Domestic Violence Pp For Soc 610


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Domestic violence and what it means.

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  • Rosenbaum and O'Leary reported that abusive husbands were more likely to have come from family backgrounds wherein they witnessed parental spouse abuse and/or were victims of child abuse; and that they were unable to properly assert themselves to their wives. Low self-esteem is widely recognized as a correlate of generalized aggressive behavior (Feshbach, 1971; Halleck, 1976; Rochlin, 1973), a relationship that has been empirically demonstrated in both analogue and field studies. Attacks or perceived attacks on an individual's self-concept have been viewed as an important source of aggressive behavior. The present results support the conclusion that wife abuse is associated with deficiencies in the self-esteem of the abusive husband. Abusive husbands had significantly lower self- esteem than their nonabusive counterparts, and further were significantly more likely to interpret their wive's behavior as self-esteem damaging.
  • Thus, for example, in what may be the most widely cited theory of the pattern or cycle of violence, there is said to be at least three phases- the tension building phase, the acute battering phase, and the loving contrition phase - which ensnare women in a web of punishment and deceit (see Walker, 1979, 1984). From a symbolic interactionist point of view, an act of contrition is one example of an aligning action, offered in the hope of mending, if only temporarily, a break between socially established norms and misconduct (Stokes & Hewitt, 1976). symbolic interactionist - The process is further aided by our ability to think about and to react to our own actions and even our selves as symbolic objects. Thus, the interactionist theorist sees humans as active, creative participants who construct their social world, not as passive, conforming objects of socialization The symbolic interactionist perspective delineates the construction of the self and its interaction with others within social and cultural contexts; it also describes how individuals plan and reason their action and inaction with both themselves and others in society (Athens 1994; Athens 1995; Blumer 1969; Mead 1934). The symbolic interactionist perspective, on the other hand, acknowledges the free will of the actor and the interpersonal and social forces shaping and constraining that action. By offering aligning actions, social actors give neutral or positive meanings to behaviors that are "out of line." If, in turn, the aligning actions are "honored" by the offended party or parties (i.e., if others give the impression that they attach the same neutral or positive meanings to the apparent misconduct), then the aligning actions have the effect of "containing" or "minimizing" what otherwise might have been viewed as a relationship-threatening set of events. Max Weber (1864-1920) and the American philosopher, George H. Mead (1863-1931), both of whom emphasized the subjective meaning of human behavior, the social process, and pragmatism. Herbert Blumer, who studied with Mead at the University of Chicago, is responsible for coining the term, "symbolic interactionism," as well as for formulating the most prominent version of the theory Drawing on in-depth interviews with 50 white women who had been abused by their husbands or male companions, and who had come to a battered women's shelter for refuge, this study examines the interactional dynamics following acts of abuse, giving special attention to both the "acts of contrition" (and other verbal strategies) that men use and the kinds of responses that women give to these strategies. If, indeed, abusive men are less contrite as time goes on, this would indicate a shift in their perception of their violent acts. The fact that they would repent for their behavior the first time would indicate some acknowledgment on their part that what they did would be met with disapproval. Their lesser tendency to repent after the 2nd, 10th, or 50th time would indicate that they had begun to "normalize" their violent behavior (i.e., see their violence within the bounds of social acceptability). Mills (1985) described the "techniques of neutralization" that battered women use "to help them tolerate violent marriages." Mills (1985) found that one way that women "managed the violence" directed toward them was they used "justifications" (e.g., "compared to others, it seems my problems are small") to "minimiz[e] the significance of their victimization" (p. 109). Finally, Ptacek (1988), in a study of abusive men, discovered that he could classify the bulk of the men's accounts into either excuses or justifications. He also found that the men were more likely to excuse than to justify their behavior.
