Books by Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, Thomas Mann (Nobel Prize winner,) and Stefan Zweig were burned. Also burned were books by Jack London, Ernest Hemingway, Upton Sinclair, Jon Dos Passos, Theodore Dreisler, Sinclair Lewis, Karl Marx, Lenin, Trotsky Helen Keller, Margaret Sanger, and Magnus Hirschfeld.
Kristallnacht. The night of broken glass.
One of the most famous photos from the Holocaust, of the unidentified little boy holding his hands in the air while a guard points a gun at him. This was in the Warsaw Ghetto in Poland.
Nazi shooting a prisoner over an open mass grave. Other prisoners are waiting to be killed.
Children being sent to their deaths. They are being loaded into cattle cars.
Roll call. Standing in formation for hours on end.
Prisoners being loaded into a lorry.
These children were the victims of medical experimentation.
Prisoners celebrating liberation.
The Allies viewing the bodies of dead prisoners upon liberation.
The Allies discovering a train boxcar full of dead prisoners.
Allies making the residents from near the camp view the dead prisoners.
Elie Wiesel is in the 2 nd row, middle bunk. He is the furthest on the right in that bunk. The red arrow points to Wiesel.
The Holocaust 1936-1945 *This Presentation Contains Many Graphic Images By Deborah Alcorn 2006-2007
<ul><li>"Those who forget </li></ul><ul><li>the past are condemned to repeat it.” </li></ul><ul><li>George Santayana </li></ul>
The Attitude of the Jews Before the War <ul><li>“ From biblical times to the present day, Jews have wandered the uncertain terrain between power and powerlessness, never quite achieving the power necessary to guarantee long-term security, but equally avoiding, with a number of disastrous exceptions, the abyss of absolute impotence. They developed the consummate skill of living with uncertainty and insecurity.” </li></ul><ul><li>The World Must Know: The History of the Holocaust as Told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, by Michael Berenbaum </li></ul>
How Did Hitler Attain Such Power? <ul><li>Hitler’s National Socialist Party was a minority party with 107 seats in the Weimar Republic in 1930. </li></ul><ul><li>As economic conditions worsened, Hitler attracted a wider following. </li></ul><ul><li>He was a spellbinding orator and skilled organizer. </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of jobless young men put on the brown-shirted uniform of the Nazi storm troopers. </li></ul><ul><li>Their job was to mount frightening demonstrations and terrorize political opponents. </li></ul>
Hitler’s Rise to Power <ul><li>In January 1933 Hitler was named chancellor of Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler suspended civil liberties after a government building was set on fire. </li></ul><ul><li>The Reichstag reconvened and passed an Enabling Act that gave dictatorial powers to Hitler. </li></ul><ul><li>For the next twelve years, Germany was ruled by the Führer (Hitler.) </li></ul>
Nazi Ideology <ul><li>Racism was the central theme of Nazi ideology. </li></ul><ul><li>It motivated German policy in occupied countries and resulted in the Holocaust. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler was obsessed with racial purity, his beliefs in German supremacy, and his idea of the master Aryan race. </li></ul><ul><li>He outlined his plan for world domination in his book Mein Kampf ( My Struggle ), published in 1925. </li></ul>
Persecution of the Jews <ul><li>Persecution officially began on April 1, 1933. </li></ul><ul><li>Nazis boycotted Jewish businesses, put up propaganda posters and painted Stars of David on Jewish store fronts. </li></ul><ul><li>A series of laws was put into effect, singling out Jews. </li></ul><ul><li>These laws defined, isolated, excluded, segregated, and impoverished German Jews. </li></ul>
The Nuremberg Race Laws, 1935 <ul><li>Jews were forbidden to hold government jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>They were stripped of their citizenship. </li></ul><ul><li>Jews were forbidden to marry Aryans. </li></ul><ul><li>They had to wear the Star of David at all times. </li></ul><ul><li>They had to give up valuables and property. </li></ul>
Ghetto Life <ul><li>This man is eating a meal of watery soup from a cooking pot. </li></ul><ul><li>Jews were starving from lack of food. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people were crammed into a small area and fenced in. </li></ul><ul><li>The food ration for one day was only 300 calories. </li></ul>
Babies It did not matter that they were babies. They were future adult Jews. Babies were frequently killed by bashing their heads against a wall, by tossing them in the air for target practice, or, if a mother would not give her child up, they would shoot the baby and mother with one bullet.
