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12 HU 133 Work and Retirement

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  • 1. Work, Leisure, & Retirement 1 of 44
  • 2. Occupational Choice & Development 2 of 44
  • 3. Occupational Choice and DevelopmentLearning Objectives• How do people view work? How do occupational priorities vary with age?• How do people choose their occupations?• What factors influence occupational development?• What expectations do people have about occupations?• What role do mentors play in occupational development• What factors influence job satisfaction? What causes alienation and burnout? 3 of 44
  • 4. Occupational Choice and DevelopmentThe Meaning of Work• Although most people work for money, other reasons are highly variable. – They include, prestige, recognition, and a sense of worth.• Occupational priorities have changed over time. – Younger workers’ expectations from their occupations are lower and their emphasis on personal growth is higher.• In the longitudinal AT&T study, changes in workers priorities have been documented. – The shorter the time a person had been on the job the lesser their expectations of rewards (and vice versa). • However, this was only true for high-level management. • Lower-level management showed a decline over time. 4 of 44
  • 5. Occupational Choice and DevelopmentThe Changing Nature of Work• Globalization of work has resulted in changes in the number and types of jobs available to workers in the United States. – For example, between 1987 and 1994 there were more than 7 million permanent layoffs in the U.S.• These layoffs were not caused by companies losing money, but by: – Changes in competition – Productivity – Relocation of operations – Mergers and acquisitions – Infusion of new technology – Plant obsolescence 5 of 44
  • 6. Occupational Choice and DevelopmentThe Changing Nature of Work (cont.)• Because of this changing nature of work: – Managers and workers must adopt different leadership styles and assume more autonomy. – There is also an increased need to stay current with the latest technology and newest skills.• As the nature of work has changed, so has the work force. – The median age of the work force has increased steadily. • It is expected to reach 41.40 years by 2012. – The “graying of the work force” is becoming more common as there are fewer instances of mandatory retirement at 55 and over. 6 of 44
  • 7. Occupational Choice and DevelopmentOccupational Choice• Holland’s theory of Occupational Choice – Holland’s theory is focused on the idea that people choose occupations that optimize the fit between their individual traits and their occupational interests. – Six personality types that represent different combinations have been identified. • Investigative • Social • Realistic • Artistic • Conventional • Enterprising 7 of 44
  • 8. Occupational Choice and DevelopmentOccupational Development• Super’s theory• Super describes five stages in adulthood, based on self-concept and adaptation to an occupational role. – Implementation – Establishment – Maintenance – Deceleration – Retirement• The more congruent a person’s occupational behaviors are with what is expected of them at different ages, the more vocationally mature they are. 8 of 44
  • 9. Occupational Choice and DevelopmentOccupational Expectations• People have expectations about what they want to become and when they hope to get there. – Expectations change as the result of: • Realizing that one’s interests have changed or the dream was not a good fit • But also due to age, race, or sexual discrimination, lack of opportunity, and obsolescence of skills• Reality Shock – The realization that one’s expectations about an occupation are different from the reality one experiences. • Reality shock is common among young workers. • This happens most to young adults and people with little relevant experience prior to assuming a new job.• The outcome of reality shock is often a revision of personal priorities in life. 9 of 44
  • 10. Occupational Choice and DevelopmentRole of Mentors• A mentor is a coworker who teaches a new employee the unwritten rules and fosters occupational development.• Mentor-protégé relationships develop over time, through stages, like other relationships. – Being a mentor helps middle-aged workers achieve generativity.• Kram suggests that a four-stage sequence occurs in mentor-protégé relationships: – Initiation – Cultivation – Separation – Redefinition 10 of 44
  • 11. Occupational Choice and DevelopmentJob Satisfaction• The positive feelings that results from an appraisal of one’s work• Job satisfactions tends to show low to moderate increases with age. – Older workers report higher job satisfaction than younger workers. • This may be partly because of self-selection. – Unhappy workers may quit. • Other reasons include intrinsic satisfaction, good fit, lower importance of work, finding non-work diversions, and life- cycle factors. 11 of 44
  • 12. Occupational Choice and DevelopmentAlienation and Burnout• Alienation – Feeling that what one is doing is meaningless• Burnout – Too much stress in one’s occupation and can lead to: • Loss of energy and motivation • Loss of occupational idealism • Feeling that one is being exploited 12 of 44
  • 13. Gender, Ethnicity & Discrimination 13 of 44
  • 14. Gender, Ethnicity, Bias, and DiscriminationLearning Objectives• How do women and men’s occupational expectations differ? How are people viewed when they enter occupations that are not traditional for their gender?• What factors are related to women’s occupational development?• What factors affect ethnic minority workers’ occupational experiences and occupational development?• What types of bias and discrimination hinder the occupational development of women and ethnic minority workers?• What types of bias and discrimination hinder the occupational development of older workers? 14 of 44
  • 15. Gender, Ethnicity, Bias, and DiscriminationGender Differences in Occupational Choice• Traditionally: – Men are groomed from childhood for future employment. – Women have not been trained in that manner.• Currently, 71% of women work outside of the home, with this number on the rise (Department of Labor, 2006). – Many women have difficulty finding occupations that match their level of skill. – Women in nontraditional occupations are viewed more poorly by both men and women. – Women in traditional female occupations changed jobs less often. 15 of 44
