Table 1.1 Basic variables of age, cohort, time of measurement
Table 1.2 Cross-sectional design chart
Table 1.3 Longitudinal design chart
Table 1.4 Sequential design chart
1. CHAPTER ONEStudying Adult Development and Aging
2. Perspectives on Adult Development and Aging Learning Objectives • What is gerontology? How does ageism relate to stereotypes of aging? • What is the life-span perspective? • What are the characteristics of the older adult population? • How are they likely to change?
3. Perspectives on Adult Development and AgingGerontology – the study of aging from maturity through old age• Myths of aging lead to the negative stereotypes of older people. • What are some of the myths and stereotypes about aging? • Do you have any erroneous beliefs about aging? • Do you harbor any stereotypes about older people?
4. Perspectives on Adult Development and Aging Ageism - a form of discrimination against older adults based on their age.
5. Perspectives on Adult Development and Aging
6. Ageism QuizTake out a blank sheet of paper and number 1 to 41
7. Ageism Quiz Mark T (true) or F (false) next to each number.1. Young, enthusiastic individuals are more creative than old people.2. Most women experience severe physical symptoms during menopause.3. Menopause often results in a nervous breakdown.4. Most adult children anxiously await putting their parents into some form of institution.
8. Ageism Quiz1. Men experience a midlife crisis.2. Most adults 65 years or older are financially insecure.3. Most adults 75 or older are in nursing homes or other institutions.4. Only rarely does an older adult produce a great product in art, science, or scholarship.5. Contemporary nuclear families have little contact with the extended family.
9. Ageism Quiz• Mothers, compared to fathers, experience great distress when the last child leaves the nest.• Aging parents reverse roles with their adult children.• Remarriages among older adults are generally not successful.• After menopause, women don’t enjoy sex very much.• Older adults are not very interested in sexual activities.• Impotence is psychological, except, with old men, it is inevitable.
10. Ageism Quiz1. Men are more interested in sex than women.2. The majority of people have the same job for a lifetime.3. Work is central to one’s self-worth.4. Retirement often results in physical and psychological health deterioration.5. One’s personality is relatively stable during adulthood.6. Adults become more conservative and inflexible.7. Older adults are more difficult to motivate than younger ones.
11. Ageism Quiz1. Older adults get rattled more easily than younger adults.2. Achievement motivation is highest in young adulthood.3. Older adults should remain active to keep their spirits up.4. Older adults prefer to reduce their activities and friendships.5. Old dogs can’t learn new tricks.6. A failing memory is the worst intellectual problem in older adulthood.7. In older adulthood, memories of the past are much clearer than memories of recent events.
12. Ageism Quiz1. Given declines in a number of cognitive abilities in older age, old people don’t benefit much from educational opportunities.2. Intellectual performance peaks in early adulthood and then steadily declines.3. Older adults illustrate more wisdom than younger folks.4. Older adults who were most able in their youth decline the fastest intellectually.5. The primary reason women live longer than men is that women do not have to work as hard.
13. Ageism Quiz1. Soon, the human lifespan will increase to 150 or 200 years of age.2. Adults over 65 are generally unhealthy.3. It is possible to worry yourself sick.4. Most older adults become senile sooner or later.5. Women are more likely to have a mental disorder than men.6. Unmarried adults are more likely to have mental illness than married partners.7. Most people facing death attempt to deny it.Long Answers Short Answers
14. Ageism QuizLong Answers Short Answers
15. Perspectives on Adult Development and Aging Aging Stereotypes • Stereotype 1: Physical – Most people over 65 are physically impaired. Large percentages live in nursing homes. • Stereotype 2: Cognitive – People over 65 are unable to think clearly, remember well, or learn new things. A large percentage is “senile.”
16. Perspectives on Adult Development and Aging Aging Stereotypes • Stereotype 3: Emotional – People over 65 are unhappy, fearful, and depressed. Psychological problems are rampant in old age. • Stereotype 4: Social – People over 65 are isolated, alone, and disconnected from family and friends. Poverty is endemic in the later years.
17. Perspectives on Adult Development and Aging • Number 1. Physical – Large percentage live in nursing homes. • Fact: Although most older adults do suffer from at least one chronic disease, the vast majority report no impairments in their ability to function. Only 5% of older Americans live in nursing homes.
