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16 human service workers in crisis
16 human service workers in crisis
16 human service workers in crisis
16 human service workers in crisis
16 human service workers in crisis
16 human service workers in crisis
16 human service workers in crisis
16 human service workers in crisis
16 human service workers in crisis
16 human service workers in crisis
16 human service workers in crisis
16 human service workers in crisis
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16 human service workers in crisis

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  • 1. HUMAN SERVICES WORKERSIN CRISIS:BURNOUT, VICARIOUS TRAUMATIZATION, AND COMPASSION FATIGUE Chapter Sixteen
  • 2. HELPING PROFESSIONALS: PRIME CANDIDATES Nature of the job is to be intensely involved with people who are in need of assistance. Recipe for burnout:  High levels of motivation  Idealistic  Expectation that their work will give their life a sense of meaning Many helping professions have historically low success rates. Human service field is becoming more difficult .
  • 3. DEFINING BURNOUT Historical roots from the 1970s  “Burned out” physically, emotionally, spiritually, interpersonally, and behaviorally to the point of exhaustion. Herbert Freudenberger (1974, 1975)  Described young, idealistic volunteers working in alternative health-care settings who started to look and act worse than many of their clients. Burnout consists of the following:  Lost energy to the point of exhaustion  Lost enthusiasm to the point of absolute indifference  Passion is replaced by cynicism  Complete lack of confidence that your work is having any positive impact
  • 4. DYNAMICS OF BURNOUT Foundation Blocks of Burnout  Role ambiguity  Role conflict  Role overload  Inconsequentiality  Isolation  Autonomy Research on Burnout Dynamics Myths That Engender Burnout Symptoms of Burnout  Behavioral  Physical  Interpersonal  Attitudinal
  • 5. DYNAMICS OF BURNOUT Levels of Burnout  Trait  State  Activity Stages of Burnout  Enthusiasm  Stagnation  Frustration  Apathy
  • 6. WORKER–CLIENT RELATIONSHIPS Countertransference Secondary Traumatic Stress  Vicarious Traumatization  Compassion Fatigue Compassion Satisfaction
  • 7. THE CULPABILITY OF ORGANIZATIONS Much of the responsibility lies with the employer.  Employee’s influence on policy and procedures  Employee’s level of autonomy  Employee’s feeling of appreciation Employers should provide consultation and supervision. Employers should offer support, social connection, and self-care opportunities.
  • 8. SELF-RECOGNITION OF BURNOUT NO ONE IS IMMUNE! Everyone has a blind spot. Typical MO is to increase effort (actually increases the problem) rather than attempting to change the situation.
  • 9. INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Assessment  Burnout  Compassion Fatigue and Compassion Satisfaction  Work Environment Intervention Through Training Intervention With the Organization  Burnout-Proofing an Agency  Social Support Systems  Support Groups  The Individual and the Organization Self-Care
  • 10. PRIVATE PRACTITIONERS AND BURNOUT Isolation Business Concerns  Financial  Client base  Marketing services Maintaining a Public Presence Difficult Work Schedule  Evenings  Weekends  Few vacations
  • 11. INTERVENTION WITH THE INDIVIDUAL Direct Action Palliative Action BASIC IDS  Behavior  Affect  Sensation  Imagery  Cognition  Interpersonal relationships  Drugs/biology  Setting
  • 12. EPILOGUE: CROSS-CULTURAL COMPARISONS Victor Savicki (2002) landmark study using the Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales General environmental work measures Individual conformity measures

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