  • 16. Gender, Ethnicity, Bias, and DiscriminationTraditional and Nontraditional Occupations• Research in this area has focused on three issues: 1. Selection of nontraditional occupations 2. Characteristics of women in nontraditional occupations 3. Perceptions of nontraditional occupations 16 of 44
  • 17. Gender, Ethnicity, Bias, and DiscriminationWomen and Occupational Development• Betz found that 10 years after college graduation: – Only 1% of women had been full-time homemakers. – While 79% reported having successfully combined work and family.• Women who leave well-paid occupations do so for many reasons, including: – Family obligations for women working part-time – Workplace issues for women working full-time• Women who continue to work full-time: – Have adequate child care – Look for ways to further their occupational development 17 of 44
  • 18. Gender, Ethnicity, Bias, and DiscriminationEthnicity and Occupational Development• African American and European American women do not differ in plans to enter nontraditional occupations. – But African American women plan for more education.• Vocational identity – The degree to which one views one’s occupation as a key element of identity – African American and European American men have higher vocational identity when they graduate from college. – Hispanics have high occupational aspirations, but low expectations. 18 of 44
  • 19. Gender, Ethnicity, Bias, and DiscriminationBias and Discrimination• Sex discrimination – Denying a job to someone solely on the basis of whether the person is a man or a women – Sex discrimination is a major issue, in terms of getting jobs, occupational development, and also in pay.• Glass ceiling – The level to which women may rise in a company, but not go beyond – This is a barrier to promotion women and ethnic minorities often experience.• Glass elevator – In traditionally female occupations, men may rise much faster than female counterparts. 19 of 44
  • 20. Gender, Ethnicity, Bias, and DiscriminationBias and Discrimination (cont.)• Pay inequity – Women get paid a fraction of what men with similar jobs earn. – Equalizing pay in occupations that are determined to be equivalent in importance, but differ in the gender distribution of the people doing the jobs – Comparable worth• Sexual harassment• The reasonable woman (person) standard is used to decide whether an act constitutes harassment. – If a reasonable women would view a behavior as offensive then it is offensive even if the man did not conceive it as so. 20 of 44
  • 21. Gender, Ethnicity, Bias, and DiscriminationAge Discrimination• Making employment decisions only on the basis of age or denying employment or promotion if the worker is over the age of 40.• Age discrimination occurs in many ways, such as differential layoff patterns and stereotypical views about older workers. 21 of 44
  • 22. Occupational Transitions 22 of 44
  • 23. Occupational TransitionsLearning Objectives• Why do people change occupations?• Why is worker retraining necessary and important?• How does the timing of job loss affect the amount of stress one experiences? 23 of 44
  • 24. Occupational TransitionsOccupational Change• Factors influencing occupational change include: – Dislike • Which results in quitting or seeking other employment – Worker obsolescence • For example, technological developments that eliminate jobs – Economic factors which result in layoffs or downsizing • For example, recessions 24 of 44
  • 25. Occupational TransitionsRetraining Workers• Rapid changes in the nature of work have resulted in the displacement of older workers. – According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census: • 51.4% of workers 55 to 64 years old do not find new employment • Whereas 65% to 70% of workers under 35 do find new employment• As a result, there is greater career plateauing. – When there is a lack of promotional opportunity in an organization or a person chooses not to seek advancement – Thus, learning new skills is essential to maximize one’s opportunities.• To adapt to the effects of the global economy and an aging work force, many corporations provide retraining opportunities for workers. 25 of 44
  • 26. Occupational TransitionsOccupational Insecurity and Job Loss• Occupational insecurity is a growing problem. – Fear that one may lose one’s job is a better predictor of anxiety than the actual likelihood of job loss.• Losing ones job can have serious negative effects on every aspect of a person’s life. – May result in mental health problems, including: • Low self-esteem • Depression • Anxiety • Suicide• These effects are related to the degree of financial stress one is under and the timing of the job loss. 26 of 44
  • 27. Dual-Earner Couples 27 of 44
  • 28. Dual-Earner CouplesLearning Objectives• What are the issues faced by employed people who care for dependents?• How do partners view the division of household chores?• What is work-family conflict? How does it affect couples’ lives? 28 of 44
  • 29. Dual-Earner Couples• In nearly 2/3 of two-parent households, both adults work outside the home.• Nearly 1/2 of unmarried mothers and 56% of married mothers with children under the age of 1 are currently in the work force. – These numbers are increasing. 29 of 44
  • 30. Dual-Earner CouplesThe Dependent Care Dilemma• Employed Caregivers• Whether a women returns to work after having a child depends largely on how attached she is to her work. – This can lead to inter-role conflict. • Conflicts between work and family responsibilities• Flexible work schedules and number of children are important factors in role conflict. – Employed mothers are significantly less distressed than employed non-mothers. • When a woman’s partner provides good support and women have average or high control over their jobs 30 of 44