18. Perspectives on Adult Development and Aging • Number 2. Cognitive – People over 65 can’t think clearly. • Fact: Although losses in thinking, speed, and memory do occur with age, the vast majority of older adults are alert, mentally capable, and definitely able to learn. Only about 5-7% have Alzheimers disease.
19. Perspectives on Adult Development and Aging • Number 3. Emotional – People over 65 are unhappy. • Fact: Anxiety, depression, and unhappiness are no more prevalent among the old than the young. In fact, rates of many emotional disorders are at their lowest ebb among people over 65.
20. Perspectives on Adult Development and Aging • Number 4. Social – People over 65 are isolated. • Fact: Older adults are typically in close contact with family, and even those over age 85 have at least one close friend. With 12% of older Americans living under the poverty line, compared to one-fourth of American children under age 6, dire poverty is twice as common at lifes beginning than at its final stage.
21. Perspectives on Adult Development and Aging The Life Span Prospective LSP divides human development into two phases: 1. Early (childhood and adolescence) 2. Later (young adulthood, middle age, and old age)
22. Perspectives on Adult Development and Aging The Life Span Prospective• Paul Baltes (1987) identified FOUR key features: – Multidirectionality Development involves both growth and decline – Plasticity One’s capacity is not predetermined. Many skills can be trained or improved with practice – Historical context We develop within a certain set of circumstances determined by the historical time in which we are born and the culture in which we grew up – Multiple causation A wide variety of forces shape development: biological, psychological, socioeconomic, and life-cycle forces
23. Perspectives on Adult Development and Aging The Life Span Prospective• Emphasis: development takes a lifetime to complete• Which part of life is most important? Childhood? Youth? Middle age? Old age?• No one part of life is more or less important
24. The Demographics of AgingPopulation Trends in the United States
25. The Demographics of AgingPopulation Trends in the United States
26. The Demographics of AgingPopulation Trends in the United States
27. The Demographics of AgingPopulation Trends in the United States
28. Diversity of Older Adults in the U.S.
29. Population Trends Around the World 2000 % age 65 and older
30. Population Trends Around the World 2030
31. Issues in Studying Adult Development & AgingLearning Objectives• What three main forces shape development?• What are normative age-graded influences, normative history-graded influences, and non- normative influences?• How do culture and ethnicity influence aging?• What are the nature-nurture, stability-change, continuity-discontinuity, and the “universal versus context-specific development” controversies?
32. Issues in Studying Adult Development & AgingForces of development – Biological forces Genetic and health related – Psychological forces Internal perceptual, cognitive and personality factors (characteristics that make people individual) – Sociocultural forces Interpersonal, societal, ethnic (the overall context in which we develop – Life-cycle forces How the same event, or above forces, affects people at different points in their life
33. Interactions that Shape Us
34. Issues in Studying Adult Development & AgingInterrelations between the Forces: Developmental Influences • Normative age-graded influences occur to most people of a particular age – puberty, menopause, etc. • Normative history-graded influences most people in a specific culture experience at the same time – biological – epidemic psychological – particular stereotypes sociocultural – changing attitudes towards sexuality • Non-normative influences random events important to an individual, but not to most people – winning the lottery, an accident or job loss (unpredictable; can turn life up-side-down over night)
35. Issues in Studying Adult Development & AgingCulture and Ethnicity • Definition of culture shared values, norms, beliefs and customary habits and ways of living. • Importance to gerontology how people define person, age, and life course varies across cultures • Solid and fluid qualities of ethnic group identities fluid – change over time Colored People -->Negros-->Black Americans-->African Americans
36. How Old are You? The Meaning of Age Definitions of Age• Primary Aging • Chronological Age normal, disease free development years since birth• Secondary Aging • Biological Age changes related to disease, lifestyle, and environmentally induced changes measure of the functioning of various vital, life-limiting, organ systems• Tertiary Aging rapid loss occurring shortly before • Psychological Age death (“Terminal Drop”) functioning level of psychological abilities used to adapt to change: memory, intelligence, motivation, feelings, etc
37. Core Issues in Development• The nature-nurture issue genes or environment? “Movie - Trading Places”• The stability-change issue the degree to which people stay the same over time• The continuity-discontinuity controversy whether developmental change is a smooth progression ( continuity) over time or a series of abrupt shifts (discontinuity) Plasticity – capacity not fixed; can be improved with practice• The universal versus context-specific development controversy one path to development or several? Example: !Kung tribe -----> don’t track age; has no meaning compare to US where age is everything Can one theory explain development in both groups?