  • toward wives (1979). PATRIARCHY Dobash & Dobash (1979) see abuse of women as a unique phenomenon that is caused by the social and economic processes that directly and indirectly support a patriarchal social order and family structure. Patriarchy leads to the domination of women by men and explains the historical pattern of systematic violence directed at women.   The patriarchy explanation suffers from being a "single factor“ explanation. Moreover, the variability of the independent variable (patriarchy) has not been adequately specified by the theorists. In its present form, a patriarchy theory is not amenable to an empirical test. Control, the second promising theme, is most visible in the feminist literature, which has argued that partner violence is primarily a problem of men using violence to maintain control over "their women," a control to which they feel they are entitled and that is supported by a patriarchal culture. We would agree that "domestic violence" or "battering" as it is generally understood by professionals and by the public is primarily a problem of heterosexual male control of women partners. In our review of this literature, we want to make a somewhat arbitrary distinction. Some writers have come to their focus on control issues through an analysis of the patriarchal roots of wife beating (Dobash & Dobash, 1992; Johnson, 1995; Pence & Paymar, 1993). Although this is our own primary orientation, we believe that a full understanding of partner violence must go beyond this feminist analysis to ask questions about the role of control in the generation of violence that may have little to do either with patriarchal traditions and structures or with individual patriarchal motives. families are terrorized by systematic male violence (patriarchal terrorism). It is argued that the distinction between common couple violence and patriarchal terrorism is important because it has implications for the implementation of public policy, the development of educational programs and intervention strategies, and the development of theories of interpersonal violence. Theoretically, the emphasis has been upon historical traditions of the patriarchal family, contemporary constructions of masculinity and femininity, and structural constraints that make escape difficult for women who are systematically beaten. *The first form of couple violence, which I will call patriarchal terrorism, has been the focus of the women's movement and of researchers work-ing in the feminist perspective. Patriarchal terror-ism, a product of patriarchal traditions of men's right to control "their" women, is a form of terror-istic control of wives by their husbands that in-volves the systematic use of not only violence, but economic subordination, threats, isolation, and other control tactics. The term patriarchal terrorism has the advantage of keeping the focus on the perpetrator and of keeping our atten-tion on the systematic, intentional nature of this form of violence. Of course, the term also forces us to attend routinely to the historical and cultural roots of this form of family violence. The causal dynamic of patriarchal terrorism is rooted in patriarchal traditions, adopted with a vengeance by men who feel that they must control "their" women by any means necessary. As one husband responded to his wife's protests regarding a violent episode during their honey-moon, "I married you so I own you" (Dobash & Dobash, 1979, p. 94). Escalation in such cases may be prompted by either of two dynamics. First, if his partner resists his control, he may escalate the level of violence until she is subdued. Second, even if she submits, he may be motivated not only by a need to control, but by a need to display that control, yielding a pattern observed by Dobash and Dobash (1979, p. 137), in which no amount of compliance can assure a wife that she will not be beaten
  • Within the "extraordinary preeminence of violence in the extreme alienation of late twentieth-century America" there has been "an acceptance of violent imagery and narrative in postmodernity" (Grant 10). The ability to laugh at violence provides a type of "anesthesia to undermine any moral revulsion we might feel about violence" (Corliss 76). If the schizoid reality of postmodern society produces fractured individuals, then violence becomes a means by which the alienated and fractured individual can experience feeling and inscribe a history on his body. Inflicting pain on the body becomes a means of exhibiting endurance through visual signifiers like blood, cuts, and bruises. Wounding the self is a way to experience the certainty of existence known only through pain. The use of self-inflicted violence fits nicely within the postmodern paradigm because its relationship to the body is paradoxical. While it is the postmodern remedy to ahistoricity and fragmentation, violence simultaneously perpetuates this fragmentation because the wounding of the body results in a disruption of the totality of the coherent bodily narrative. Fighting and wounding is the only means by which the men in fight club feel truly "alive." According to postmodernists,o n the other hand, language and reality are inseparable. Language does not 'defer' to facts, declared Derrida (1973: 138), but instead social life derives its meaning from speech acts. Rather than a conduit, language is a creative force. Language use, in other words, institutes a set of rules that differentiates reality from illusion. Rather than objective, knowledge is outlined in terms of assumptions that are linguistically prescribed. Derrida( 1974: 158) makes this point with his now classic phrase, ’nothing exists outside of the text'. Reality does not condition speech, but is shaped by acts of linguistic signification . The idea that symbols and reality are inextricably united is not new to sociology. After all, symbolic interactionists make a similar claim. None the less, postmodernists aim to expand upon how these sociologists address this issue.
