Typhoid

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Typhiod With A Case Study

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Typhoid

  1. 1. Done By Deborah Susan Pavithra.G 3rd Sem,HSC
  2. 2.  Typhoid fever usually is caused by Salmonellae typhi bacteria.  Typhoid fever is contracted by the ingestion of contaminated food or water.  Diagnosis of typhoid fever is made when the Salmonella bacteria is detected with a stool culture.  Typhoid fever is treated with antibiotics.  Typhoid fever symptoms are poor appetite, headaches, generalized aches and pains, fever, and lethargy.  Approximately 3%-5% of patients become carriers of the bacteria after the acute illness.
  3. 3. •Typhoid fever is an acute illness associated with fever that is most often caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria. •It can also be caused by Salmonella paratyphi, a related bacterium that usually leads to a less severe illness. •The bacteria are deposited in water or food by a human carrier and are then spread to other people in the area.
  4. 4.  Typhoid fever is contracted by the ingestion of the bacteria in contaminated food or water.  Patients with acute illness can contaminate the surrounding water supply through stool, which contains a high concentration of the bacteria.  Contamination of the water supply can, in turn, taint the food supply. About 3%-5% of patients become carriers of the bacteria after the acute illness.  These patients can become long-term carriers of the bacteria. The bacteria multiplies in the gallbladder, bile ducts, or liver and passes into the bowel.  The bacteria can survive for weeks in water or dried sewage. These chronic carriers may have no symptoms and can be the source of new outbreaks of typhoid fever for many.
  5. 5.  After the ingestion of contaminated food or water, the Salmonella bacteria invade the small intestine and enter the bloodstream temporarily.  The bacteria are carried by white blood cells in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow.  The bacteria then multiply in the cells of these organs and re-enter the bloodstream.  Patients develop symptoms, including fever, when the organism re-enters the bloodstream.  Bacteria invade the gallbladder, biliary system, and the lymphatic tissue of the bowel.
  6. 6.  poor appetite  abdominal pain  headaches  generalized aches and pains  fever, often up to 104 F  lethargy (usually only if untreated)  intestinal bleeding or perforation (after two to three weeks of the disease  diarrhea or constipation.
  7. 7.  Typhoid fever is treated with antibiotics that kill the Salmonella bacteria.  Death occurred from overwhelming infection, pneumonia, intestinal bleeding, or intestinal perforation.  With antibiotics and supportive care, mortality has been reduced to 1%-2%.  Several antibiotics are effective for the treatment of typhoid fever.
  8. 8.  Blood test  Bone marrow test  Stool culture test  Widal Test
  9. 9.  Chloramphenicol  Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)  Ceftriaxone (Rocephin),  Ampicillin (Omnipen, Polycillin, Principen  trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole(Bactrim, Septra)
  10. 10.  For those traveling to high-risk areas, vaccines are now available.  There are two forms of the vaccine available an oral and an inject able form.  The oral vaccine is contraindicated in patients with depressed immune systems.
  11. 11.  High Fiber Foods Should Be Avoided  Spicy Foods not to be taken  Highly flavored foods are to be avoided  Deep fried foods are to be avoided  Aerated drinks, tea, coffee to be avoided.
  12. 12.  The Case Study Of My Patient Showed that He Had Typhoid.  It Was Proved Through Widal Test And Blood test.  His Symptoms were fever (104F),chills, body aches, cough.  His BP, Sugar Levels Were Normal.  He was asked to be on diet of food with less salt and less fiber and totally avoid spicy foods.  He Was Advised to take complete rest.
  13. 13. Thank You

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