38. Research MethodsLearning Objectives• What approaches do scientists use to measure behavior in adult development and aging research?• What are the general designs for doing research?• What specific designs are unique to adult development and aging research?• What ethical procedures must researchers follow?
39. Research MethodsMeasurement in Research • Reliability consistent measure each time • Validity measures what it is supposed to measure
40. Research MethodsMethods of Research• Systematic observation – Naturalistic (watch as it happens naturally) – Structured (set up situation to elicit a certain behavior)• Sampling behavior with tasks create tasks that are thought to sample the behavior of interest i.e. grocery list to test memory• Self-reports Ask the participant to report on topic of interest• Representative sampling Populations – broad groups i.e. all students taking Geriatrics Sample – a subset of the population
41. Research MethodsGeneral Designs for Research• Experimental design – Independent variables – manipulated – experiential group – Dependent variables – no manipulation – control group• Correlational design – Relational between two variables – Cause and effect cannot be determined• Case studies – Single individual – Studied in great detail
42. Designs for Studying Development• Age effects (within subjects) differenced caused by age• Cohort effects differences caused by experiences and circumstances unique to the generation to which one belongs• Time-of-measurement effects differences stemming from sociocultural, environmental, historical or other events at the time the data is obtained• Cross-sectional designs testing different age groups at the same time• Longitudinal designs testing same individual repeatedly at different points• Sequential designs different combinations of cross-sectional or longitudinal studies
43. Research Methods
44. Research Methods
45. Research Methods
46. Research Methods
47. Research MethodsIntegrating Findings from Different Studies• Meta-analysis results from many studies• Powerful tool Allows scientists to determines whether a finding generalizes across many studies that used different methods
48. Research Methods Conducting Research Ethically• Minimize risks to research participants.• Describe the research to potential participants.• Avoid deception.• Results should be anonymous or confidential.
49. Ageism Quiz Answers (long version)Go Back Next Slide
50. Your Ageism Quotient1. Young, enthusiastic individuals are more creative than old people. This is partly true. Butcreative production varies over the lifespan, depending upon the type of skill, discipline, andendeavor.2. Most women experience severe physical symptoms during menopause. False. Experiencingmenopause in middle age (50s), women report wide differences in onset, progression, andsymptoms of menopause.3. Menopause often results in a nervous breakdown. False. Most women do not experience suchsevere symptoms. Prior depression and/or pre-menopausal expectations do increase the risk forpost-menopausal depression.4. Most adult children anxiously await putting their parents into some form of institution. False.While there are particular frustrations for adult children being in the middle of the sandwich (theirchildren and parents being the bread), most families remain close and caring. Only a smallminority of aging parents are in retirement communities or nursing homes. Most older adultsremain in residence and are cared for by a spouse and/or adult child. Typically, a daughter is theprimary care-giver for aging parents.5. Men experience a midlife crisis. False. While both older men and women experience the majortransitions of children leaving the nest, retirement, income reduction, and erosion of physical,psychological, and social assets, most aging adults are able to deal constructively with suchchanges. Next Slide
51. 6. Most adults 65 years or older are financially insecure. False. One the one hand, theoverwhelming percentage of older adults report financial insecurity as a minor problem. On theother hand, most post-retiree adults do have less financial income than in the working years. Therelative security of older adults as related to financial stability is related to reduced expenditures,pensions, social security, Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance. Rising health costs(doctors, tests, hospitalization, prescription drugs, and insurance), however, are eroding thefinancial security of older adults.7. Most adults 75 or older are in nursing homes or other institutions. False Although physicaldependency is one of the greatest fears of older adults, only a minority are in institutions. Theolder one is, however, the greater the likelihood of living the final years in an institution; 65 andolder (5.4 percent), 75 to 84 (7 percent), 85 and older (22 percent).8. Only rarely does an older adult produce a great product in art, science, or scholarship. False.Noting that until recent history people died in their 50s and that most present adults retire in their60s, much of creativity research indicates creative production in young adulthood and middleage. Yet, many older adults have created significant works, especially those involvingexperience, a sense of perspective, expertise, and wisdom.9. Contemporary nuclear families have little contact with the extended family. False. Althoughboth nuclear and extended families are more distant geographically than in past Americanhistory, family constellations remain psychologically close and positive. While contemporaryfamily members, compared to their predecessors, are more physically distant, the speed ofpostal mail, telephone, and email allow for timely personal communication. Next Slide
