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Marlowe edited

  1. 1. Doctor Faustus <ul><ul><li>Christopher Marlowe born Canterbury 1564, son of a shoemaker (the same year as Shakespeare) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1578 a student at King’s School, Canterbury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1580 a scholarship to Corpus Christi College in Cambridge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1584 received his BA, set out to pursue an MA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1587 Cambridge University refused him his MA, probably because he refused to continue his theological studies </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Doctor Faustus <ul><ul><li>The Queen’s Privy Council ordered the university to grant his degree, for Marlowe had been “engaged ... in matters touching the benefit of his country.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marlowe probably a spy for Queen Elizabeth's secret service, perhaps spying on Catholics abroad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One year later, Thomas Kyd, an acquaintance of Marlowe's, was arrested for having heretical books; he was a good friend and claimed that they were Marlowe's... </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Marlowe was arrested, but put on probation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On 30 May 1593, Marlowe was dining with three friends at Deptford, when a quarrel broke out about the bill. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ingram Frizer stabbed his friend through the eye “ such sort that the brains coming out at the dagger point and he shortly thereafter died.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marlowe was posthumously accused of atheism, of treason, and of holding the opinion “that they that love not tobacco and boys were fools...” </li></ul></ul>Doctor Faustus
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>Shakespeare’s memorial: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As You Like It </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act III. Scene 3. The Forest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TOUCHSTONE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ When a man’s verses cannot be understood, nor a man’s good wit seconded with the forward child Understanding, it strikes a man more dead than a great reckoning in a little room. Truly, I would the gods had made thee poetical.” </li></ul></ul>Doctor Faustus
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>DOCTOR FAUSTUS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A five-act play in the tradition of the Elizabethan Theatre. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probably written 1592, not published until a decade later. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although there had been literary representations of Faust prior to Marlowe’s play, Doctor Faustus is the first famous version of the story </li></ul></ul>Doctor Faustus
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>The phrase “Faustian bargain” has entered the English lexicon, referring to any deal made for a short-term gain with great costs in the long run. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the German Faustbuch , Faust quickly tires of scientific and philosophical pursuits, giving himself over to a life of pleasure and extravagance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marlowe takes Faustus more seriously, makes a true tragedy of the great scholar who squandered his gifts while seeking the unattainable. </li></ul></ul>Doctor Faustus
  7. 7. Doctor Faustus , Act I <ul><ul><li>Prologue: The chorus introduces us to the Frustrated Scholar: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To patient judgments we appeal our plaud, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And speak for Faustus in his infancy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now is he born, his parents base of stock, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Germany, within a town call'd Rhodes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of riper years, to Wertenberg he went, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whereas his kinsmen chiefly brought him up. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So soon he profits in divinity, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The fruitful plot of scholarism grac'd, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That shortly he was grac'd with doctor's name, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excelling all whose sweet delight disputes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In heavenly matters of theology; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Till swoln with cunning, of a self-conceit, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His waxen wings did mount above his reach, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And, melting, heavens conspir'd his overthrow; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For, falling to a devilish exercise, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And glutted now with learning's golden gifts, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He surfeits upon cursed necromancy; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nothing so sweet as magic is to him, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which he prefers before his chiefest bliss: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And this the man that in his study sits. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Doctor Faustus , Act I <ul><ul><ul><li>In order to transcend the limits of traditional branches of knowledge—philosophy, medicine, law, theology—he decides to turn to necromancy: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These metaphysics of magicians, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And necromantic books are heavenly; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lines, circles, scenes, letters, and characters; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ay, these are those that Faustus most desires. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O, what a world of profit and delight, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Of power, of honour, of omnipotence, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is promis'd to the studious artizan! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All things that move between the quiet poles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shall be at my command: emperors and kings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are but obeyed in their several provinces, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nor can they raise the wind, or rend the clouds; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But his dominion that exceeds in this, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stretcheth as far as doth the mind of man; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A sound magician is a mighty god: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Here, Faustus, tire thy brains to gain a deity. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Doctor Faustus , Act I <ul><ul><li>Devil appears as the demon Mephostophilis; Faustus rejoices over the power of his spells (cite 13) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faustus tells Mephostophilis to be his servant, he answers that he only obeys Lucifer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faustus acknowledges that “there is no chief but only Belzebub” and that he dedicates himself to him! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faustus asks Mephostophilis about Lucifer and hell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mephostophilis is trying to warn Faustus about becoming a slave to Lucifer! (cite 14) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Doctor Faustus , Act I <ul><ul><li>Faustus is unimpressed; he suggests a pact with Lucifer: for twenty four years of power and pleasure, Lucifer can claim Faustus' soul! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAUSTUS. What, is great Mephistophilis so passionate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For being deprived of the joys of heaven? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn thou of Faustus manly fortitude, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And scorn those joys thou never shalt possess. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Go bear these tidings to great Lucifer: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing Faustus hath incurr'd eternal death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By desperate thoughts against Jove's deity, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Say, he surrenders up to him his soul, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So he will spare him four and twenty years, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letting him live in all voluptuousness; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Having thee ever to attend on me, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To give me whatsoever I shall ask, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To tell me whatsoever I demand, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To slay mine enemies, and aid my friends, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And always be obedient to my will. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Go and return to mighty Lucifer, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And meet me in my study at midnight, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And then resolve me of thy master's mind. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Doctor Faustus, Act I <ul><ul><li>Parallel Action and Comic Relief (typical devices in Elizabethan drama). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act 1,4: Faustus' aide Wagner forces Robin to be his servant for seven years, otherwise he will let lose lice upon him! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As Robin is not too impressed (he already has lice all over him) Wagner summones two devils, which seems to do the trick. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Doctor Faustus , Act 2 <ul><ul><li>Two angels try to influence Faustus, the bad spririt promises honour and wealth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faustus conjures up Mephostophilis again, who has his master's answer agreement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faustus must sign a pact with his own blood (cite 19) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavenly intervention : Faustus' blood dries up unnaturally before he can sign the pact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faustus then signs the pact with his own blood but sees a strange inscription on his arm: Home fuge! (cite 21) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Doctor Faustus , Act 2 <ul><ul><li>FAUSTUS. Consummatum est; this bill is ended, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And Faustus hath bequeath'd his soul to Lucifer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But what is this inscription on mine arm? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homo, fuge: whither should I fly? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If unto God, he'll throw me down to hell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My senses are deceiv'd; here's nothing writ:-- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I see it plain; here in this place is writ, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homo, fuge: yet shall not Faustus fly. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Doctor Faustus , Act 2 <ul><ul><li>Faustus has second thoughts, but Mephostophilis tempts and distracts him with the pleasures of black magic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theological discussions about heaven and hell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mephostophilis cites himself as proof that hell exists (23). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faustus asks about secrets of the universe. When he asks who created it, Mephostophilis does not answer . Disappointed, Faustus has again second thoughts about the pact. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Doctor Faustus , Act 2 <ul><ul><li>Lucifer appears, tells Faustus to think not of Heaven, but about hell, for he is damned. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faustus, apologizes and promises to abjure God forever (cite 28) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To distract him, Lucifer and Belzebub bring in demonic personifications of the Seven Deadly Sins to prance about in front of Faustus. His doubts are quieted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act 2,3: comic relief : Dick and Robin try to do magic out of one of Faustus' books. