BIOLOGICAL CLOCKS Circadian rhythms – daily cycles of ~ 24 hours Pineal gland regulation – releases melatonin Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN) acts as a biological clock Found in the hypothalamus Just above the optic chiasm Receives info from the retina Retinohypothalamic pathway GABA released from the hypothalamus shuts down arousal systems
RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM RAS is responsible for sleep/wake behavior and arousal Sensory systems RAS Cortex Cortex can stimulate RAS suggesting wakefulness can be consciously maintained
ANATOMY OF DREAMING During REM Sleep ACTIVE INACTIVE Reticular formation Parietal Cortex Thalamus Prefrontal Cortex Hypothalamus Amygdala & Hippocampus Visual Cortex
SLEEP IN ANIMALS Sleep is risky! Why is sleep important? Adaptation Energy conservation Predator vs. prey
WHAT DOES SLEEP DO FOR US? Restoration and repair, maintaining homeostasis Sleep deprivation studies show poor cognition and physiological consequences MEMORY!!! Activation during REM sleep
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