52. 10. Mothers, compared to fathers, experience great distress when the last child leaves the nest.False. For mothers, the last bird flying away usually allows satisfaction in fulfilling a seriousgender-specific role. For both mother and father, the empty nest provides opportunities to renew apast sense of intimacy in the evolving partnership. For most married adults and their olderchildren, the normalcy of the latters leaving home, albeit physical, incorporates a sense ofcontinuation for established relations.11. Aging parents reverse roles with their adult children. Partly true. For most of the relationship,older parents and their adult children continue to act as parents and children. With greaterdependency of the parents, and sustained independence of adult children, the relationshipchanges in degree of reciprocity. Adult children, if responsible, balance the increasingdependency of their parents with the need of the latter to be as independent as they can be. Evenwith severe dependence, a parent, to a child, does not become their child. They become animportant example of what the aging child will become to his/her children.12. Remarriages among older adults are generally not successful. False. Significant factors forsuccessful remarriages of older adults are the need for companionship and knowledge of thepotential partner based on long-term associations.13. After menopause, women dont enjoy sex very much. False. First, there is more to sex thancopulation. Second, both men and women experience physical changes in middle- and older-agethat change the physical responsiveness to sexual arousal. Third, many more middle-aged andolder women than men do not have a sexual partner. Fourth, responding to sexual arousal oftenoccurs without a partner. Next Slide
53. 14. Older adults are not very interested in sexual activities. False. Kissing/hugging, sexualtouching, sexual intercourse, oral sex, self-stimulation, and sexual thoughts represent sexualactivities. While there is an age-related decrease in sexual activities, older adults remain sexualactive. Interestingly, the age-related decrease in partnered sexual intercourse begins in thethirties. Partners married or living together report higher satisfaction with sexual activities thansingle adults. More men, throughout the adult lifespan, report thinking about sex and itsimportance, than women.15. Impotence is psychological, except, with old men, it is inevitable. Partly True. The fear oflosing potency is a major contributor to impotency. Depression (psychological) and cardiovasculardiseases, diabetes, prostrate problems, and medications (physical) are also significantcontributors to impotence. Old men without the above conditions need not be impotent.16. Men are more interested in sex than women. False. Men do, however, think about sex morethan women. Perhaps fortunately, much of it is fantasy.17. The majority of people have the same job for a lifetime. False. Not only do workers advancein jobs (historical), contemporary society facilitates numerous occupational changes in onesworking life. The technology, multi-national corporations/economy/investments/workforce ageincludes multiple occupational changes for workers during the adult lifespan. Lifelong learning isno longer a phenomenon of interest; it has become an occupational necessity. Next Slide
54. 18. Work is central to ones self-worth. True. Prior to the latter part of the 20thcentury, a mans sense of self-worth included a huge dose of his sense of workidentity, while a womans sense of self-worth was largely defined by homemakerand child care identities. For the last three decades, many more women have alsoentered the workforce. About half of all American workers are female. Thus, manymiddle-aged and older women have an identity strongly defined by home and worksenses of self-worth.19. Retirement often results in physical and psychological health deterioration.False. Work is important to most of us. If work is the singular contributor to asense of self-worth, then forced retirement (due to illness, work-related frustration,subtle age discrimination) can result in both physical and psychological healthproblems. Fortunately, most of us have other things contributing to our sense ofself-worth, such as spouse, family, friends, avocations, interests, organizations, andvolunteerism. Interestingly, in recent years, more adults are retiring earlier than theSocial Security benefits trigger of 65. Folks who retire early often do so because ofa sense of financial security. Also of interest is the finding (Friedrich 2001) thatmany baby-to-aging boomers expect to both retire early and work part-time inretirement. Next Slide
