities©2013, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning