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Power Point related to the usefulness of computer technology in Yap

Power Point related to the usefulness of computer technology in Yap

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  • Long ago, Yapese navigators sailed across the ocean to bring enormous carved limestone to their islands – the infamous Stone Money. As the years passed, new people and new ways found their way to Yap. Today, Yap uses the American dollar, must meet the demands of the recently adopted Compact agreement such as a new economy-based society, and needs to make decisions regarding technology as well as Yap’s place in the global community. It’s all about – a choice.
  • I would like to welcome and to thank each of you for taking time out of your busy schedules to attend this presentation. I know that we all share a common interest in providing the best education possible for our community members and, particularly, our youth. Many of you have been working within Yap’s educational system in one way or another for many years. You have been working diligently toward the goal of excellence in education amidst the many challenges of economic hardship and one typhoon after another. You are the ones who have helped to bridge the gaps between Yap’s past, present and future. Thank you for all of your hard work.
  • We’re here because we all care. But, you may wonder, who is this person taking up our time? Is she another outsider coming in to tell us how to do something? Please, let me tell you a little about who I am and why I have asked to take some of your time to meet today. My name is Debby Ellen. I am currently working at the College of Micronesia as an Education Instructor. I am working with Yap’s teachers who are currently working toward their teacher certification as well as mentoring several student teachers. While I have only recently moved to Yap, I have been coming and spending time on Yap since 1994. My first visit to Yap was with a back pack and tent; I stayed up in Bechyal with Tamag and his family and, since that first initial visit, have come back many times to visit the family and spend time in Bechyal. I have worked in the states, in Guam, on the island of Rota, and in the Middle East over the past 21 years. My BA and MA are in Education, and I am currently working toward my EdD in the field of Instructional and Curriculum Support with a focus of working within English Language Learners (ELLs) such as in Micronesia. One of the many things I have learned is that the needs of English Language Learners can be addressed through methods such as cooperative learning, hands-on learning experiences, and – the implementation of computer technology. Second language learners need additional support and enriched language opportunities which relate to who they are and the culture which makes them unique. So today we are here to take a look at where we are and where we want to be. I often think of this approach as being lost in a huge shopping mall. There were shopping malls in the Middle East in which I would easily become lost. So I would look for the closest map to orientate myself. But the map would not have helped me had it not included the big X to mark the spot where I currently was standing. Once I could see where I was on that map, I could then determine a route to either get me to the shop I was looking for, or to find a way out of the maze. That is what we are going to do today; we will look at the available data to determine what the current needs of the students are, and then look at what the research has to say on the topic of some possibilities and choices that we can make regarding a path of action.
  • This data is similar to the statistics in other FSM states, so Yap is not alone in the challenge of dealing with a substantial dropout rate. But we are talking about Yap – and the fact is, only one in every 3.5 students who enter elementary school will graduate. {This can be demonstrated by having members of the audience stand – then have 2 out of 3 people sit down – with only every third person standing.}
  • As we can see, the good news is that the passing rate has been on the rise. It should also be noted that the pass rates for Yap were lower than both Pohnpei and Kosrae. But they are – or at least as according to these dates – greatly improving. This is great news!
  • What might be some possible reasons for the gains made at the high school levels during these years? {Allow for discussion}
  • {Allow for discussion – might ask questions such as the number of outside teachers at the high school during these years, any special training that the teachers might have been receiving during this time…}
  • {Allow for discussion. While there were mixed sentiments regarding Falan and his leadership, he was the person ‘in charge’ during these years.}
  • {Allow for discussion. Ask questions such as how this might have impacted student learning.}
  • As one can see, a web search for any information regarding assessment of Yap’s students is clearly posted. Hence, it is difficult to gain a clear picture of the current educational status of the Yapese students.
  • While there are numerous articles that report findings of research related to the implementation of computer technology in the classroom, we will take a closer look at research and information that is most closely related to our needs here on Yap.
  • Of course another question might be – “Is computer technology appropriate for our students on Yap?” Let’s see what the research has to say.