55. 20. Ones personality is relatively stable during adulthood. True. While priorities andplans change throughout life, basic personality traits remain remarkably stable. Withthe following five primary personality traits (dimensions), have you remained fairlyconsistent over the years?Neuroticism: Scoring high on this dimension indicates a tendency towards beinganxious, impulsive, self-conscious, and vulnerable. Scoring low indicates a tendencyfor calmness, confidence, even-temperedness, and hardiness.Extraversion : High scores illustrate social gregariousness, taking charge, muchenergy, and seeking new challenges. Low scores illustrate reservation, quietness,passivity, and low emotionality.Openness to experience: Those scoring high are risk-takers and dreamers with muchimagination and curiosity. Low scores tend to be rather uncreative, conventional,conservative, and not very curious.Agreeableness: People who score high are caring, interact with others, appreciateothers, and want to be appreciated. Low scores tend to be critical of others (notthemselves), irritable, and suspicious.Conscientiousness: Scoring high illustrates ambition, strong work ethic, high energy,and perseverance. Scoring low illustrates laziness, aimlessness, disorganization, andlack of self-discipline.Given that our priorities and plans change throughout life, the relative stability ofprimary personality traits is due to both our genetic predispositions and life-longhabits, associations, and sense of who we are. Next Slide
56. 21. Adults become more conservative and inflexible with old age. Partly true.Older adults, especially the very old, were involved in the American Great Depression. Thishistory-related factor Influenced their conservative nature in personal, financial, and politicaldecisions. In addition to this generational phenomenon, with age in adulthood comes thefollowing factors associated with a more cautious mentality: - Decline in ability to process information as quickly - Real and perceived loss of physical abilities - For retirees, loss of income and, correspondingly, identity - Loss of significant others22. Older adults are more difficult to motivate than younger ones. Partly true. Older adults,relative to younger ones, are more likely to be motivated by internal than external factors as ameans of compensating for losses, more likely to be dependent on others, and, perhaps moreimportantly, less likely to be involved in academic or occupational competitions. But, older adultsare motivated given their perceived importance of the task and motivators. Next Slide
57. 23. Older adults get rattled more easily than younger adults. Partly true. Whileolder adults, relative to younger ones, perform less well in learning new things, it isoften because older adults make many more errors of omission. That is, rather thanmaking a response (correct or incorrect), older adults fail to respond. Thisphenomenon is especially true when the new learning requires quick processing andresponding of information. Given a slower pace of learning, as well as betterlearning strategies, older adults dramatically increase their performance.24. Achievement motivation is highest in young adulthood. False. Older adults dohave lower achievement motivation related to career advancement, as otherpriorities, including realistic appraisal of competition, become more important. Withinner work standards (motivation to perform at ones best, sense of responsibility,persistence), older adults do not show significant declines over the years.25. Older adults should remain active to keep their spirits up. True. With advancingage comes loss—reduced physical well-being, retirement, loss of significant others,less active socialization. With activity, especially that involving significant others,comes higher life satisfaction for older adults. Intimate activity involves relationswith spouse, family, friends, and meaningful organizations. Next Slide
58. 26. Older adults prefer to reduce their activities and friendships. False. While certainactivities and acquaintances change or are reduced in older age, emotional closenesswith significant others starts to increase in middle-age. Beginning in middle-age,selectivity of relationships becomes more important. It may be that older adultsbecome more selective with relationships to maintain or increase emotional ties withothers. Older adults do disengage from work; they do not disengage from socialrelations. Older adults are much less likely than younger adults to engage instrenuous physical activities. But, older adults continue to engage in physical pursuits.27. Old dogs cant learn new tricks. False. Both old dogs and humans do learn newthings. Learning will take longer; learning goals and standards will be different; andmuch of the new will not be attempted. In a youth and middle-age oriented Americansociety, it may be difficult to appreciate the lack of interest for many older adults inbecoming computer literate. For many older adults, aside from anothercorrespondence avenue with children and grandchildren, computer literacy is notimportant. Maintaining driving privileges, requiring knowledge of rules of the road,however, remains very important to many older adults. Next Slide
