1. HUMAN SERVICES WORKERSIN CRISIS:BURNOUT, VICARIOUS TRAUMATIZATION, AND COMPASSION FATIGUE Chapter Sixteen
2. HELPING PROFESSIONALS: PRIME CANDIDATES Nature of the job is to be intensely involved with people who are in need of assistance. Recipe for burnout:  High levels of motivation  Idealistic  Expectation that their work will give their life a sense of meaning Many helping professions have historically low success rates. Human service field is becoming more difficult .
3. DEFINING BURNOUT Historical roots from the 1970s  “Burned out” physically, emotionally, spiritually, interpersonally, and behaviorally to the point of exhaustion. Herbert Freudenberger (1974, 1975)  Described young, idealistic volunteers working in alternative health-care settings who started to look and act worse than many of their clients. Burnout consists of the following:  Lost energy to the point of exhaustion  Lost enthusiasm to the point of absolute indifference  Passion is replaced by cynicism  Complete lack of confidence that your work is having any positive impact
4. DYNAMICS OF BURNOUT Foundation Blocks of Burnout  Role ambiguity  Role conflict  Role overload  Inconsequentiality  Isolation  Autonomy Research on Burnout Dynamics Myths That Engender Burnout Symptoms of Burnout  Behavioral  Physical  Interpersonal  Attitudinal
5. DYNAMICS OF BURNOUT Levels of Burnout  Trait  State  Activity Stages of Burnout  Enthusiasm  Stagnation  Frustration  Apathy
7. THE CULPABILITY OF ORGANIZATIONS Much of the responsibility lies with the employer.  Employee’s influence on policy and procedures  Employee’s level of autonomy  Employee’s feeling of appreciation Employers should provide consultation and supervision. Employers should offer support, social connection, and self-care opportunities.
8. SELF-RECOGNITION OF BURNOUT NO ONE IS IMMUNE! Everyone has a blind spot. Typical MO is to increase effort (actually increases the problem) rather than attempting to change the situation.
9. INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Assessment  Burnout  Compassion Fatigue and Compassion Satisfaction  Work Environment Intervention Through Training Intervention With the Organization  Burnout-Proofing an Agency  Social Support Systems  Support Groups  The Individual and the Organization Self-Care
10. PRIVATE PRACTITIONERS AND BURNOUT Isolation Business Concerns  Financial  Client base  Marketing services Maintaining a Public Presence Difficult Work Schedule  Evenings  Weekends  Few vacations
11. INTERVENTION WITH THE INDIVIDUAL Direct Action Palliative Action BASIC IDS  Behavior  Affect  Sensation  Imagery  Cognition  Interpersonal relationships  Drugs/biology  Setting
12. EPILOGUE: CROSS-CULTURAL COMPARISONS Victor Savicki (2002) landmark study using the Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales General environmental work measures Individual conformity measures