Call Tell Wkshp

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Call Tell Wkshp

  1. 1. Language teaching at a distance: the enabling potentials of technology Dr Debra Hoven CDE [email_address] DETS, Edmonton, June 2008
  2. 2. Terminology <ul><li>CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) </li></ul><ul><li>CELL (Computer Enhanced … ) </li></ul><ul><li>TELL (Technology Enhanced Language Learning) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>& its various manifestations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues as an applied discipline … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied where & to whom …? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Finding the best fit … <ul><li>Celebration model cf compensation model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When, who & how … & to a lesser extent, where, what & why </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contexts and constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purposes and advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… and the tools to match i.e. appropriate technologies from freeware, stand alone to Open source to commercial </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. So how does this match with language learning theories? <ul><li>Interactionist theories of LL </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive constructivist theories </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural  ecological constructivist </li></ul><ul><li>… and </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative language teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Community-based learning/communities of learners </li></ul><ul><li>Roles of form (structure) & function (fluency) </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental purpose(s) of language & how to acquire proficiency in these? </li></ul>
  5. 5. … and how does this map in an online environment? <ul><li>6 models of TELL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional CALL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploratory & discovery CALL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Mediated Communication for LL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social networking (connectedness, identity, community) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrative/reflective (digital storytelling, eportfolios) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative LL (communities, learner-created content) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Instructional CALL <ul><li>Interactionist theories of language learning  constructivist </li></ul><ul><li>4 skills: reading, writing, speaking, listening + grammar & vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li> integrative approach </li></ul>
  7. 7. Instructional CALL 1 …/6 <ul><li>Assistive tools (online templating): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot Potatoes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://web. uvic .ca/hrd/halfbaked/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://ressources-cla.univ-fcomte.fr/english/html/hotpot.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.humnet.ucla.edu/aflang/swahili/exercises/mazungumzo/Mazungumzo1.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://a.w-z.webpark.pl/asking_the_way.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://ospitiweb.indire.it/ictavagnacco/deutsch/Wiederholung_3/restaurant.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scripto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.readingmatrix.com/quizmaker/index.php </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Instructional CALL 2 …/6 <ul><li>Assistive tools (online templating): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crossword construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.crosswordkit.com/download.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ready-made resources e.g.: </li></ul><ul><li>http://oregonstate.edu/dept/eli/internetpossibilities.html </li></ul><ul><li>Resource portals: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.polyglot.pitt.edu/workshops/resources.html </li></ul><ul><li>www.atomiclearning.co.uk </li></ul>
  9. 9. Instructional CALL 3 …/6 <ul><li>Web design </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. webmonkey .com// </li></ul><ul><li>and the simpler version (which I prefer!): </li></ul><ul><li>http://webmonkey.com/webmonkey/kids/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.arizona.edu/uaweb/tutorials/index.php </li></ul><ul><li>Quickstart guide to Dreamweaver: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. brynmawr . edu/llc/help/russDreamweaver/index . htm </li></ul>
  10. 10. Instructional CALL 4 …/6 <ul><li>Nvu (Open source web editor) </li></ul><ul><li>http://nvudev.com/index.php </li></ul><ul><li>Mozilla composer tutorial </li></ul><ul><li>(useful for those who cannot afford or don’t want to buy Dreamweaver or other Macromedia products) </li></ul><ul><li>The site Wizard: good links to other useful technical sites: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. thesitewizard .com/gettingstarted/mozillacomposer1. shtml </li></ul>
  11. 11. Instructional CALL 5…/6 <ul><li>Clipart/photo collections </li></ul><ul><li>http://tell.fll.purdue.edu/JapanProj//FLClipart/default.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://web.uvic.ca/hcmc/clipart/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.carla.umn.edu/lctl/VPA/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.teachnet.com/how-to/clipart/ </li></ul>
  12. 12. Instructional CALL 6…/6 <ul><li>Audio & video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://audacity.sourceforge.net/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iMovie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MovieMaker (PC only) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>streaming </li></ul></ul><ul><li> http://www.brynmawr. edu/llc/help/streaming/index .html </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Podcasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.podomatic.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://odeo.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>mLearning (?) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Exploratory & discovery CALL 1…/2 <ul><li>Sociocultural (social constructivist) theories of language learning </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative language learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Travel sim e.g. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.iei.uiuc.edu/travelsim/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual worlds e.g. Second Life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://secondlife.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.vimeo.com/356342 </li></ul><ul><li>+ voice: </li></ul><ul><li>http://youtube.com/watch?v=7ViOXg2WUoo </li></ul>
  14. 14. Exploratory & discovery CALL 2…/2 <ul><li>Webquests </li></ul><ul><li>http://webquest.org/index.php </li></ul><ul><li>http://bestwebquests.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>And Web Inquiry Projects: </li></ul><ul><li>http://edweb.sdsu.edu/wip/WIP_intro.htm </li></ul>
  15. 15. CMC for language learning 1 …/2 <ul><li>Synchronous, near-synchronous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text, audio, video, 2-way, >2-way e.g. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skype </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.skype.com/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CU-See Me World </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.CUworld.com </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ICQ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.icq.com </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MSN Messenger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://get.live.com/messenger/overview </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paltalk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.paltalk.com </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yahoo Messenger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GoogleTalk </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. CMC for language learning 2 …/2 <ul><li>(Synchronous cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elluminate + Vrooms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.elluminate.com/vroom/index.jsp </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mLearning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Asynchronous </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List-servs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion forums </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Research evidence for effectiveness of online over f2f chat (e.g. Payne & Whitney, 2002) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Narrative TELL <ul><li>Reflective & lifelong learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learner-created content </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural  ecological perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ePortfolios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital storytelling </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Social networking TELL <ul><li>Social  ecological constructivist </li></ul><ul><li>Learner/community-created content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Podcasting * </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flikr </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slideshare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MySpace/Facebook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twitter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tagging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RSS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mLearning </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Collaborative TELL <ul><li>Collaborative cf cooperative learning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Googledocs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>YouTube (Teacher Tube) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboratories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Folksonomies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Longitudinal action research project <ul><li>Transitional structures </li></ul><ul><li>2 institutions </li></ul><ul><li>5 semesters </li></ul>
  21. 21. Tools used <ul><li>Webquests using SDSU portal <http://www.webquest.org/> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dreamweaver + online media & resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hot Potatoes + various other online templating tools + media </li></ul><ul><li>Social communication/networking: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wiki – MediaWiki hosted on university server (www-viewable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual blogs – Blogger (www-viewable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion forum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-Portfolios </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Expectations vs Use of SN Tools 1 .../2 <ul><li>Expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wiki </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for internal-remote collaboration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ownership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>easily accessible from everywhere (where my students were located) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ownership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reflective space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>flexible (& re-purpose-able) space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>extensible outside timelines of course </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wiki </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experimenting with the interface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group organization: sharing & collaboration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hints & tips (Q & A, quick fixes) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interesting articles/sites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Posting projects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>self-reflection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>peer evaluation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mutual support & feedback </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Community formation & maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Among members of single cohort </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Across continents & oceans </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Across semesters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Across cultural & social dysjunctures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Expectations vs Use of SN Tools 2 .../2 <ul><li>Expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for quick changes of plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to check if online </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion forum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>formal course-related theoretical Qs & responses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>synchronous local & international coordination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-Portfolios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>formal annotated electronic record of program documents, artefacts, achievements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notification of: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lateness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chat entry </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>new posts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion Forum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal course evaluation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal comments on the course & projects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… in response to instructor’s postings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>synchronous remote/ internal communication on: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>catch-up </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Socializing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>course-related transactions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Portfolios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created but hardly used </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly because of formal nature cf digital stories </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Course outcomes: <ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-initiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realization of usefulness of formation of community network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Webquests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online media-supported teaching module </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wiki sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Course-related </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Travel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post-course/ practitioner </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Social presence: effective interaction & learning community formation <ul><li>No. & frequency of interactions initiated </li></ul><ul><li>No. & frequency of responses to others </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural effects on interactions ** </li></ul><ul><li>Types of communication actions ** </li></ul>
