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  • 1. California Association of Drinker Driver Treatment Programs 2007 Fall Forum Women and DUI Deborah Werner Children and Family Futures, Inc. 4940 Irvine Boulevard, Suite 202 * Irvine, CA 92620 714/505.3525 * dwerner@cffutures.org www.cffutures.org/calwcfThis Presentation is Made Possible Through a Contract with the State of California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs GoalsTo help DUI program staff understanddifferences between male and femaleparticipantsTo help DUI programs identify ways to reachand motivate women DUI offenders in orderto improve women’s retention and programoutcomes
  • 2. Part 1: Women AOD Use & Abuse W U AbWomen and Men - PrioritiesMen are action and activity oriented oriented.Women are people and process oriented.Sex-Role stereotyping – males are societal,women are familialBody image, appearance key importance forwomen; performance key importance formales.
  • 3. Men & Women - Communication Males tend to be linear in conversation – women tend to speak in a spiral. Males less comfortable with expressing “internal emotions” – compassion, love, sadness. Females less comfortable with expressing “external emotions” – anger. Women use more words. Male communication is problem solving oriented. Want to fix it. Female communicates to process problems. Want to express it.
  • 4. Women & Men - Disparities• In 2004, womens median annual earnings were only $.76 for every $1.00 earned by men. For women of color, the gap is even worse – only $.69 for African American women and $.58 for Latinas. (NOW)• In California 55% of women are in the labor force. (American FactFinder)• 15.3% of California families with children below age 18 live below the poverty level. In female headed households with children under 18 more than 32.5% are below poverty level (American FactFinder, California)• Fifty-five percent of all employed women work in female-dominated y p p y jobs (jobs in which women comprise 70 percent or more of the workforce) whereas only 8.5 percent of all men work in these occupations. (Men working in female-dominated jobs still receive about 20 percent more than women who work in female-dominated jobs.) (National Organization for Women)Women’s Alcohol and OtherDrug Use is Different than Men
  • 5. Women’s Pathways to Use Partners Peer Pressure Low Esteem Self-Medicating/Coping with Pain Media Messages Women and Alcohol Use Past Month Alcohol Use Among People Aged 12 + percent of percent of females malesAny use of alcohol 45.0% 57.5%Binge alcohol use 15.1% 15 1% 30.8% 30 8%Heavy alcohol use 3.3% 10.5% Office of Applied Studies (August 2, 2007). Gender Differences in Alcohol Use and Alcohol Dependence or Abuse: 2004 and 2005. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Available at http://www.oas.samhsa.gov
  • 6. Alcohol Abuse by Race Race and Alcohol Abuse/Dependence by Gender percent of percent of females males White 5.6% 10.6% African American/Black 3.5% 9.7% Latino/Hispanic 3.8% 12.1% American Indian/Native American 13.7% 19.5% Pacific Islander 5.7% 12.8% Asian 2.3% 5.4% Two or More Races 7.7% 9.9% Office of Applied Studies (August 2, 2007). Gender Differences in Alcohol Use and Alcohol Dependence or Abuse: 2004 and 2005. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Available at http://www.oas.samhsa.gov Alcohol Abuse by Age Age and Alcohol Abuse/Dependence by Gender percent of percent of females malesAges 12 ‐17 6.0% 5.5%Ages 18 ‐ 25 12.9% 22.0%Ages 26 ‐ 49 5.4% 5 4% 12.4% 12 4%Ages 50 or older 1.6% 5.0% Office of Applied Studies (August 2, 2007). Gender Differences in Alcohol Use and Alcohol Dependence or Abuse: 2004 and 2005. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Available at http://www.oas.samhsa.gov
  • 7. Binge DrinkingCollege Alcohol Study conducted by HarvardUniversity found that 50% of males and 39%of female college students on US Campusesbinge drink. (Wechsler et al. 1995).Nearly half of high school girls drink alcoholand more than one in four binge drink.(Grunbaum, et al., 2004)23% of alcohol fatalities are female (inferred fromADP Fact Sheet: Driving Under the Influence Statistics, Nov. 2004) DUI PrevalenceAmong adults (21 and older) 11 4% of 11.4%females and 22% of males reported drivingwhile under the influence. (NSDUH, 2005)Among youth aged 16 – 20, surveyed in2002-2003, 18% of females report drivingunder the influence of alcohol or illicit drugsin the last year. (24% of males)
  • 8. Young women use substances to: Improve mood Self-medicate mood disturbances Increase confidence Lose inhibitions Lose weight Access to alcohol and other drugs Partners, boyfriends & peers encourage use Higher incidence of dependency associated with child abuse and neglectThe experience women have with substance use is very different then the experience of men.