  • Domestic Violence Pp For Soc 610

    1. 1. Debbie McBride
    2. 2. DOMESTIC VIOLENCE What does it mean? <ul><li>For victims, society & public Policy </li></ul><ul><li>By Debbie McBride </li></ul>
    3. 3. What does it mean? <ul><li>Domestic Violence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called “intimate partner abuse,” “battering,” or “wife-beating” refers to physical, sexual psychological, and economic abuse that takes place in the context of an intimate relationship, including marriage. Domestic violence is one of the most common forms of gender-based violence and is often characterized by long-term patterns of abusive behavior and control. </li></ul></ul>What does it mean? By Debbie
    4. 4. Characteristics Of Domestic Violence What does it mean? By Debbie
    5. 5. Myths about Abused Women <ul><li>Family violence is confined to the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol and drug abuse are the causes of domestic violence. </li></ul><ul><li>Battered wives/mates like being hit, otherwise they would leave. </li></ul>What does it mean? By Debbie
    6. 6. Domestic Violence Stats <ul><li>Out of 3.5 million Violent crimes committed against family members: 49% are against spouses. </li></ul><ul><li>84 % of spouse victims are women </li></ul><ul><li>86% of dating victims are women </li></ul><ul><li>Males were 83% of spouse murders </li></ul><ul><li>Males were 75% of dating murders </li></ul><ul><li>50% of offenders in state prison for spousal abuse have killed their victims </li></ul><ul><li>Wives are more likely to be killed by their spouses </li></ul><ul><li>Dept. of Justice study between 1998-2002 </li></ul>What does it mean? By Debbie
    7. 7. Tour a Domestic Violence Shelter <ul><li>Safehaven.Org </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual tour of domestic violence safe house. </li></ul><ul><li>Explore room by room and listen to women’s real life stories. </li></ul>What does it mean? By Debbie
    8. 8. Social Theory <ul><li>Bourdieu </li></ul><ul><li>Habitus </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic Order of Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Systems of Classification </li></ul>What does it mean? By Debbie
    9. 9. Policy Implications <ul><li>1-800-799-SAFE (7233) </li></ul><ul><li>National Domestic Violence Hotline: </li></ul><ul><li>What we need to do: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Assessing battered women’s needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Providing time to use domestic services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Addressing paternity and child support policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Envisioning new & effective programs for battered women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Involving men </li></ul></ul>What does it mean? By Debbie
    10. 10. References <ul><li>Beate Krais .Theory Culture Society 2006; 23; 119 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>,com_chronocontact/Itemid,0/chronoformname,actAlert/ </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>What does it mean? By Debbie
    11. 11. Class Discussion <ul><li>Is class level a contributing variable for domestic violence? </li></ul>What does it mean? By Debbie
    12. 12. Manhood & Domestic Violence <ul><li>By Sally Serrin </li></ul>
    13. 13. Low self-esteem <ul><li>Widely recognized as a correlate of generalized aggressive behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Attacks or perceived attacks on an individual's self-concept </li></ul><ul><li>Rosenbaum and O'Leary Report </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to Assert Themselves </li></ul>Manhood & Domestic Violence by Sally
    14. 14. Interactional Dynamics Following Acts of Abuse <ul><li>Symbolic Interactionism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acts of Contrition – Aligning Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If “honored” by the offended party(ies), they minimize what otherwise might have been a relationship-threatening set of events. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal Strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Justification, Excusing, Normalizing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Techniques of Neutralization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Method used by Victim “to help them tolerate violent marriages” </li></ul></ul></ul>Manhood & Domestic Violence by Sally
    15. 15. Feminism: Patriarchy <ul><li>Social and Economic Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Social Order & Family Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control > Supported </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Single Factor Explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Role of control in the generation of violence </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal Terrorism </li></ul>Manhood & Domestic Violence by Sally
    16. 16. DV through Post Modernism <ul><li>Acceptance of violent imagery and narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Language & Reality </li></ul>Manhood & Domestic Violence by Sally
    17. 17. References <ul><li>An Evaluation of the Self-Esteem of Maritally Violent Men Author(s): Diane Goldstein and Alan Rosenbaum Source: Family Relations, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Jul., 1985), pp. 425-428 Published by: National Council on Family Relations Stable URL: Accessed: 05/12/2009 02:57 </li></ul><ul><li>Rosenbaum, A., & O'Leary, K. D. (1981). Marital violence: Characteristics of abusive couples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 63-71. </li></ul><ul><li>Family Violence Author(s): Richard J. Gelles Source: Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 11 (1985), pp. 347-367 Published by: Annual Reviews Stable URL: Accessed: 12/03/2009 02:50 </li></ul><ul><li>Dobash, R.E., Dobash, R. (1979). Violence Against Wives. New York </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson, M . P. (1995). Patriarchal terrorism and common couple violence: Two forms of violence against women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 283-294 . </li></ul><ul><li>Research on Domestic Violence in the 1990s: Making Distinctions Author(s): Michael P. Johnson and Kathleen J. Ferraro Source: Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 62, No. 4 (Nov., 2000), pp. 948-963 Published by: National Council on Family Relations </li></ul>Manhood & Domestic Violence by Sally