59. 28. A failing memory is the worst intellectual problem in older age. Partly true. Fear of losingones memory is one of the greatest fears of older adults. Fear of losing ones mind, though, isworse. Certainly by middle-age, many adults begin losing some short-term memory abilities.Short-term memory is very important in learning new things, as well as the practical matter ofremembering daily tasks. As we age in adulthood, our short-term memory becomes morevulnerable than long-term memory. But, even with long-term memory, remembering becomesless accurate in adult stages of the lifespan. Folks who deal with memory best, especially aftermiddle-age, use memory aids such as written notes, recorders, rehearsal, and association.29. In older adulthood, memories of the past are much clearer than memories of recent events.Partly true. While older adults report recalling distant events better than recent ones, all of usare subject to rehearsing, many times, events of the past very important to us. Even theseremembrances, however, are subject to missing significant aspects of the significant event. TheSeptember 11, 2001 terrorist attacks will be a significant event for most American adolescentsand adults.Many of us will remember where we were and, in general, what we were doing that day. But,much of the specifics related to what happened that day will not be correctly remembered. Olderadults, relative to younger adults, have more trouble, without memory aids, dealing withinformation in short-term working memory. Many older adults believe their memory is poorerthan it actually is. Next Slide
60. 30. Given declines in a number of cognitive abilities in older age, old people dontbenefit much from educational opportunities. False.Motivation and prior levels of education are key factors For life-long learningpursuits. Fewer retirees are involved in academic or job-related educationalopportunities. The higher level of educational advancement, the more likely it is foran older adult to seek life-long learning opportunities. And, many older adults areactive in life-long learning pursuits dealing with avocations, hobbies, organizations,and interests. Another issue is that of accessibility. Life-long learning opportunitiesvia the internet, for example, are not used by older adults (or anyone else) who isnot computer literate. Next Slide
61. 31. Intellectual performance peaks in early adulthood and then steadily declines.False.Intelligence represents a complex set of systems, processes, and behaviors. Someintellectual abilities do peak in early adulthood and then decline (at different ratesand levels). Other abilities either continue to increase over the lifespan or increase,then reach a plateau. Those intellectual abilities that do peak in earlier adulthood,such as sensory capabilities, reaction time, and speed of processing information, areclosely related to the integrity of the nervous system. Those abilities that continue toincrease, then plateau throughout the lifespan, such as language skills, practicalintelligence, and work-related skills, are associated with learning opportunities. Sincelearned abilities are also dependent on the integrity of the nervous system, seriousdeterioration of the nervous system associated with cerebral disorders (stroke,Alzheimers disease) leads to marked erosion of learned abilities. Even into old-oldage (85 years and older), many older adults with mild to moderate chronic diseasesillustrate good intellectual performance. Next Slide
62. 32. Older adults illustrate more wisdom than younger folks. Partly true.To be wise requires knowledge of facts, knowledge of obtaining and providinginformation, sense of personal context for making decisions, relativism for theproblem and values, and appreciation of uncertainty of possible solutions. Theseattributes of wisdom require much experience. Yet, living a long life is not aprerequisite for wisdom. There are a lot of old people who are narrow-minded.Being exposed to, and appreciating, diverse problems, solutions, values, and peoplethroughout the lifespan provides us with opportunities to become wiser.33. Older adults who were most able in their youth decline the fastest intellectually.False. Most older adults illustrate a decline in those intellectual abilities associatedwith the sensory abilities, reaction time, and speed of processing information. Theseare very important aspects of intellectual behavior. Interestingly, regardless of oneslevel of intellectual performance in younger adulthood, the general rate of decline issimilar for those scoring high, moderate, or low on such abilities. But, thedifferences among these groups remains throughout adulthood. Thus, though all ofus will illustrate some intellectual decline as we age, the relative standings amongthe three groups will remain. The more intellectual the younger adult, relative to theless intellectual, the more intellectual the older adult. Next Slide
63. 34. The primary reason women live longer than men is that women do not have towork as hard. False.For many, many generations, over different cultures, women have lived significantlylonger than men. The answer, as yet understood at the cellular level, is directlyrelated to the gender difference in the sex chromosome. It is geneticallydetermined.35. Soon, the human lifespan will increase to 150 or 200 years of age. False.Because of better nutrition, sanitation, medical technology, education, and medicalaccess, humans live longer than in past generations. But, each species has amaximum longevity. To date, a French women achieved the record longevity beforedying—122 years and 5 months. Very few humans reach the age of 100. In 2000,there were 65,000 centenarians. Keys to longer life are heredity, weight control,positive psychological well-being, and avoidance of heavy cigarette smoking andalcohol use. Next Slide
