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Hoven Cnie 08

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  • 1. Learning innovation and the individual-community nexus: Intercultural applicability of social networking tools in open and distance education CNIE Reaching new heights: Learning innovation Banff, April 27-30 2008
  • 2. Previously …
    • Community formation …
      • Across semesters
      • Across cultures
      • From novice to expert
      • From receiver to reflector
      • From learner to practitioner to mentor
  • 3. Experiences of pedagogy
    • Experiential learning
    • Task/project-based learning
    • Collaborative learning
      • Community of mutually-supportive reflective inquirers
      • Extended community of experts-novices
      • Community of learner-practitioners
  • 4. Social constructivism & teacher change
    • Self-reflection on beliefs & values
    • Exposure to choice
    • Experience of affordances
    • Consciousness of conflict/dysjuncture
    • Exposure to modelling of effective uses of technology
    • Experience & practice in a range of applications
    • facilitating change in attitudes/beliefs
    • (Richardson & Placier, 2001; King, 2002; Bird & Rosaen, 2005; Brook & Oliver, 2005; Hughes, 2005)
  • 5. Attitudes towards technology & effective use of it
    • entwined with teacher learning, comprising:
      • subject matter knowledge
      • pedagogical knowledge, and
      • pedagogical content knowledge
    • In other words …
    • teachers will only embrace change and innovation when they can see positive benefits in terms of:
      • direct relevance to their content area
      • usefulness from a practical task perspective, and
      • increased effectiveness for their day to day classroom teaching.
      • (Hughes, 2005)
  • 6. Tools used
    • Webquests using SDSU portal <http://www.webquest.org/>
      • Dreamweaver + online media & resources
    • Hot Potatoes + various other online templating tools + media
    • Social communication/networking:
      • Wiki – MediaWiki hosted on university server (www-viewable)
      • Individual blogs – Blogger (www-viewable)
      • IM
      • Discussion forum
      • Chat
      • e-Portfolios
  • 7. Expectations vs Use of SN Tools 1 .../2
    • Expectations
      • Wiki
        • for internal-remote collaboration
        • ownership
        • easily accessible from everywhere (where my students were located)
      • Blogs
        • ownership
        • reflective space
        • flexible (& re-purpose-able) space
        • extensible outside timelines of course
    • Uses
      • Wiki
        • Experimenting with the interface
        • Group organization: sharing & collaboration
        • Hints & tips (Q & A, quick fixes)
        • Interesting articles/sites
        • Posting projects
      • Blogs
        • Reflection
          • self-reflection
          • peer evaluation
        • Communication
          • mutual support & feedback
        • Community formation & maintenance
          • Interaction
            • Among members of single cohort
            • Across continents & oceans
            • Across semesters
            • Across cultural & social dysjunctures
  • 8. Expectations vs Use of SN Tools 2 .../2
    • Expectations
      • IM
        • for quick changes of plan
        • to check if online
      • Discussion forum
        • formal course-related theoretical Qs & responses
      • Chat
        • synchronous local & international coordination
      • e-Portfolios
        • formal annotated electronic record of program documents, artefacts, achievements
    • Uses
      • IM
        • Notification of:
          • Lateness
          • chat entry
          • new posts
      • Discussion Forum
        • Formal course evaluation
        • Formal comments on the course & projects
        • … in response to instructor’s postings
      • Chat
        • synchronous remote/ internal communication on:
          • Discussion
          • catch-up
          • Socializing
          • course-related transactions
      • E-Portfolios
          • Created but hardly (yet) used
          • Possibly because of formal nature cf digital stories
  • 9. Course outcomes:
    • Processes
      • Self-reflection
      • Self-evaluation
      • Self-efficacy
      • Independent inquiry
      • Self-initiation
      • Self-motivation
      • Peer evaluation
      • Realization of usefulness of formation of community network
    • Products
      • Webquests
      • Online media-supported teaching module
      • Wiki sites
      • Blogs
        • Course-related
        • Personal
        • Travel
        • Post-course/ practitioner
  • 10. Social presence: effective interaction & learning community formation
    • No. & frequency of interactions initiated
    • No. & frequency of responses to others
    • Cultural effects on interactions **
    • Types of communication actions **
  • 11. Classification of postings
    • Supportive
      • Supporting
      • Compliment
      • Empathy
      • Advice
      • Information
      • Thanks
    • Reflective
      • Musing
      • Complaint
      • Photo
    • Transactional
      • Help Request
      • Help giving
      • Query
    • Organizational
      • Announcement
  • 12. Features emerging from classification
    • High incidence of supportive comments (1/3):
      • Complimenting, supporting, giving advice, thanking, empathizing
    • High incidence of reflective comments:
      • Musing, photographs, complaints
    • Much less transactional:
      • Asking & answering Qs, requesting & receiving help
    • Smallest category: organizational
  • 13. Persistence of post-course blog use
    • All but 1 posted on their blogs post-course
    • >50% maintained & expanded theirs, creating others, & using with own classes
    • >30% maintained blog contact & mentored subsequent cohorts
    • Similar patterns across subsequent semesters have shown
      • Experience of being mentored seems to engender willingness to mentor
      • Experience of becoming reflective, independent & interdependent members of a community promotes willingness to support emerging independence
  • 14. And now the story continues … In fully online mode … - or is it a different story??