    18. 18. Class Discussion <ul><li>Do you think our society actually puts a stigma on domestic violence perpetrators? Why or why not? </li></ul>Manhood & Domestic Violence by Sally
    19. 19. Domestic Violence & the Asian Culture <ul><li>By Blanca Carrasco </li></ul>
    20. 20. Domestic Violence in the South Asian Culture <ul><li>South Asia Includes: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and Nepal </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic violence is defined as when a family member, partner or ex-partner tries to physically or psychologically dominate or harm the other </li></ul>Domestic Violence in the South Asian Culture by Blanca
    21. 21. Gender oppression <ul><li>Rape </li></ul><ul><li>Widow burning </li></ul><ul><li>Dowry deaths </li></ul><ul><li>Female infanticide </li></ul><ul><li>Marital violence </li></ul>Domestic Violence in the South Asian Culture by Blanca
    22. 22. Culture & Attitudes <ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideal Roles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferiority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abuser Aggression </li></ul></ul>Domestic Violence in the South Asian Culture by Blanca
    23. 23. Tendencies & Culture <ul><li>Behavioral tendencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mother </li></ul></ul>Domestic Violence in the South Asian Culture by Blanca
    24. 24. Experiences of Victims <ul><ul><li>Injury from abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic physical health concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental and Emotional health concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suicidal ideas and suicide attempts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diminished functional health </li></ul></ul>Domestic Violence in the South Asian Culture by Blanca
    25. 25. Symbolic Interactionism & Ideology <ul><li>Ideology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believes connected to attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bundles of interconnected attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation of social or political order </li></ul></ul></ul>Domestic Violence in the South Asian Culture by Blanca
    26. 26. Symbolic Interactionism & Ideology <ul><ul><li>Interconnected beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideology enacted in interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Driven by problematic events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People act based on meanings </li></ul></ul>Domestic Violence in the South Asian Culture by Blanca
    27. 27. Feminist Theory <ul><li>Socially Constructed Body Insights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimidation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender hierarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender stratification system </li></ul></ul>Domestic Violence in the South Asian Culture by Blanca
    28. 28. Implemented Public Policy <ul><li>South Asian Women Organizations (SAWO) </li></ul><ul><li>Organization Ideologies </li></ul><ul><li>Value oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women empowerment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diffused ideology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective values </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unspecified ideology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assist individuals in need </li></ul></ul>Domestic Violence in the South Asian Culture by Blanca
    29. 29. Implemented Public Policy <ul><li>South Asian Women Organizations (SAWO) </li></ul><ul><li>Organization Ideologies </li></ul><ul><li>Goals and strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing South Asian Women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ending domestic violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community education </li></ul></ul>Domestic Violence in the South Asian Culture by Blanca
    30. 30. Public Policy Implementation <ul><li>Appropriate Legislation, Legal Enforcement, & Legal Assistance for Immigrant Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish a Social Program for Undocumented Women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a Policy Institute: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For women who legal status depends on their husbands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For women who do not speak English </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create adequate training programs for officers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To provide adequate protection to victims of domestic violence </li></ul></ul></ul>Domestic Violence in the South Asian Culture by Blanca
    31. 31. References <ul><li>Abraham Margaret. “Ethnicity, Gender, and Marital Violence.” South Asian Women’s Organizations in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Hurwitz Himelfarb. “Intimate Partner Violence Associated With Poor Health Outcomes in U.S. South Asian Women.” Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, Vol. 8, No.3 July 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Goel Rashmi. “Restorative Justice, Domestic Violence, and South Asian Culture.” Violence Against Women, Vol. 11 No.5, May 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Pathak Bhatt Archana. The Sita Syndrome. “Examining the Communicative Aspects of Domestic Violence from South Asian Perspective.” Journal of International Women’s Studies. Vol.9 #3 May 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Raj Anita and Silverman G. Jay. “Immigrant South Asian Women at Greater Risk for Injury from Intimate Partner.” American Journal of Public Health; March 2003. </li></ul>Domestic Violence in the South Asian Culture by Blanca
    32. 32. Class Discussion <ul><li>Question </li></ul>Domestic Violence in the South Asian Culture by Blanca
    33. 33. Domestic Violence in the U.S. Military <ul><li>By Lindsey </li></ul>