64. 36. Adults over 65 are generally unhealthy. Partly true. While almost all olderadults report their general health, relative to others of the same age, as good, therisk of disease rises dramatically after the mid-sixties. And, with advancing age, therisk increases correspondingly. For example, adults over 65 represent 12.5 percentof the population, but are responsible for 30 percent of health-care expenditures.The majority of older adults have at least one chronic physical condition; arthritis isthe most common illness, followed by hypertension and hearing problems.37. It is possible to worry yourself sick. Partly true. Probably regardless of age,stress is a significant factor associated with many diseases. A high level ofsustained stress is the result of ones environment, including personal physical andpsychological conditions. Type A personalities (very competitive, impatient, hostile),for example, are at significant risk for cardiovascular problems. Next Slide
65. 38. Most older adults become senile sooner or later. False. The two major types ofsenility are Alzheimers Disease and cerebrovascular disease. The latter accountsfor about 20 percent of senility. The incidence of Alzheimers Disease isapproximately 5 percent for adults 65 and older, 20 percent for those 85 and older,and 40 percent for adults 90 and older.39. Women are more likely to have a mental disorder than men. False. Beforeolder adulthood, more women, especially housewives, than men are diagnosed withmental illness. In older adulthood, more men than women are diagnosed withmental illness. For women, the most common types of mental illness areschizophrenia, depression, and neurosis. For men, the most common types areassociated with alcoholism, drug addiction, and violence. In general, the less powerin society one feels, the higher the rate of mental illness. Next Slide
66. 40. Unmarried adults are more likely to have mental illness than married partners.Partly true. Married women have a significantly higher rate of diagnosed mentalillness than married men. But, for the categories of being single, divorced, orwidowed, men have a higher rate than women.41. Most people facing death attempt to deny it. True. While older adults are lessfearful of death than younger adults, most people do not welcome the mostpersonal loss of death. The sense of loss may be for ones self or the physicalassociation with loved ones. Back to slides
67. Ageism Quiz Answers (Short version)Back to slides Next Slide
68. Your Ageism Quotient1. Young, enthusiastic individuals are more creative than old people. This is partly true.2. Most women experience severe physical symptoms during menopause. False.3. Menopause often results in a nervous breakdown. False.4. Most adult children anxiously await putting their parents into some form of institution. False.5. Men experience a midlife crisis. False.6. Most adults 65 years or older are financially insecure. False.7. Most adults 75 or older are in nursing homes or other institutions. False8. Only rarely does an older adult produce a great product in art, science, or scholarship. False.9. Contemporary nuclear families have little contact with the extended family. False.10. Mothers, compared to fathers, experience great distress when the last child leaves the nest. False.11. Aging parents reverse roles with their adult children. Partly true.12. Remarriages among older adults are generally not successful. False.13. After menopause, women dont enjoy sex very much. False.14. Older adults are not very interested in sexual activities. False.15. Impotence is psychological, except, with old men, it is inevitable. Partly True.16. Men are more interested in sex than women. False.17. The majority of people have the same job for a lifetime. False.18. Work is central to ones self-worth. True.19. Retirement often results in physical and psychological health deterioration. False.20. Ones personality is relatively stable during adulthood. True.21. Adults become more conservative and inflexible with old age. Partly true. Next Slide
69. 22. Older adults are more difficult to motivate than younger ones. Partly true.23. Older adults get rattled more easily than younger adults. Partly true.24. Achievement motivation is highest in young adulthood. False.25. Older adults should remain active to keep their spirits up. True.26. Older adults prefer to reduce their activities and friendships. False.27. Old dogs cant learn new tricks. False.28. A failing memory is the worst intellectual problem in older age. Partly true.29. In older adulthood, memories of the past are much clearer than memories of recent events.Partly true.30. Given declines in a number of cognitive abilities in older age, old people dont benefit muchfrom educational opportunities. False.31. Intellectual performance peaks in early adulthood and then steadily declines. False.32. Older adults illustrate more wisdom than younger folks. Partly true.33. Older adults who were most able in their youth decline the fastest intellectually. False.34. The primary reason women live longer than men is that women do not have to work ashard. False.35. Soon, the human lifespan will increase to 150 or 200 years of age. False.36. Adults over 65 are generally unhealthy. Partly true.37. It is possible to worry yourself sick. Partly true.38. Most older adults become senile sooner or later. False.39. Women are more likely to have a mental disorder than men. False.40. Unmarried adults are more likely to have mental illness than married partners. Partly true.41. Most people facing death attempt to deny it. True. Back to slides