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Doctor Faustus , Act 3 <ul><ul><li>Faust and Mephostophilis travel to Rome to visit the Pope (and make a mockery of the Catholic church). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marlowe retains the staunch Protestantism of the German original. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faustus and Mephostophilis dress as Cardinals and rescue Bruno , a rival to the pope supported by the German emperor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As the masquerade is discovered, the real cardinals take the blame and are taken to prison to be executed. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Doctor Faustus , Act 3 <ul><ul><li>Faustus plays pranks on the Pope. He snatches his dish, takes away his wine, etc... finally strikes the Pope! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comic relief revisited: Robin, Wagner's servant, manages to conjure up Mephostophilis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not amused, Mephostophilis apparently turns Robin and his comrades into animals. More silliness on stage. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Doctor Faustus , Act 3,4 <ul><li>Faust is now a famous and admired man throughout Europe, a favorite at the Court of the German Emperor Charles V, an enemy of the Pope. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faustus is talked about by several knights of Charles’s court, he is invited to conjure the image of Alexander the Great for the emperor (cite 48/9). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faustus aided the Emperor in freeing Bruno, and now has honour and prestige at court. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Doctor Faustus , Act 4 <ul><ul><li>Benvolio , a knight at the emperor's court, is introduced as an antagonist to Faustus. He is envious and distrustful. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faustus conjures up the image of Alexander the Great for the emperor, while Benvolio pretends to fall asleep. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After that, Faustus put horns on Benvolio’s head (a metaphor for cuckoldry!), thereby humiliating him in front of the Emperor and all his court. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Doctor Faustus , Act 4 <ul><ul><li>After the Emperor has had a good laugh at poor Benvolio, he has Faustus to remove the horns. Benvolio swears vengeance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benvolio and some friends lay an ambush for Faustus for the humiliation that Benvolio had to endure. They resolve to kill the doctor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benvolio cuts off his head. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While they discuss how to humiliate the dead body further, Faustus rises again, horrifying his slayers (cite 57). </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Doctor Faustus , Act 4 <ul><ul><li>Faustus gets even: He has Mephostophilis torture them, to which Mephostophilis happily complies (cite 58). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soldiers come to the aid of the knights; as they advance, Faustus makes the trees around him move to form a shelter (dark magic at work). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He summones devils to chase the soldiers away. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The knights return with obvious signs of having been tortured (bloody faces, besmeared with mud and dirt, the notorious horns on their heads). </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Doctor Faustus , Act 4 <ul><ul><li>Horse-courser story : Faustus sells a horse to a man who spent all his money on whores (pun on “horse-flesh”). Faustus tells him not to ride through water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The fellow is curious. As he tries to cross water, his horse turns into a bundle of hay and he barely escapes drowning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The horse courser returns wet and angry, tries to wake the sleeping Faustus to demand his money back; while yanking at his legs, he pulls one the legs off! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shocked, he leaves the scene. Faustus pretends to be mortally wounded and amuses himself greatly. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Doctor Faustus, Act 4 <ul><ul><li>Faustus has reached the court of the Duke of Vanholt. The Duke thanks Faustus for the magnificient sights (apparently Faustus performed his Alexander-routine again). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faustus sends Mephostophilis to India to fetch a dish of fresh grapes in mid-winter for the Duchess. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More Comic Relief with the fools. Highlight of adventures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All of the clowns whom Faustus has tricked are there. When they reproach Faustus with his deeds, he simply charms them, to the amusement of the nobles. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Doctor Faustus , Act 5 <ul><ul><li>Wagner makes an entrance and speaks about Faustus dying shortly. Faustus made his will and passed on all of his belongings on to Wagner. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At a meeting with fellow scholars in his study, one asks Faustus to conjure up Helen of Troy , since they agree she was the most beautiful of all women. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helen of Troy soon appears before the party, they muse about Helen and how she caused ten years of war between Greece and Troy. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Doctor Faustus , Act 5 <ul><ul><li>Helen of Troy (or similar supreme erotic adventure) a consistent theme in all versions of the Faust legend. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One scholar: “Too simple is my wit to tell her worth / Whom all the world admires for majesty.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After a moment of doubt caused by the appearance of the Old Man (another Good Angel in disguise), Faust turns once again to Helen as a final distraction from his doom: </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Doctor Faustus , Act 5 <ul><ul><li>FAUSTUS. Was this the face that launch'd a thousand ships, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And burnt the topless towers of Ilium – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweet Helen, make me immortal with a kiss.