    34. 34. Domestic Violence in the U.S. Military <ul><li>As defined by the U.S. Department of Defense, Domestic violence is an offense under the United States Code, the Uniform Code of Military Justice, or state law that involves the use, attempted use, or threatened use of force or violence against a person of the opposite sex, or a violation of a lawful order issued for the protection of a person of the opposite sex, who is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(a) a current or former spouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(b) a person with whom the abuser shares a child in common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(c) a current or former intimate partner with whom the abuser shares or has shared a common domicile. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 Categories: Mild, Moderate and Severe physical abuse. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Facts and Statistics <ul><li>Military families are at a significantly higher risk than civilian families for domestic violence (Stamm,2009). </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic violence in the U.S. Military is 2 to 5 times higher than that of civilian populations (Stamm, 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>Rates of intimate partner violence in military populations, both veteran and active duty, range from 13.5% to 58% (Marshall, Panuzio & Taft, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>There have been numerous cases of domestic violence in the military community which have lead to death. </li></ul>Domestic Violence in the U.S. Military by Lindsey
    36. 36. Common Themes <ul><li>isolating the spouse (often using the military to do- i.e. base housing, financial control, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>threatening to deport the spouse (wives who are immigrants) </li></ul><ul><li>physically endangering the spouse to the point of permanent damage </li></ul><ul><li>victims unaware of where and how to get help </li></ul><ul><li>victims feeling that the military failed to properly recognize the domestic violence or did not recognize it at all. </li></ul><ul><li>fear of spouse losing job or future capability for promotion if domestic violence is reported (cases are reported to commanding officers, i.e. spouses boss) </li></ul><ul><li>Many cases of military domestic violence, the abusers go un-prosecuted and undisciplined. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: While women are the significant majority of domestic violence victims, men are victims as well. </li></ul>Domestic Violence in the U.S. Military by Lindsey
    37. 37. Domestic Violence and Theory <ul><li>Social Learning Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People learn by observing and modeling other people’s actions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement often causes the behavior to repeat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If an individual observes domestic violence or violent behavior (such as in childhood), they more likely to model that behavior. If the behavior is positively reinforced (i.e. victim accepts violence with submission), the behavior may likely occur again. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Feminist Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequality among women as a class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oppression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Society places value on male dominance (male privilege) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic violence is often withstand due to financial dependence (i.e. “If I leave I will have nothing and nowhere to go”), and submission. </li></ul></ul></ul>Domestic Violence in the U.S. Military by Lindsey
    38. 38. Current Policy <ul><li>Family Advocacy Program, Victim Advocacy Program and the Transitional Compensation Program. </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive training is provided for commanding officers. </li></ul><ul><li>Military personnel take classes, including a session on domestic violence, usually post-deployment. </li></ul><ul><li>All military personnel are required to report suspicions of domestic violence, with or without the consent of the victim. </li></ul>Domestic Violence in the U.S. Military by Lindsey
    39. 39. Future Policy <ul><li>Collaboration of civilian and military communities in order to improve domestic violence issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Additional laws and policies need to be implemented which focus on offender accountability. </li></ul><ul><li>Programs and policies need to focus more extensively on the victim, providing them with resources, support and knowledge that will effectively assist them with their well-being. </li></ul><ul><li>Military policy may focus more intensely on pre-deployment, as well as post-deployment courses on managing stress, emotional issues, PTSD and other issues, in order to prevent violence of any kind. </li></ul>Domestic Violence in the U.S. Military by Lindsey
    40. 40. Future Policy <ul><li>Mandating commanding officers, or person’s in charge, to take part in more extensive training and education and allow such persons to be empowered to hold offenders accountable. </li></ul><ul><li>Laws re-examined and changed in order to better address victim confidentiality. </li></ul><ul><li>Laws enacted in which the Department of Defense sets aside funds to address domestic violence and sexual assault issues in the military. </li></ul><ul><li>Military policy needs to focus on incorporating a harsher “NO TOLERANCE” attitude and policy toward domestic violence. </li></ul>Domestic Violence in the U.S. Military by Lindsey
    41. 41. References <ul><li>Beals, Judith. “The Military Response to Victims of Domestic Violence.” Battered Women’s Justice Project. . </li></ul><ul><li>Erez, E. & Bach, S. (2003). “Immigration, Domestic Violence, and the Military: The Case of “Military Brides.” Violence Against Women, 1093 (9). </li></ul><ul><li>Marshall, A. D., Panuzio, J. & Taft, C. T. (2005). “Intimate partner violence among military veterans and active duty servicemen.” Clinical Psychology Review, 25 (7). </li></ul><ul><li>MilitaryOneSource. “Domestic Violence and Where to Find Help- Violence and Trauma.” Retrieved from: </li></ul><ul><li> United States Department of Defense </li></ul>Domestic Violence in the U.S. Military by Lindsey
    42. 42. Class Discussion <ul><li>Question </li></ul>Domestic Violence in the U.S. Military by Lindsey