  26. 26. Classification of postings <ul><li>Supportive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thanks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Musing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complaint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transactional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help Request </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help giving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Query </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Announcement </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Features emerging from classification <ul><li>High incidence of supportive comments (1/3): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complimenting, supporting, giving advice, thanking, empathizing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High incidence of reflective comments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Musing, photographs, complaints </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Much less transactional: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking & answering Qs, requesting & receiving help </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smallest category: organizational </li></ul>
  28. 28. Persistence of post-course blog use <ul><li>All but 1 posted on their blogs post-course </li></ul><ul><li>>50% maintained & expanded theirs, creating others, & using with own classes </li></ul><ul><li>>30% maintained blog contact & mentored subsequent cohorts </li></ul><ul><li>Similar patterns across subsequent semesters have shown </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience of being mentored seems to engender willingness to mentor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience of becoming reflective, independent & interdependent members of a community promotes willingness to support emerging independence </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Online constraints & considerations <ul><li>Intercultural aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Geography & access </li></ul><ul><li>Timezones </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate technology </li></ul>
  30. 30. Tools made available 1 … /2 <ul><li>Synchronous & asynchronous CMC: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moodle: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion forums </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IM near-synchronous chat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs (not used) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VoIP (Skype) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elluminate Live </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elluminate vRooms </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Tools made available 2 … /2 <ul><li>Instructional technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery/exploratory technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Community-facilitating technologies (Facebook, Me2U, Flickr, tagging applications, RSS etc) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Choices & constraints 1 …/2 <ul><li>Individual vs community </li></ul><ul><li>“ traditional” personality of DE students </li></ul><ul><li>Role of academic dialogue at Masters level </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitation in DE environment? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Choices & constraints 2 …/2 <ul><li>Mismatch between: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations (teacher & learners) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching & learning approaches (including intercultural aspects) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment process (in transition) </li></ul></ul>What constitutes PARTICIPATION??
  34. 34. Changing roles <ul><li>Reflective practice </li></ul><ul><li>Modelling processes & practices </li></ul><ul><li>Openness </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>Changing assessment practices: </li></ul><ul><li>e-Portfolios </li></ul>
  35. 35. Critical differences in DE 1 …/2 <ul><li>a necessity for lifelong learning </li></ul><ul><li>“ green”-er (x4) </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility & openness (x5) </li></ul><ul><li>centrality of CMC </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>importance for lifestyle & commitments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>freedom to design your own program & courses according to interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility, breaking down barriers & reaching remote locations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>autonomy in experience & direction (x4) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Of both experience of learner & direction of studies i.e. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-motivation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-designed courses & program </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Critical differences in DE 2 …/2 <ul><li>Keeping up with advancements in technology (x3) </li></ul><ul><li>multi-modal techniques to cultivate engagement (x2) </li></ul><ul><li>Move from “compensation model” to “celebration model” (x3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverse (many and different; distinct and unalike) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessing (obtain or retrieve from a storage device like information on a computer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global (not limited or provincial in scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities (a possibility due to a favourable combination of circumstances) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-traditionally (not conforming or in accord with the considered norm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustained (supply with necessities and support) </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul><ul><li>Comments? </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions? </li></ul><ul><li>Advice? </li></ul>
  38. 38. Debra Hoven http://cde.athabascau.ca/faculty/debrah.php http://deincanada.blogspot.com/ http://lifentheuniverse.blogspot.com [email_address]

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