Sentence Structure


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Sentence Structure

  1. 1. Debbie Lahav<br />Business English<br />Ruppin Academic Center <br />Adapted from: Business English at Work <br />
  2. 2. A Sentence <br />A sentence consists of words correctly arranged to form a complete statement or idea.<br />A sentence<br />begins with a capital letter.<br />ends with an ending mark of punctuation.<br />PP 3-2<br />
  3. 3. Ask these questions to determine whether words are a sentence. <br />Do the words make sense?<br />Do the words indicate a complete thought?<br />Does the group of words begin with a capital letter?<br />Does the group of words end with a period, question mark, or exclamation point?<br />PP 3-3<br />
  4. 4. Four Purposes of Sentences <br />Express statements (declarative sentences).<br />End with a period.<br /> We offer a 30-day return policy.<br />Ask questions (interrogative sentences).<br />End with a question mark if direct questions.<br /> Are the new brochures available yet?<br />End with a period if indirect questions.<br /> He asked whether I planned to revise the news release.<br />PP 3-4a<br />
  5. 5. continued<br /> Four Purposes of Sentences <br />Give commands and requests (imperative sentences).<br />End with a period.<br />Direct Command<br />Place your order within two days to receive a discount.<br />Courteous Request<br /> Will you please call me by the end of the week.<br />Express emotions (exclamatory sentences).<br />End with an exclamation point.<br /> Always satisfy your customers!<br />PP 3-4a<br />
  6. 6. Sentences Have Two Parts <br />Subject<br />Often a noun or pronoun<br />Indicates who is speaking, who is spoken to, or who or what is spoken about<br />Predicate<br />Verb (action or “to be” form)<br />Tells what the subject is doing or what the subject is<br />PP 3-5<br />
  7. 7. The Subject <br />The subject is the main word or words of the subject.<br />Users can schedule unlimited sales calls with contact management software.<br />Hudson Communications and Cellular Depot share an office building in the Redwood Business Park.<br />PP 3-6<br />
  8. 8. Predicate <br />The predicate is the part of the sentence with the verb(s) or verb phrase.<br />We have advertised our sale in the local newspaper. <br />Other companies have visited our call center and ordered similar telephone headsets.<br />.<br />PP 3-9<br />
  9. 9. Sentence Order <br />Normal Order<br />The subject appears first and the predicate follows.<br />Jerry responded.<br />Your company’s competitors hired several young salespeople.<br />I received the sales totals.<br />We wish you success.<br />The training video is free.<br />PP 3-16a<br />
  10. 10. continued<br />Sentence Order <br />Inverted Order <br />The predicate or part of the predicate is before the subject.<br />There are many compliments about our customer service.<br />Here is the latest inventory report.<br />Should we offer discounts to attract customers?<br />How much will a customer satisfaction survey cost?<br />On the Website are the details about our shipping policies.<br />PP 3-16b<br />
  11. 11. Clause <br />A clause is a sequence of words with both a subject and a predicate.<br />Independent clause: Is a complete sentence and can stand alone.<br />We send a confirmation e-mail for each online order.<br />Dependent clause: Is not a complete sentence and cannot stand alone. It must be joined to an independent clause to make sense.<br />When you call our customer service department,??????<br />PP 3-18a<br />
  12. 12. continued<br />Clause <br />When a dependent clause introduces an independent clause, place a comma at the end of the dependent clause.<br />If the office furniture was damaged in moving, our standard guarantee still applies.<br />Because we have 24-hour customer service, we have three customer service shifts.<br />PP 3-18b<br />
  13. 13. Sentence Formations <br />Simple sentences<br />Compound sentences<br />Complex sentences<br />PP 3-19<br />
  14. 14. Simple Sentence <br />A simple sentence is one independent clause in a subject-verb pattern.<br />Wecancelled the order last week.<br />Rachel and Ipurchaseda subscription to Advertising Age.<br />Our customersshop online and refer others to our Website.<br />The human relations specialist and my managerrecommended less phone work and offered me another position.<br />PP 3-20<br />
  15. 15. Compound Sentence <br />A compound sentence is two independent clauses – sentences – that are connected.<br />Many of our customers are self-employed, andthey purchase items for themselves.<br />Limited quantities of this product are available, butwe will ship your order next week.<br />PP 3-21<br />
  16. 16. Complex Sentence <br />A complex sentence consists of anindependent clause and a dependent clause.<br />When a product is listed as out of stock, your order will be filled as soon as possible.<br />If your order cannot be shipped within 30 days, we will cancel the order.<br />Because I arrived late for the sale, I could not find the items that I wanted.<br />PP 3-22<br />
  17. 17. Sentence Fragment <br />A sentence fragment consists of words, phrases, or dependent clauses that cannot stand alone and may contain subjects and predicates.<br /> The multiple gift certificates.<br /> Ordered by phone last week.<br />PP 3-24<br />
  18. 18. Run-On Sentence <br />A run-on sentence is a complete sentence with period or comma faults or too many ideas.<br />I want to order online credit card thefts worry me.<br />Your serial number is provided with your product documentation you can also find the serial number by opening the software and clicking on the Help menu.<br />PP 3-25<br />
  19. 19. End of<br />