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  • 1. Language teaching at a distance: the enabling potentials of technology Dr Debra Hoven CDE [email_address] DETS, Edmonton, June 2008
  • 2. Terminology
    • CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning)
    • CELL (Computer Enhanced … )
    • TELL (Technology Enhanced Language Learning)
      • & its various manifestations
      • Issues as an applied discipline …
      • Applied where & to whom …?
  • 3. Finding the best fit …
    • Celebration model cf compensation model:
      • When, who & how … & to a lesser extent, where, what & why
      • Contexts and constraints
      • Purposes and advantages
      • … and the tools to match i.e. appropriate technologies from freeware, stand alone to Open source to commercial
  • 4. So how does this match with language learning theories?
    • Interactionist theories of LL
    • Cognitive constructivist theories
    • Sociocultural  ecological constructivist
    • … and
    • Communicative language teaching
    • Community-based learning/communities of learners
    • Roles of form (structure) & function (fluency)
    • Fundamental purpose(s) of language & how to acquire proficiency in these?
  • 5. … and how does this map in an online environment?
    • 6 models of TELL
      • Instructional CALL
      • Exploratory & discovery CALL
      • Computer Mediated Communication for LL
      • Social networking (connectedness, identity, community)
      • Narrative/reflective (digital storytelling, eportfolios)
      • Collaborative LL (communities, learner-created content)
  • 6. Instructional CALL
    • Interactionist theories of language learning  constructivist
    • 4 skills: reading, writing, speaking, listening + grammar & vocabulary
    •  integrative approach
  • 7. Instructional CALL 1 …/6
    • Assistive tools (online templating):
      • Hot Potatoes
      • http://web. uvic .ca/hrd/halfbaked/
      • http://ressources-cla.univ-fcomte.fr/english/html/hotpot.htm
      • http://www.humnet.ucla.edu/aflang/swahili/exercises/mazungumzo/Mazungumzo1.htm
      • http://a.w-z.webpark.pl/asking_the_way.htm
      • http://ospitiweb.indire.it/ictavagnacco/deutsch/Wiederholung_3/restaurant.htm
      • Scripto
      • http://www.readingmatrix.com/quizmaker/index.php
  • 8. Instructional CALL 2 …/6
    • Assistive tools (online templating):
      • Crossword construction
      • http://www.crosswordkit.com/download.htm
    • Ready-made resources e.g.:
    • http://oregonstate.edu/dept/eli/internetpossibilities.html
    • Resource portals:
    • http://www.polyglot.pitt.edu/workshops/resources.html
    • www.atomiclearning.co.uk
  • 9. Instructional CALL 3 …/6
    • Web design
    • http://www. webmonkey .com//
    • and the simpler version (which I prefer!):
    • http://webmonkey.com/webmonkey/kids/
    • http://www.arizona.edu/uaweb/tutorials/index.php
    • Quickstart guide to Dreamweaver:
    • http://www. brynmawr . edu/llc/help/russDreamweaver/index . htm
  • 10. Instructional CALL 4 …/6
    • Nvu (Open source web editor)
    • http://nvudev.com/index.php
    • Mozilla composer tutorial
    • (useful for those who cannot afford or don’t want to buy Dreamweaver or other Macromedia products)
    • The site Wizard: good links to other useful technical sites:
    • http://www. thesitewizard .com/gettingstarted/mozillacomposer1. shtml
  • 11. Instructional CALL 5…/6
    • Clipart/photo collections
    • http://tell.fll.purdue.edu/JapanProj//FLClipart/default.html
    • http://web.uvic.ca/hcmc/clipart/
    • http://www.carla.umn.edu/lctl/VPA/
    • http://www.teachnet.com/how-to/clipart/
  • 12. Instructional CALL 6…/6
    • Audio & video
      • Audacity
      • http://audacity.sourceforge.net/
      • iMovie
      • MovieMaker (PC only)
      • streaming
    • http://www.brynmawr. edu/llc/help/streaming/index .html
      • Podcasts
      • http://www.podomatic.com/
      • http://odeo.com/
    • mLearning (?)
  • 13. Exploratory & discovery CALL 1…/2
    • Sociocultural (social constructivist) theories of language learning
    • Cooperative language learning
      • Simulations
        • Travel sim e.g.