  • One of the great advantages to using computer technology is the instant access to many programs – whether on a cd or through an online interactive program. Students can work on specific levels that are matched with their own learning needs. Both the student and the teacher receive immediate feedback which can then be used to monitor progress. In addition, students can keep practicing a skill and improve their scores. Hence, students are motivated to keep trying and to ‘beat’ their own scores. Of course, they are learning in the process.
  • Earobics is an example of an interactive computer program which can provide immediate feedback in individualized instruction. The program includes audio links which enables the student to click on words and entire texts so that they can hear how to pronounce words and experience fluent reading. The program also provides goals which can be extremely beneficial in helping students to progress at their individual pace.
  • Some programs provide specific skill development such as grammar and vocabulary which are both very useful with our students who are English Language Learners (ELLs). The color coding provides an excellent visual aid as they build on their vocabulary. Again, there is immediate feedback and the students can work at their individual levels while covering specific skills that the teacher may be focusing on in the class.
  • The aspect of visual text is very beneficial for all students. Edmark is another example of an interactive computer program which provides such visual assistance. Students can click on icons to hear words and the text as well as getting further help or clues. Again, feedback is immediate for both the student and the teacher so that teachers can monitor progress. Students can repeat the stories for additional practice and can improve their scores.
  • Sunburst is company which creates many interactive programs related to reading, math, science, and social studies. As we can see in these examples, there are many visually enhanced programs which are geared toward students who are learning English. These programs provide great practice in basic literacy as the students play the games and learn in the process. As with the other programs, there is immediate feedback, students can work at their own pace and improve their scores, and teachers can coordinate classroom lessons with the technology.
  • This is an important point and relates to our situation in Yap with the high proportion of student dropouts. If something can help us to improve our students’ chances of academic achievement and completion of their K-12 education, then it is worth looking into.
  • Svedkauskaite makes a clear argument based on her research that computer technology would be helpful for our students. But let’s see what others have to say.
  • This backs up Svedkauskaite’s findings and is an important advantage for our students. Improved test scores also indicate higher levels of learning which are both positive aspects for our students today as well as in the future.
  • Integrating computer technology into teaching changes the format of a class in that the teacher becomes more of a facilitator or guide as opposed to being the source of information and skills. In addition, students can work together on projects and problem-solving and interact with others around the globe.
  • The latest report from the College of Micronesia states that 65% of students entering the College do not place into a degree program and take developmental courses until they can score high enough on the COMET to enter a degree program. We need to do more to help prepare our students for life and school beyond the K-12 program.
  • {Allow for discussion}. Students who are identified as being at-risk 1) often struggle academically; 2) come from families that are experiencing financial hardship; 3) come from families in which the parents may not have finished high school or gone to college; 4) come from families in which one or both parents abuse alcohol or drugs; 5) abuse alcohol or drugs themselves; 6) are minority students; 7) are English Language Learners; 8) have a learning disability; or 9) come from single-parent families. When more than one of these factors is involved, the greater the chances are that the student is at-risk of failing or dropping out of school.
  • This coincides with previous information related to the benefits of implementing interactive computer technology in reading instruction. Students are engaged, can repeat the practice, and learn in the process. The use of visually enhanced materials helps to motivate learners.
  • Hence, we can see that the results of implementing computer technology into the classrooms is multifaceted; students, teachers, and the community stand to reap the benefits.
  • {Allow discussion} Money is the main obstacle, yet each of these components must be addressed if technology is to be made available and used appropriately.
  • Our schools could be filled with hundreds of new computers. However, unless teachers are trained in their use, the computers will be wasted. There will need to be extensive professional development to ensure that teachers are supported in using the technology and in a way that is most beneficial.
  • According to Dennis Sparks (1999) “The recent studies remind us that technology's contribution to student learning depends on school leaders' wise investment in teachers' knowledge and skills. Without that investment, you may as well leave the hardware in its boxes.” ( ¶8) . The need for ongoing professional development and support cannot be overstressed. Think of it in terms of navigation. Our Yapese navigators would never have ventured out into the ocean without extensive training, mentoring, and experience. Our teachers are the navigators of our youth into the seas of computer technology for the purpose of education; we cannot expect them to embark on such a voyage without the necessary training as well as the opportunity to become comfortable with this new ‘ship’.