  • 9. Problems and ConsequencesThe problems and consequences of substancefor women tend to be personal and self-destructive.The problems and consequences of substanceuse for men tend to be societal and destructiveto others. Worse Health EffectsDrink for drink, women’s brains and organs drinkare exposed to a higher concentration ofalcohol compared with men.Women are more likely to developinflammation of the liver and to die ofcirrhosis.Telescoping effect
  • 10. Sexual Related Consequences More likely to experience sexual assault More likely to have unplanned sex Unplanned/teenage pregnancy and STDs More likely to experience violence, domestic violence violence ChildrenWomen are often primary care-takers of children. • Alcohol use can lead to endangerment, chaotic up-bringing, poor role modeling, increased risk of abuse or neglect, CPS involvement Children are a barrier to accessing services. • Child care, safety, fear of removal Children are a motivator for change.
  • 11. Women and DUILess PrevalenceLess ArrestsBarriers to Intervention and ParticipationReaching WomenWomen with Multiple ProblemsRelapse Factors PrevalenceIn 1988 women made up only 10.6% of DUI 10 6%arrestees. By 1997 it had grown to 13.2% ofarrestees.In 1997 more than 25,000 women arrestedfor DUI.2005 women = 17.5% of arrestees 31,160women arrested.
  • 12. Females Arrested for DUI less likely to be Hispanic than Male Arrestees. percent of percent of percent of males females total White 46.1% 65.4% 41.8% Hispanic 47.8% 19.4% 44.1% Black 6.6% 7.3% 6.7% Other .4% 7.9% 7.5% Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Criminal Justice Statistics Center Report Series, Vol 1 No 1, Report on Arrests for Driving Under the Influence, 1997, April 1999 2005 California percent of percent of percent of males females total White 46.4% 60.7% 40.7 Hispanic 44.7% 23.8% 45.5 Black 7.1% 8.1% 7.1 Other 6.7% 7.4% 6.7 Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Criminal Justice Statistics Center Report Series, Vol 1 No 1, Report on Arrests for Driving Under the Influence, 1997, April 1999
  • 13. Females are older at time of arrest than males percent of percent of percent of males females total Juvenile 0.9% 1.1% 0.9% 18‐24 22.3% 18.2% 21.8% 25‐29 19.3% 16.4% 18.9% 30‐39 30.8% 33.9% 31.2% 40‐49 17.4% % 21.1% % 17.9% % 50 or older 9.4% 9.2% 9.3% Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Criminal Justice Statistics Center Report Series, Vol 1 No 1, Report on Arrests for Driving Under the Influence, 1997, April 1999 CA 2005 Median Age – Males 33.0 Median Age – Females 33.3 42.7% of Males and 40.9% of Females between 21 – 30 9% of males under 20 and 8.2% of females 8 2% under 20
  • 14. Fatal crashes among female drivers with BACs of .10 andhigher, by driver age* *Computed from NHTSA 1997 Fatality Analysis Reporting System data. Women Not Arrested Among y g youth aged 16 – 20, surveyed in g y 2002-2003, 18% of females report driving under the influence of alcohol or illicit drugs in the last year. (24% of males) Among those reporting driving under the influence 6% of males and 2% of females reported being arrested and booked for DUI in the last year. OAS, 2004
  • 15. No Arrest – No ServicesAmong adults (21 and older) 11 4% of 11.4%females and 22% of males reported drivingwhile under the influence. (OAS, 2005)Among all adult drivers 1.1% of males and.2% of females report an arrest for DUI.(OAS, 2005a) Is It Really Giving Them a Break?Erica’s Story 14 years old, driving under Story. oldinfluence and crashed car. On scene – noDUI checks. At Court 12 hours ofcommunity service.Police not wanting to see girls/young womenin jail, bring them home instead of arrestingthem.
