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Digestion for moodle

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  • 1. DigestiveSystemMrs. Stein
  • 2. Nutrients Supply the body with materials for energy, growth,and maintenance Carbohydrates - major energy source Simple (fruit, sugar) and complex (starch, grain) Fats (lipids) - found in cell membranes Fatty acids and glycerol Proteins play a variety of roles; growth, repair Amino acids Meat, beans, dairy Vitamins help regulate processes Minerals are inorganic compounds needed in smallamounts Calcium in bones, iron in hemoglobin
  • 3. Digestive SystemPharynxSalivaryGlandsStomachEsophagusMouthLarge IntestineGallbladder(behind the liver)LiverPancreas(behind stomach)RectumSmallIntestine
  • 4. Digestion Break down largemolecules into smallermolecules which can beused by cells Physical and chemical Alimentary Canal – oneway tube which foodpasses through the body Accessory structuresdo not carry food, but aidin digestionPharynxSalivaryGlandsStomachEsophagusMouthLarge IntestineGallbladder(behind the liver)LiverPancreas(behind stomach)RectumSmallIntestine
  • 5. Accessory Structures Liver produces bile which emulsifies fat Gallbladder stores bile Pancreas produces enzymes
  • 6. Mouth Mechanical digestion Teeth crush food Saliva moistens food andcontains salivary amylase Starch into simpler sugar Chemical digestion
  • 7. Esophagus Muscular tube connectspharynx & stomach Peristalsis Waves of muscle contractions Bolus enters the stomachthru a sphincter Acid may back up into theesophagus Heartburn, reflux
  • 8. Stomach Chemical digestion HCl kills bacteria, lowers pH to activate pepsin Proteins break down Peptic ulcer – hole in stomach wall Caused by bacteria Muscular sac lined withmucus Protection, lubrication Mechanical digestion Smooth muscles churnfood
  • 9. Small Intestine Duodenum - 1stpart of the small intestineEnzymes & fluids enter here Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteinsdigested here Nutrients absorbedPharynxSalivaryGlandsStomachEsophagusMouthLarge IntestineGallbladder(behind the liver)Liver Pancreas(behind stomach)RectumSmallIntestine
  • 10. Small Intestine Lined with finger-like projections called villiIncrease surface area for absorption Carbs and proteinsenter capillaries Fats enter thelymph vessels Water, cellulose,and indigestiblesremain
  • 11. Large Intestine Absorbs water fromundigested material Bacteria synthesizevitamin K Feces is stored in therectum, excreted by theanus
  • 12. Enzymes Stomach Pepsin – proteins  smaller peptide chains Rennin – curdles milk proteins Pancreas produces 3 enzymes which aresecreted into the duodenum Pancreatic amylase – starch  maltose Trypsin – proteins  amino acids Lipase – fats  fatty acids and glycerol
  • 13. Enzymes of the Small Intestine Enzymes break disaccharides intomonosaccharides Maltase: maltose  2 glucose molecules Lactase: lactose  glucose and galactose Sucrase: sucrose  glucose and fructose Peptidase – breaks down small polypeptidesinto amino acids
  • 14. Enzyme orDigestiveFluidWhere it ismanufacturedWhere it actsWhatmolecule itacts onWhat resultsfrom itsactionSalivary Amylase Mouth MaltoseGastric Glands Stomach ProteinsBile DuodenumPancreas Duodenum StarchTrypsin DuodenumPancreas Duodenum LipidsMaltase Duodenum MaltoseDuodenum DuodenumGlucose andFructoseLactase Duodenum DuodenumDuodenum Duodenum Amino AcidPepsinSalivary GlandLiverPolypeptidesStarchSmaller LipidsPancreatic AmylaseLipidsPancreas Smaller PeptidesPolypeptidesMaltoseLipaseSucraseDuodenumFatty Acids &GlycerolSucroseGlucoseGlucose & GalactoseLactosePeptidesPeptidase
  • 15. Accessory Structures

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