  • {Allow discussion}
  • Discuss options and their feasibility.
  • While there is much more research available on the tremendous benefits of the implementation of computer technology in the field of education, I trust that the information presented has been useful. I know that some people feel that we cannot afford an extensive technology program in which every school can provide computer and Internet access for every student in terms of fully equipped and managed computer labs; however, some might pose the question: Can we afford not to? Thank you, again, for your time and thoughtful consideration of our topic.

EllenD to PREL Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Technology in the Yapese Classroom: A Choice Compiled by Deborah Ellen
  • 2. Kammigar~
  • 3. Why are we here? And who is this person standing in front of us?
  • 4. We begin by looking at where we are – where are we ‘standing’?
    • For every 100 students who enter elementary school in Yap…
      • 74 will graduate from the 8 th grade
      • 60 will enroll in 9 th grade
      • 35 will graduate from the 12 th grade
    Hezel, F. & Heine, H. (2000, June). Here’s where we’re headed: Which way should we be going? Micronesian Counselor. #28. Retrieved October 5, 2008, from http://www.micsem.org/pubs/counselor/frames/hereheadedfr.htm
  • 5. Let’s look at a trend ~ Hezel. F. (2001, January). How good are our schools? Micronesian Counselor #32. Retrieved October 5, 2008, from http://www.micsem.org/pubs/counselor/frames/howgoodschlfr.htm Table 1. FSM Public High Schools: Pass Rates on COM-FSM Entrance Test (1994-2000) (percentage of students passing) 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Average Pohnpei 38 27 37 44 65 65 72 50 Kosrae 35 40 22 38 40 75 73 46 Yap 29 44 25 24 47 59 60 41
  • 6. While these statistics are from previous years, we can still learn something…
    • Notice that the greatest improvement is seen between 1997 and 1999.
    • 1997 1998 1999 2000
    • 24 47 59 60
  • 7. Was it the teachers?
  • 8. Was it the leadership? Henry Falan was Yap’s Director of Education from 1995- 2003.
  • 9. Or….maybe technology? Computer technology was introduced into Yap’s schools in 1995/6.
  • 10. Sufficient data regarding Yap’s educational practices and assessments is not readily available.
    • Web Results 1 - 10 of about 1,380 for ' educational assessment Yap FSM'. (0.28 seconds) 
    • Search Results
    • COM-FSM Update from the President's Office No. 186
    • The Chuuk Campus Vocational Education Department is offering 10 classes with a ... FSM FMI and Yap Campus are working together to establish an Advisory ... www.comfsm.fm/news/update194.htm - 15k - Cached - Similar pages
    • COM-FSM Update from the President's Office No. 236
    • The American Association of Higher Education/Western Association of Schools .... FEMA will provide financial assistance (75% FEMA; 25% FSM or Yap) to assist ... www.comfsm.fm/news/update236.htm - 20k - Cached - Similar pages More results from www.comfsm.fm  »
    • AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN FISHERIES IN YAP FEDERATED ...
    • File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML The Yap assessment of women in fisheries was a joint undertaking of the ..... education system. The level of education reached by people in FSM has clearly ... www.spc.int/coastfish/sections/Community/english/publications/yap.pdf - Similar pages by E Santiago - Related articles
    • Experience - Project Summary
    • Operations assessment and governance reorganization of three Catholic .... Administrative review and recommendations at Yap State Hospital Yap, FSM ... www.trinityhealthinternational.org/experience/ - 31k - Cached - Similar pages
  • 11. Nevertheless, research has much to say about the tremendous potential of computer technology in addressing the learning needs of students.
    • “ Technology and Student Achievement”
    • “ Technology and Student Learning”
    • “ Critical Issue: Using Technology to Improve Student Achievement”
    • “ Technology’s Effectiveness for Student Learning”
    • “ Technology and Literacy”
    • “ Computer Assisted Language Learning for ESL/EFL”
    • “ Computers in the Classroom: The Impact of Technology on Student Learning”
    • “ Critical Issue: Using Technology to Support Limited- English-Proficient (LEP) Students' Learning Experiences”
    • “ Assessing the Impact of Technology on Teaching and Learning”
    • “ Web Literacy and Critical Thinking”
    • “ The Advantages of Using Technology in Second-Language Learning”
  • 12. What does the research say? How is computer technology helpful for students – including our English Language Learners (ELLs)?