  • 16. Messages that Reach WomenNational Highway Traffic Safety Administrationstudy explored young womens views ofimpaired driving messages.The data analysis showed that women weremost affected by• emotional appeals• graphic images of negative consequences• PSAs depicting realistic situations• those in which they could identify with the charactersReaching Women ContinuedAuthoritative messages were rejected by theparticipants, especially the youngest women.Using celebrities in these messages was notviewed as effective.Humor in PSAs was seen positively by someparticipants and negatively by others.The data indicate that impaired drivingmessages targeting young women would bemore effective if they were tailored for them.
  • 17. Barriers to Women’s Participation Trauma Powerlessness Self-Efficacy Family Responsibilities Life Challenges STIGMA DUI Programs and WomenDesigned for Men gMale dominated settingsHow are family responsibilities addressed?How is a woman with low self-efficacy andpowerlessness assisted?Economic and other hurtles toparticipation/case management?STIGMA faced by women is greater than men.Men with AOD problems also judge women moreharshly.
  • 18. Paris Hilton hit Les Deux for her first visit to a club since being released from jail after serving more than three weeks for a probation violation in an alcohol-related d driving case. g caseBritney Spears didnt just make afinancial settlement with the owner ofa car she hit – she offered, to make apersonal apology.Actress Michelle Rodriguez Cynthia Watros, who plays Libbyspeaks out about her sentence on ABCs hit series "Lost,"for violating probation. pleaded guilty to drunken driving in Hawaii.
  • 19. Nicole Richie, who is six months pregnant, has enrolled in a lengthy anti-drinking education program. Papers filed with the Superior Court of California show that on Sept. 26 Richie signed up for a 18-month anti- drinking driver course, known as the SB 38 Alcohol Program. She was "pleasantly surprised" to be released after serving 82 minutes of her four-day jail sentence for a second DUI conviction.Lindsay Lohan pleaded guilty to two counts of beingunder the influence of cocaine and pleaded nocontest to driving with a blood alcohol level of .08percent or higher and reckless driving.She will serve at least 24 hours in jail in herdrunken-driving cases under the terms of a plea dealreached Thursday. Lohan was also placed on threeyears probation and ordered to complete an 18-month alcohol education program.She has completed her second treatment program,has support of family and friends and a sobercompanion for follow-up.
  • 20. ReferencesOffice of Applied Studies (August 2, 2007). NSDUH Report:Gender Differences in Alcohol Use and Alcohol Dependence orAbuse: 2004 and 2005. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse andMental Health Services Administration. Available athttp://www.oas.samhsa.govOffice of Applied Studies (July 1, 2005). NSDUH Report: DrivingUnder the Influence Among Adult Drivers Rockville, MD:Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.Available at http://www.oas.samhsa.govOffice of Applied Studies (September 2, 2005). NSDUH Report:Offi f A li d St di (S t b 2 2005) R tArrests for Driving Under the Influence Among Adult DriversRockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health ServicesAdministration. Available at http://www.oas.samhsa.govCriminal Justice Statistics Center Report Series, Vol 1 No 1,Report on Arrests for Driving Under the Influence, 1997, April1999Office of Applied Studies ( pp (December 31, 2004). NSDUH Report: , ) pDriving Under the Influence Among Young Persons. Rockville,MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health ServicesAdministration. Available at http://www.oas.samhsa.govGrunbaum, J.A., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Ross, J., Hawkins, J.,Lawry, R., et al. (2004). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance:United States, 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report:Surveillance Summaries, 55 (SS-2).(Wechsler et al (1995). Am. J. of Public Health. 85. 921-926.) et.al. (1995) Am J Health 85 921 926 )ADP Fact Sheet: Driving Under the Influence Statistics, Nov.2004. Available at www.adp.ca.gov