– [Kisses her.] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Her lips suck forth my soul: see, where it flies!– </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Come, Helen, come, give me my soul again. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Here will I dwell, for heaven is in these lips, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And all is dross that is not Helena. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I will be Paris, and for love of thee, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of Troy, shall Wertenberg be sack'd; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And I will combat with weak Menelaus, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And wear thy colours on my plumed crest; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yea, I will wound Achilles in the heel, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And then return to Helen for a kiss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O, thou art fairer than the evening air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clad in the beauty of a thousand stars; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brighter art thou than flaming Jupiter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When he appear'd to hapless Semele; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More lovely than the monarch of the sky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In wanton Arethusa's azur'd arms; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And none but thou shalt be my paramour! </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Doctor Faustus , Act 5 <ul><ul><li>The End is Near: Lucifer, ready to claim his prize, rises from hell to ask Mephostophilis about Faustus (75) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mephostophilis tells Lucifer that Faustus is “trying to overreach the devil” but, unable to succeed, he “numbs himself with idle fantasies.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The scholars visit Faustus one last time. He reveals to them his bargain with the devil. They urge him to repent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The scholars leave the room to pray for Faustus, he urges them not to come in, even if strange noises be heard... (cite 77/8) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Doctor Faustus , Act 5 <ul><ul><li>FAUSTUS. On God, whom Faustus hath abjured! on God, whom Faustus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hath blasphemed! Ah, my God, I would weep! but the devil draws in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>my tears. Gush forth blood, instead of tears! yea, life and soul! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O, he stays my tongue! I would lift up my hands; but see, they </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hold them, they hold them! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ALL. Who, Faustus? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAUSTUS. Lucifer and Mephistophilis. Ah, gentlemen, I gave them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>my soul for my cunning! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ALL. God forbid! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAUSTUS. God forbade it, indeed; but Faustus hath done it: for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vain pleasure of twenty-four years hath Faustus lost eternal joy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and felicity. I writ them a bill with mine own blood: the date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is expired; the time will come, and he will fetch me. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FIRST SCHOLAR. Why did not Faustus tell us of this before, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that divines might have prayed for thee? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAUSTUS. Oft have I thought to have done so; but the devil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>threatened to tear me in pieces, if I named God, to fetch both </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>body and soul, if I once gave ear to divinity: and now 'tis too </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>late. Gentlemen, away, lest you perish with me. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SECOND SCHOLAR. O, what shall we do to save Faustus? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAUSTUS. Talk not of me, but save yourselves, and depart. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THIRD SCHOLAR. God will strengthen me; I will stay with Faustus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FIRST SCHOLAR. Tempt not God, sweet friend; but let us into the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>next room, and there pray for him. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAUSTUS. Ay, pray for me, pray for me; and what noise soever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ye hear, come not unto me, for nothing can rescue me. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SECOND SCHOLAR. Pray thou, and we will pray that God may have </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mercy upon thee. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAUSTUS. Gentlemen, farewell: if I live till morning, I'll visit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>you; if not, Faustus is gone to hell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ALL. Faustus, farewell. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Doctor Faustus , Act 5 <ul><ul><li>Mephostophilis enters, telling Faustus to prepare for eternal suffering in hell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good Angel and Bad Angel return; the Good Angel tells Faustus that his soul is now lost forever (cite 79). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HELL OPENS UP IN THE STUDY, the clock strikes eleven, but one hour is left of the 24 years granted to Faust! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faustus feels remorse, but it is too late (cite 80/1). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As the clock strikes twelve, the devils fetch his soul. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Doctor Faustus , Act 5 <ul><ul><li>The next morning, the three scholars enter Faustus' study, but they only find a strangely contorted dead body – Faustus has gone to hell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the German version, his eyes and a few other organs are left behind in Faust’s study, what is left of the body is found outside, cast upon a manure pile. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The chorus appears again and presents the audience with the moral of the play “Don’t practice more than heavenly power permits.” </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Doctor Faustus , Act 5 <ul><ul><li>CHORUS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut is the branch that might have grown full straight, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And burned is Apollo's laurel-bough, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That sometime grew within this learned man. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faustus is gone: regard his hellish fall, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whose fiendful fortune may exhort the wise, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only to wonder at unlawful things, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whose deepness doth entice such forward wits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To practice more than heavenly power permits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Exit.] </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Doctor Faustus <ul><ul><li>Important Themes: SIN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doctor Faustus is a Christian play, it therefore deals with important Christian themes and symbols. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The idea of sin – acting contrary to the will of God. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The pact with Lucifer signifies the ultimate sin: Not only does he renounce God, but he deliberately and eagerly chooses to swear alliance to the devil. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, in a Christian framework, even the greatest sin can be forgiven if one is truly repentant. Faust had many chances to repent and find salvation! </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Doctor Faustus <ul><ul><li>Important Themes: CONFLICTING WORLD-VIEWS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The conflict between the values of the medieval and early modern period. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R.M. Dawkins famously remarked that Doctor Faustus tells “the story of a Renaissance man who had to pay the medieval price for being one.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The medieval world placed God at the center of existance, man and science was shunted aside. Theology was the most important academical discipline. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Doctor Faustus <ul><ul><li>Important Themes: CONFLICTING WORLD-VIEWS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Renaissance began in Italy in the 15 th century. It placed a new emphasis on the individual, on classical learning, and on scientific inquiry into the nature of the world. Secular matters took center stage: Man became the measure of all things. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faustus, being a true Renaissance scholar, represents the conflict between the two world-views. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Doctor Faustus <ul><li>CONFLICTING WORLD-VIEWS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faustus rejects the medieval world-view. In his opening speech, he distance himself every medieval discipline of science as being too limited. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are two interpretations for Faustus' fate: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faustus is portrayed as a human who has strayed too far and therefore has to pay the price “To practice more than heavenly power permits” (5,3) – a critique of the Renaissance world-view. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This interpretation is reinforced by the fact that Faustus goes from grand intentions at the beginning to cheap tricks at the end. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Doctor Faustus <ul><ul><li>CONFLICTING WORLD-VIEWS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternately, Faustus may be seen as the hero of a new modern world not governed by religion, who has to pay the price in a repressive, narrow-minded, medieval age. Later generations will have it easier. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faustus as a “martyr” of the Renaissance/Enlightenment? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marlowe himself was not a pious traditionalist, but he did recognize the sacrifices one had to make in a society not yet ready to tolerate the “freedom” of a Renaissance man. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Doctor Faustus <ul><ul><li>Important Themes: POWER CORRUPTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the beginning, Faustus has heroic plans, he wants to push the boundaries of science and unveil the secrets of the world (and make a little money and become famous, too) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, as soon as Faustus gains limitless power, he contents himself with playing cheap tricks for the nobility, he becomes an entertainer. Self-Delusion? </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Doctor Faustus
  39. 39. Doctor Faustus
  40. 40. Doctor Faustus
  41. 41. Bonus material! Till Eulenspiegel A popular or “Volk legend” reaching back to about 1350. Perhaps based upon a real clown figure from the late middle ages. Herman Bote the probable author of the first printed account of his adventures, in 1510. Scatological and other crude humor, episodic construction similar to the Faustbuch , but without the morality! A peasant perspective? Rebellious and unconventional, subversive?
  42. 42. Bonus material! Till Eulenspiegel #17. How Eulenspiegel got all the patients at a hospital healthy in one day, without medicine.
  43. 43. Bonus material! Till Eulenspiegel #12. How Eulenspiegel became the sexton in the village of B üddenstedt; and how the priest shitted in his church and Eulenspiegel won a barrel of beer.
  44. 44. Bonus material! Till Eulenspiegel #19. How Eulenspiegel apprenticed himself as a baker’s boy to a baker – and how he baked owls and long-tailed monkeys.
  45. 45. Bonus material! Till Eulenspiegel #20. How Eulenspiegel sifted flour by moonlight into the courtyard.