  • 31. Dual-Earner CouplesDependent Care and Employer Response• The mere availability of a workplace childcare center does not always result in higher job satisfaction. – Sympathetic supervisors are essential to lowering the stress of how child care issues can be resolved. 31 of 44
  • 32. Dual-Earner CouplesJuggling Multiple Roles• Dividing household chores – Working mothers spend about twice as many hours per week as their husbands in family work and bear the greatest responsibility for household tasks. • Unequal division of labor is a major cause for arguments and unhappiness.• Husbands and wives view the division of labor in very different terms. – Men are often most satisfied with an equitable division based on number of hours spent, especially if the amount of time is small. – Women are most satisfied when men perform traditional women’s chores. – Ethnic differences are apparent. • African American and Hispanic men spend more time on household chores that European American men. 32 of 44
  • 33. Dual-Earner CouplesWork-Family Conflict• The feeling of being pulled in multiple directions by incompatible demands from one’s job and one’s family• How to deal with work-family conflict successfully – Women must be clear in their commitment to their careers, marriage, and children. – Couples equally share housework and emotional work, and combine their roles without high levels of stress.• How? – Age of children is not a factor, but number of children is. – Stress is lower if men have a flexible work schedule that allow them to care for sick children and other matters. – Stress is higher during the peak parenting years, then is reduced. 33 of 44
  • 34. Leisure Activities 34 of 44
  • 35. Leisure ActivitiesLearning Objectives• What types of leisure activities do adults exhibit?• What developmental differences are there in leisure activities?• What do people derive from leisure activities? 35 of 44
  • 36. Leisure ActivitiesTypes of Leisure Activities• Four categories are usually used to help organize leisure activities: – Cultural – Physical – Social – Solitary• Leisure activities can also be considered in terms of the degree of cognitive, emotional, or physical involvement.• Preoccupations – Ideas and feelings about things one would like to do can become more focused as interests. • This can lead to the selection of particular leisure activities. 36 of 44
  • 37. Leisure ActivitiesTypes of Leisure Activities (cont.)• People develop a repertoire of preferred leisure activities. – Each activity has a different meaning and importance to every individual. – The activities are determined by perceived competence and psychological comfort. • Perceived competence - how good we think we are at the activity compared to others • Psychological comfort - how well we meet our personal goals for performance 37 of 44
  • 38. Leisure ActivitiesDevelopmental Changes in Leisure• Longitudinal research shows that leisure preferences in adulthood reflect those in earlier life. – However, as people grow older they tend to engage in leisure activities that are less strenuous and more family- oriented.Consequences of Leisure Activities• Leisure activities promote well-being and can enhance all aspects of people’s lives. – Importantly, it is the amount of satisfaction you derive from your leisure activities; not your level of participation. • Quality rather than quantity of leisure activities 38 of 44
  • 39. Retirement 39 of 44
  • 40. RetirementLearning Objectives• What does being retired mean?• Why do people retire?• How should people prepare for retirement?• How satisfied are retired people?• What specific effects does retirement have on maintaining family and community ties? 40 of 44
  • 41. RetirementWhat Does Being Retired Mean?• Retirement is largely a development of the 20th century and is still an evolving concept.• What does being retired mean? – The way in which people withdraw from full-time employment• Changing conceptions of work are resulting in changing conceptions of retirement. – Retirement can be crisp or blurred. • Crisp - making a clean break from employment by stopping work entirely • Blurred - repeatedly leaving and returning to work, with some periods of unemployment 41 of 44
  • 42. RetirementWhy do People Retire?• Most people retire because they choose to. – Although some people are forced to retire because of financial status or serious health problems• Health – The most important factor in determining early retirement and satisfaction• Gender differences – Married womens decision to retire is predicted most by her husbands health status or number of dependents, the opposite is true for men.• Ethnic differences – African Americans tend to label themselves as retired or not retired based on subjective disability, work history, and source of income rather than on whether they are currently employed. 42 of 44
  • 43. RetirementP 43 of 44
  • 44. RetirementAdjustment to Retirement• Retirement is an important life transition and can be stressful. – However, the degree of stress is related to attitudes toward retirement and whether retirement is voluntary.• Most people are satisfied with their retirement, as long as people: – Have financial security – Have their health – Have a supportive network of relatives and friends 44 of 44
  • 45. RetirementAdjustment to Retirement (cont.)• High satisfaction in early retirement includes: – For men • Being in good health • Having enough income • Having retired voluntarily – For women • No one role was associated with satisfaction• For both men and women high personal competence was associated with higher retirement satisfaction over the long run. 45 of 44
  • 46. RetirementInterpersonal Ties• All aspects of a persons life and interpersonal relationships are affected by retirement. – Marital relationships • May undergo considerable stress until new role definitions are reached – Readjusting to being home rather than at work is difficult for men in traditional marriages – Sometimes marriages are disrupted, but married men are generally happier in retirement than men who are not 46 of 44 married.
  • 47. RetirementCommunity Ties• Volunteering to maintain community ties – Foster Grandparents, Senior Companions, Retired Senior Volunteer Program (RSVP), and Service Corps or Retired Executives (SCORE) 47 of 44
  • 48. The End 48 of 44