      • http://www.iei.uiuc.edu/travelsim/
      • Virtual worlds e.g. Second Life
    • http://secondlife.com/
    • http://www.vimeo.com/356342
    • + voice:
    • http://youtube.com/watch?v=7ViOXg2WUoo
  • 14. Exploratory & discovery CALL 2…/2
    • Webquests
    • http://webquest.org/index.php
    • http://bestwebquests.com/
    • And Web Inquiry Projects:
    • http://edweb.sdsu.edu/wip/WIP_intro.htm
  • 15. CMC for language learning 1 …/2
    • Synchronous, near-synchronous
      • Text, audio, video, 2-way, >2-way e.g.
        • Skype
        • http://www.skype.com/
        • CU-See Me World
        • http://www.CUworld.com
        • ICQ
        • http://www.icq.com
        • MSN Messenger
        • http://get.live.com/messenger/overview
        • Paltalk
        • http://www.paltalk.com
        • Yahoo Messenger
        • GoogleTalk
  • 16. CMC for language learning 2 …/2
    • (Synchronous cont’d)
        • IM
        • Elluminate + Vrooms
        • http://www.elluminate.com/vroom/index.jsp
        • mLearning
    • Asynchronous
        • Email
        • List-servs
        • Discussion forums
    • Research evidence for effectiveness of online over f2f chat (e.g. Payne & Whitney, 2002)
  • 17. Narrative TELL
    • Reflective & lifelong learning
    • Learner-created content
    • Sociocultural  ecological perspective
      • ePortfolios
      • Digital storytelling
  • 18. Social networking TELL
    • Social  ecological constructivist
    • Learner/community-created content
      • Blogs
      • Podcasting *
      • Flikr
      • Slideshare
      • MySpace/Facebook
      • Twitter
      • Tagging
      • RSS
      • mLearning
  • 19. Collaborative TELL
    • Collaborative cf cooperative learning
        • Wikis
        • Googledocs
        • YouTube (Teacher Tube)
        • Collaboratories
        • Folksonomies
  • 20. Longitudinal action research project
    • Transitional structures
    • 2 institutions
    • 5 semesters
  • 21. Tools used
    • Webquests using SDSU portal <http://www.webquest.org/>
      • Dreamweaver + online media & resources
    • Hot Potatoes + various other online templating tools + media
    • Social communication/networking:
      • Wiki – MediaWiki hosted on university server (www-viewable)
      • Individual blogs – Blogger (www-viewable)
      • IM
      • Discussion forum
      • Chat
      • e-Portfolios
  • 22. Expectations vs Use of SN Tools 1 .../2
    • Expectations
      • Wiki
        • for internal-remote collaboration
        • ownership
        • easily accessible from everywhere (where my students were located)
      • Blogs
        • ownership
        • reflective space
        • flexible (& re-purpose-able) space
        • extensible outside timelines of course
    • Uses
      • Wiki
        • Experimenting with the interface
        • Group organization: sharing & collaboration
        • Hints & tips (Q & A, quick fixes)
        • Interesting articles/sites
        • Posting projects
      • Blogs
        • Reflection
          • self-reflection
          • peer evaluation
        • Communication
          • mutual support & feedback
        • Community formation & maintenance
          • Interaction
            • Among members of single cohort
            • Across continents & oceans
            • Across semesters
            • Across cultural & social dysjunctures
  • 23. Expectations vs Use of SN Tools 2 .../2
    • Expectations
      • IM
        • for quick changes of plan
        • to check if online
      • Discussion forum
        • formal course-related theoretical Qs & responses
      • Chat
        • synchronous local & international coordination
      • e-Portfolios
        • formal annotated electronic record of program documents, artefacts, achievements
    • Uses
      • IM
        • Notification of:
          • Lateness
          • chat entry
          • new posts
      • Discussion Forum
        • Formal course evaluation
        • Formal comments on the course & projects
        • … in response to instructor’s postings
      • Chat
        • synchronous remote/ internal communication on:
          • Discussion
          • catch-up
          • Socializing
          • course-related transactions
      • E-Portfolios
          • Created but hardly used
          • Possibly because of formal nature cf digital stories
  • 24. Course outcomes:
    • Processes
      • Self-reflection
      • Self-evaluation
      • Self-efficacy
      • Independent inquiry
      • Self-initiation
      • Self-motivation
