10 partner violence
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10 partner violence

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10 partner violence 10 partner violence Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter Ten
  • Background Culture has a role in the definition of partner violence Not limited to a husband and wife relationship Common terms:  Battering-physical violence perpetrated by one person on another  Abuse-general term that describes the unequal power relationship within which the assault occurs  Assault-verbal and behavioral threats to others, pets, or property  Domestic violence-any act of assault by a social partner or relative, regardless of marital status
  • Incidence of Partner Violence Bradley v. State of Mississippi, 1824 State of North Carolina v. Oliver, 1874 Domestic disturbance calls outnumber other types of calls in which the possibility of violence exists to both civilians and police
  • Incidence of Partner Violence Cont. 1.5 million women and 830,000 men were victims of intimate violence in the United States 15.5 million children live in families where violence has occurred and about 7 million have witnessed severe violence  These rates are apparently decreasing
  • Emerging Approaches to Partner Violence Scream Quietly or the Neighbors Will Hear, 1974 (England) National Organization for Women and Massachusetts Coalition of Battered Women Service Groups (United States) The Domestic Abuse Intervention Project in Duluth, Minnesota (Duluth Model)  Police procedures, increased prosecution of partner violence, and enhanced legal protection  Countywide coordinated community responses  Domestic violence units have been formed The Violence Against Women Act of 1994
  • Psychosocial and Cultural Dynamics Attachment/Traumatic Bonding Theory Coercive control Cultural reinforcement Exchange Theory Feminist Theory Intraindividual Theory Learned Helplessness/Battered Woman Syndrome Masochism Nested Ecological Theory Psychological entrapment Sociobiology Stockholm Syndrome System Theory
  • Dynamics of Partner Violence Psychological factors  Behaviors of men vs. women Stressors  Geographic and social isolation  Economic stress  Medical problems  Inadequate parenting skills  Pregnancy  Family dysfunction  Substance abuse  Education/vocational disparity  Age  Disenfranchisement  Rejection  Threat to masculinity
  • Dynamics of Partner Violence Cont. Types of batterers  Family only  Dysphoric/borderline  Violent/anti-social  Low-level anti-social The cycle of violence  Phase I: Tranquility prevails  Phase II: Tensions starts to build  Phase III: A violent episode occurs  Phase IV: The relationship takes on crisis proportions  Abuser is remorseful and the victim forgives them  Abuser is not remorseful and asserts control over the victim  The victim takes new action
  • Myths About Battering Battered women overstate the case Battered women provoke the beating Battered women are masochists Battering is a private, family matter Alcohol abuse is the prime reason for spousal abuse Battering occurs only in problem families Only low-income and working-class families experience violence
  • Myths About Battering Cont. The battering cannot be that bad or the victim would leave A husband has patriarchal rights The beaten spouse exaggerates the problem to exact revenge Women are too sensitive, especially when they are pregnant Battering is rare Battering is confined to mentally ill people Violence and love cannot coexist Elder abuse between partners is neither prevalent nor dangerous
  • Realities for Abused Women Victim has a fear of reprisal. She is grateful that her children have food, clothing, and shelter. She believes that she will suffer shame if her secret gets out. Her self-concept is dependent on the relationship. Early affection and prior love in the relationship persist. If financially well off, the woman is unable to deal with a reduction in her financial freedom. In the cyclic nature of abuse, she may tend to forget the batterings and remember only the good times. Early role models of an abusive parent may lead her to believe that relationships exist in no other way.
  • Realities for Abused Women Cont. The woman may hold religious values that strongly discourage separation or divorce. The woman may be undereducated, have small children to raise, or lack job skills. She may be so socially, physically, geographically, or financially isolated that she has no resources. She may be so badly injured that she is unable physically to leave. Love or sorrow at the mate’s professed inability to exist without her may compel her to stay. Because of previous negative experiences with the authorities, she may believe she has no options. Due to language barriers, she may be unable to communicate her abuse. Leaving an abusive relationship is one of the most dangerous things the victim can do.
  • Intervention Strategies Assessment  Personality measures  Clinical interviews  Medical settings  Crisis lines Components of intervention  Listening  Supporting  Facilitating  Ensuring safety  Advocting  Transcrisis perspective
  • Shelters Counseling women at shelters  Shelter dynamics  Grief  Depression  Terror  Those who have decided to leave Follow-up  Counseling  Victim may relapse and re-unite with the abuser  Long-term follow support (6 months)  Going to a shelter without follow-up may increase violence
  • Intervention With Children Art and play models of therapy Treatment goals: • Create an alliance with the parent • Provide psycho-education to both parent and child • Restore the parent’s self-esteem and confidence • Establish a safe environment for the child to express thoughts and feelings • Relieve the child’s symptoms, including difficulty with living transitions, sleeping, nightmares, and other trauma symptoms • Reestablish the child’s previous level of cognitive functioning and attachment with the caregiver • Reassure that what has happened is not the child’s fault • Help the child to regain emotional regulation • Provide stress reduction strategies
  • Courtship Violence Violence occurs in approximately 25% of courtship relationships Number of dating partners and dating frequency have the highest positive correlation Grade point average has the highest negative correlation 25% of victims and 30 percent of offenders interviewed interpreted violence in courtship as a sign of love! The longer the abusive relationship continues, the higher the degree of violence Stalking
  • Gay and Lesbian Violence Prevalence of violence Complicating factors Crisis intervention involving gay and lesbian violence  Sensitivity  Precipitating factors  Specific issues  Severity  Safety and support  Treatment issues
  • Treating Batterers Intervention models Treatment models Hybrid models Treatment goals Assessment The intake interview Motivation
  • A Typical 24-Session Anger Management Group Starting the Group Making Choices Support and Confrontation Managing Stress Understanding the Cycle of Violence Costs Intergenerational Issues Feelings Power and Control Assertion Alcohol and Drug Effects Sex Summing Up Programs Success