  • 15. New context, similar approach
    • In transition from
      • f2f CALL Teacher Ed to …
      • Blended/hybrid CALL Teacher Ed to …
      • Fully online mix of CALL & general DE to …
      • Fully online DE Teacher Education
  • 16. Online constraints & considerations
    • Intercultural aspects
    • Geography & access
    • Timezones
    • Appropriate technology
  • 17. Tools made available 1 … /2
    • Synchronous & asynchronous CMC:
      • Moodle:
        • Discussion forums
        • IM near-synchronous chat
        • Wikis
        • Blogs (not used)
      • Email
      • VoIP (Skype)
      • Elluminate Live
      • Elluminate vRooms
  • 18. Tools made available 2 … /2
    • Instructional technologies
    • Discovery/exploratory technologies
    • Community-facilitating technologies (Facebook, Me2U, Flickr, tagging applications, RSS etc)
  • 19. Beginning with a tale of 2 wikis … & 2 Moodles …
    • Exploratory learning - using the available tools for purposes that seem appropriate …
    • Learning together …
  • 20. Choices & constraints 1 …/2
    • Individual vs community
    • “ traditional” personality of DE students
    • Role of academic dialogue at Masters level
    • Facilitation in DE environment?
  • 21. Choices & constraints 2 …/2
    • Mismatch between:
      • Requirements
      • Expectations (teacher & learners)
      • Teaching & learning approaches (including intercultural aspects)
      • Assessment criteria
      • Assessment process (in transition)
    What constitutes PARTICIPATION??
  • 22. Collaborative Moodle wiki sites
    • CDE Moodle & wiki
      • Internal to course
      • Password protected
      • Locked down by university admin
      • Unable to add guests or students
  • 23. CDE Moodle wiki site
  • 24. CDE Moodle wiki site
  • 25. Collaborative Moodle & wiki sites
    • Education University of Iceland
      • Open Moodle
      • Password protected
      • Guests & students added manually
      • http://moodle.khi.is/course/category.php?id=8
      • Wikispaces sites for student-student, student-teacher & teacher-teacher collaboration
      • http: //athabascakhi . wikispaces .com/Athabasca
  • 26. Communications Technologies
    • Elluminate Live
    • http://www. elluminate .com/
    • Elluminate vRooms
    • http://www. elluminate .com/vroom/
    • Skype
  • 27. Changing roles
    • Reflective practice
    • Openness
    • Collaboration
    • Negotiation
    • Changing assessment practices: e-Portfolios
  • 28. Some advice from my students
  • 29. Critical differences in DE 1 …/2
    • a necessity for lifelong learning
    • “ green”-er (x4)
    • Accessibility & openness (x5)
    • centrality of CMC
    • Flexibility
      • importance for lifestyle & commitments
      • freedom to design your own program & courses according to interest
      • Accessibility, breaking down barriers & reaching remote locations
    • autonomy in experience & direction (x4)
      • Of both experience of learner & direction of studies i.e.
        • Self-motivation
        • Self-designed courses & program
    • Keeping up with advancements in technology (x3)
  • 30. Critical differences in DE 2 …/2
    • multi-modal techniques to cultivate engagement (x2)
    • Move from “compensation model” to “celebration model” (x3)
    • DRAGONS:
      • Diverse (many and different; distinct and unalike)
      • Requisites (anything indispensable)
      • Accessing (obtain or retrieve from a storage device like information on a computer
      • Global (not limited or provincial in scope
      • Opportunities (a possibility due to a favourable combination of circumstances)
      • Non-traditionally (not conforming or in accord with the considered norm)
      • Sustained (supply with necessities and support)
  • 31.
    • Questions?
    • Comments?
    • Suggestions?
    • Advice?
  • 32. Debra Hoven Centre for Distance Education, Athabasca University http://cde.athabascau.ca/faculty/debrah.php http://deincanada.blogspot.com/ http://lifentheuniverse.blogspot.com [email_address]