      • Peer evaluation
      • Realization of usefulness of formation of community network
    • Products
      • Webquests
      • Online media-supported teaching module
      • Wiki sites
      • Blogs
        • Course-related
        • Personal
        • Travel
        • Post-course/ practitioner
  • 25. Social presence: effective interaction & learning community formation
    • No. & frequency of interactions initiated
    • No. & frequency of responses to others
    • Cultural effects on interactions **
    • Types of communication actions **
  • 26. Classification of postings
    • Supportive
      • Supporting
      • Compliment
      • Empathy
      • Advice
      • Information
      • Thanks
    • Reflective
      • Musing
      • Complaint
      • Photo
    • Transactional
      • Help Request
      • Help giving
      • Query
    • Organizational
      • Announcement
  • 27. Features emerging from classification
    • High incidence of supportive comments (1/3):
      • Complimenting, supporting, giving advice, thanking, empathizing
    • High incidence of reflective comments:
      • Musing, photographs, complaints
    • Much less transactional:
      • Asking & answering Qs, requesting & receiving help
    • Smallest category: organizational
  • 28. Persistence of post-course blog use
    • All but 1 posted on their blogs post-course
    • >50% maintained & expanded theirs, creating others, & using with own classes
    • >30% maintained blog contact & mentored subsequent cohorts
    • Similar patterns across subsequent semesters have shown
      • Experience of being mentored seems to engender willingness to mentor
      • Experience of becoming reflective, independent & interdependent members of a community promotes willingness to support emerging independence
  • 29. Online constraints & considerations
    • Intercultural aspects
    • Geography & access
    • Timezones
    • Appropriate technology
  • 30. Tools made available 1 … /2
    • Synchronous & asynchronous CMC:
      • Moodle:
        • Discussion forums
        • IM near-synchronous chat
        • Wikis
        • Blogs (not used)
      • Email
      • VoIP (Skype)
      • Elluminate Live
      • Elluminate vRooms
  • 31. Tools made available 2 … /2
    • Instructional technologies
    • Discovery/exploratory technologies
    • Community-facilitating technologies (Facebook, Me2U, Flickr, tagging applications, RSS etc)
  • 32. Choices & constraints 1 …/2
    • Individual vs community
    • “ traditional” personality of DE students
    • Role of academic dialogue at Masters level
    • Facilitation in DE environment?
  • 33. Choices & constraints 2 …/2
    • Mismatch between:
      • Requirements
      • Expectations (teacher & learners)
      • Teaching & learning approaches (including intercultural aspects)
      • Assessment criteria
      • Assessment process (in transition)
    What constitutes PARTICIPATION??
  • 34. Changing roles
    • Reflective practice
    • Modelling processes & practices
    • Openness
    • Collaboration
    • Negotiation
    • Changing assessment practices:
    • e-Portfolios
  • 35. Critical differences in DE 1 …/2
    • a necessity for lifelong learning
    • “ green”-er (x4)
    • Accessibility & openness (x5)
    • centrality of CMC
    • Flexibility
      • importance for lifestyle & commitments
      • freedom to design your own program & courses according to interest
      • Accessibility, breaking down barriers & reaching remote locations
    • autonomy in experience & direction (x4)
      • Of both experience of learner & direction of studies i.e.
        • Self-motivation
        • Self-designed courses & program
  • 36. Critical differences in DE 2 …/2
    • Keeping up with advancements in technology (x3)
    • multi-modal techniques to cultivate engagement (x2)
    • Move from “compensation model” to “celebration model” (x3)
      • Diverse (many and different; distinct and unalike)
      • Accessing (obtain or retrieve from a storage device like information on a computer)
      • Global (not limited or provincial in scope
      • Opportunities (a possibility due to a favourable combination of circumstances)
      • Non-traditionally (not conforming or in accord with the considered norm)
      • Sustained (supply with necessities and support)
  • 37.
    • Questions?
    • Comments?
    • Suggestions?
    • Advice?
  • 38. Debra Hoven http://cde.athabascau.ca/faculty/debrah.php http://deincanada.blogspot.com/ http://lifentheuniverse.blogspot.com [email_address]