  • 13. According to NCREL specialist, Asta Svedkauskaite (2003)…
    • “ To many students, technology is motivational and nonjudgmental. It gives them prompt feedback, individualizes their learning, and tailors the instructional feedback” ( ¶8).
    • Immediate feedback
    • The End
    • Click the Restart (Reset Data) button to get a newly-shuffled set of questions.
    • Score: 100% (10/10) Remaining: 0
  • 14. “ Computer-assisted instructional (CAI) programs are ‘ideal for fostering reading and writing skills in the target language {English}’” ( ¶16). Earobics is an award winning research-based program that builds phonological awareness, auditory processing and phonics skills. Developed by language-learning and literacy specialists. Earobics teaches the skills necessary to learn how to speak, read and spell. Use the automated data collection tools to monitor students’ progress, print reports and guide remediation. For each activity, Earobics automatically generates IEP-formatted goals. http:// www.donjohnston.com/products/earobics/index.html
  • 15. Introductory Grammar and Vocabulary with Color Key http://www.englishelearning.com/en/ppigv.html
    • This program will help you learn and remember English grammar and vocabulary.
    • 20 units of grammar lessons and exercises
    • Instructions and vocabulary translated into 10 languages
    • Contains 690 words and 577 memorable pictures
    • The Color Key makes it easy to remember – all nouns are blue, all pronouns are green, verbs are black and so on as follows:
      • Nouns
      • Verbs
      • Pronouns
      • Articles
      • Adverbs
      • Prepositions
      • Adjectives
  • 16. “ One of the advantages of using technology is the opportunity of providing visual context” ( ¶30). The Edmark Reading Program teaches basic reading skills to the most struggling readers and non-readers. Through short instructional steps, students are taught recognition and comprehension of words. Carefully planned introduction of words and evolution of sentence structure promote language development. The content is appropriate for students of all ages. Student progress is automatically tracked, and single-switch scanning is supported. http:// www.donjohnston.com/products/edmark/index.html
  • 17. “ In computer-managed instruction there are supplemental technology programs designed for students new to learning English that emphasize vocabulary learning, phonetic awareness, and basic literacy skills and have been shown to be successful in assessing the learning outcomes of students (Taylor, 1999; Labov & Baker, 2001)” (¶33). http:// store.sunburst.com/ProductInfo.aspx?itemid =176624#complete http:// store.sunburst.com/ProductInfo.aspx?itemid =176589#complete
  • 18. “ Technology use in the classroom… is one of the potential strategies to address the dropout issue and improve the teaching and learning of all LEP students” ¶46).
  • 19. And, last but not least, according to research presented by Svedkauskaite (2003),
    • “ Research studies… generally agree that technology is effective for LEP {Limited English Proficient} learners… experts' opinion on the social and academic benefits for LEP learners lead to the conclusion that technology is ‘especially beneficial for ELLs [English language learners]” ( ¶46).
  • 20. Based on research, Stratham and Torell (n.d.) report the following:
    • “ When properly implemented, the use of computer technology in education has a significant positive effect on student achievement as measured by test scores across subject areas and with all levels of students” ( ¶4) .
  • 21.
    • “ When used appropriately, computer technology in classrooms stimulates increased teacher/student interaction, and encourages cooperative learning, collaboration, problem-solving, and student inquiries” (¶8).
  • 22. “ Students from computer-rich classrooms show better behavior, lower school absentee rates, lower drop-out rates, earn more college scholarships, and attend college in greater numbers than do students from non-computer classrooms” ( ¶12) .
    • Robert Yangerluo is currently pursuing his MA while teaching at the College of Micronesia in Yap. Robert said, “We need to help our students to be more successful in their learning and to better prepare our students for college. One way we can do this is by getting students involved in using technology” (personal communication, October 10, 2008).
  • 23. “ Computer-based teaching is especially effective among populations of at-risk students” ( ¶15) .
    • What does “at-risk” mean?
    • Are our students at-risk?