Prisoner Identification <ul><li>Prisoners had to wear these triangles on their uniform. </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow meant Jewish. </li></ul><ul><li>Pink meant homosexual. </li></ul><ul><li>The uniform shows where the patches were placed. </li></ul>
Shower Head in the Gas Chamber <ul><li>There were shower heads in the gas chamber so it looked like a real shower. </li></ul><ul><li>When the hermetically sealed door slammed shut, the prisoners were trapped. </li></ul><ul><li>There are still fingernails embedded in the walls of the chambers where the dying prisoners tried to climb to the last fresh air. </li></ul>
This Gas Chamber Was Designed to Look Like a Shower Room in a Gymnasium. .
Auschwitz <ul><li>Prisoner Uniforms </li></ul><ul><li>A Gas Chamber at Auschwitz </li></ul>
Auschwitz <ul><li>Smokestack of the Crematoria </li></ul><ul><li>The Crematoria or Oven Used to Burn Prisoners’ Bodies </li></ul>
The Angel of Death <ul><li>Dr. Josef Mengele, Camp Physician of Auschwitz </li></ul><ul><li>He decided who lived and who died. </li></ul><ul><li>He personally conducted terrible medical experiments at Auschwitz. </li></ul><ul><li>He was especially interested in twins. </li></ul>
Medical Experiments <ul><li>The Nazis experimented to see what range of temperatures the human body could withstand. </li></ul><ul><li>They also tested flight suits, parachutes, and tested to see what changes in air pressure a human being could tolerate. </li></ul>
On April 12, 1945, Generals Dwight D. Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, and George Patton visited Ohrdruf concentration camp. Eisenhower wrote to Chief of Staff General George Marshall, to report, “….the things I saw beggar description.” The evidence of starvation and bestiality was “so overpowering as to leave me a bit sick.” Eisenhower visited “every nook and cranny.” It was his duty, he said, “to be in a position from then on to testify at first hand about these things in case there ever grew up at home the belief… ‘that the stories of Nazi brutality were just propaganda.’” Eisenhower issued an order for every American unit in the area to visit the camp.
Eisenhower also issued a call to the press back home. Joseph Pulitzer, Jr., the dean of American journalists, viewed the camps. He initially had a “suspicious frame of mind,” and expected that many of the terrible reports were exaggerations and largely propaganda. However, he said the initial reports were understatements. Within days, congressional delegations visited the camps, along with journalists and photographers.
Edward R. Murrow of CBS gave a stunning, matter-of-fact description of the piles of emaciated bodies at Buchenwald concentration camp during his radio broadcast on April 15, 1945. He said, “I pray to you to believe what I have said about Buchenwald. I have reported what I saw and heard, but only part of it; for most of it I have no words.” He added, “If I have offended you by this rather mild account of Buchenwald, I am not in the least sorry.”
“ First they came for the socialists, and I did not speak out-- because I was not a socialist. Then they came for the trade-unionists and I did not speak out-- because I was not a trade unionist. Then they came for the Jews, and I did not speak out-- because I was not a Jew. Then they came for me--and there was no one left to speak for me.” Pastor Martin Niemoller
More than six million Jews were murdered in the Holocaust.
Timeline of the Holocaust <ul><li>http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/holocaust/timeline.html </li></ul>
Resources <ul><li>http://www.flholocaustmuseum.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://holocaust.hklaw.com/trg/Login.asp?Source=/trg/unit1/lesson5/Unit1Less5.asp </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.yadvashem.org.il/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://images.google.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wiesenthal.com/site/pp.asp?c=fwLYKnN8LzH&b=242023 </li></ul><ul><li>The World Must Know: The History of the Holocaust as Told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum by Michael Berenbaum </li></ul>
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