  • 24. In a report prepared by UNESCO (2006), they stated the following:
    • “ Well-designed educational computer programs are exciting to use, which motivates learners… For example, colors and animation in computer programs engage learners and encourage them to participate. Similarly, by presenting reading lessons in a game form, computer programs encourage learners to compete against themselves and therefore learners willingly engage in repetition and practice without losing interest. Such computer programs, by tirelessly repeating words and correcting errors for large numbers of students at the same time, also take the pressure off overworked teachers” (p. 17).
    Students in Thailand use computer technology in their reading programs.
  • 25. Mike Muir (2007), associate professor at the University of Maine and member of the Design Team for Curriculum and Professional Development of the Maine Learning Technology Initiative, states that computer technology…
    • “ Accelerates, enriches, and deepens basic skills.
    • Motivates and {adds to the} viability of tomorrow's workers.
    • Strengthens teaching.
    • Contributes to change in schools.
    • Connects schools to the world.
    • Engages students in learning.
    • Helps relate academics to the practices of today's workforce.
    • Increases economic” ( ¶5).
  • 26. We have seen that computer technology can play a significant role in student learning, higher test scores, and student retention. So what are some of the concerns we need to address in implementing computer technology into our classrooms?
    • $ for purchasing computers
    • $ for maintaining computers
    • $ for wiring computers to the Internet
    • $ for purchasing computer software
    • $ for ongoing professional development of teachers
  • 27. Whatever the challenges, if we want to see the results, we must address the various requirements.
    • According to the National Education Association (n.d.), “Fully preparing and supporting educators in the instructional use of technology is critical. Teachers and school staff must know how to do more with technology than simply automate practices and processes. They need to learn to use technology to transform the nature of teaching and learning” ¶5) .
  • 28. Based on a report published by the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL;1999, 2005),
    • “ Students cannot be expected to benefit from technology if their teachers are neither familiar nor comfortable with it… The primary reason teachers do not use technology in their classrooms is a lack of experience with the technology” ( ¶65).
  • 29. The question arises~ Where can we find the necessary finances?
  • 30. Some ideas…
    • Apply for special federal grants
    • Apply for grants/funding through ngo’s, UNESCO, and private charitable donors
    • Write a letter to Bill Gates! Why not?
    • Contact groups who obtain and refurbish used computers to donate to schools
    • Check on the possibility of the Peace Corp sending several computer teachers
    • Check on how the initial computers and programs were funded back in 1995/6
    • Other ideas?
  • 31. Some main points to remember…
    • Computer technology has been shown to help students be more successful in their learning.
    • Computer technology is effective in addressing the issue of the retention of students.
    • Computer technology is especially beneficial for English Language Learners.
  • 32. It’s a matter of choice… The choice is up to you – Yap’s educational and community leaders. Your choice will determine our students’ and our state’s future.
  • 33. References
    • Muir, M. (2007). Research summary: Technology and l earning. Retrieved August 6, 2008, from http://www.nmsa.org/Research/ResearchSummaries/TechnologyandStudentLearning/tabid/275/Default.aspx
    • NEA. (n.d.). Technology and education. Retrieved October 8, 2008, from http://www.nea.org/technology/index.html?mode=print
    • NCREL. (1999; 2005). Critical issue: Using technology to improve student achievement . Retrieved August 5, 2008, from http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/methods/technlgy/te800.htm
    • Sparks, D. (1999). Plugging educators into technology. Retrieved August 6, 2008, from http://www.nsdc.org/library/publications/results/res2-99tech.cfm
    • Stratham, D.S. & and Torell, C.R. (n.d.). Computers in the classroom: The impact of technology on student learning. Retrieved August 6, 2008, from http://www.temple.edu/lss/htmlpublications/spotlights/200/spot206.htm
    • Svedkauskaite, A. (2003, June 24). Critical issue: Using technology to support limited- English-proficient (LEP) students' learning experiences. Retrieved September 21, 2008, from http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/methods/technlgy/te900.htm
    • UNESCO. (2006). Using ICT to develop literacy. Retrieved October 8, 2008, from http://www2.unescobkk.org/elib/publications/088/Using_ICT_to_Develop_Literacy.pdf