Enhancing reading 1
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Enhancing reading 1



Emerging reading and technology

Emerging reading and technology



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Enhancing reading 1 Enhancing reading 1 Presentation Transcript

  • Enhance the Teaching of Reading Part 1: Emerging Readers Using the IWB to ...
    • Effective readers…
    • have phonemic awareness (i.e., the insight that language is made of individual sounds)
    • have concepts of print (e.g., capitalization, punctuation)
    • understand the alphabetic principle (i.e., the connection between letters and speech sounds)
    • can decode and encode (e.g., blend sounds, use analogies)
    • read fluently with automaticity (i.e., read quickly and accurately with expression)
    • use comprehension strategies (e.g., background knowledge) to understand a text. See Session 5)
    English Onboard Enhancing Reading 1 What are the characteristics of effective readers ?
    • The consciousness that words are composed of separate sounds
    • The strategies used:
      • segment and blend strings of sounds
      • discriminate between these sounds
    English Onboard Enhancing Reading 1 Remember: EFL learners need to acquire the knowledge base of English phonemes so that their aural discrimination of sounds can proceed effortlessly, quickly, and unconsciously. What is phonemic awareness ?
    • The concepts and conventions of print refer to the understanding of what print represents and how it affects meaning in a written text.
    • Examples:
    • Print must be read in a certain direction (English – left to right vs. Hebrew/Arabic – right to left).
    • The shapes of letters are unique.
    • Punctuation affects meaning and expression in reading.
    • Capitalization carries meaning.
    English Onboard Enhancing Reading 1 What are concepts of print ?
    • The alphabetic principle is the concept that
    • speech can be turned into print ;
    • print can be turned into speech ;
    • letters represent sounds in the language.
    • During the alphabetic stage, learners learn the names and shapes of letters, their sounds, as well as the correspondence between them while attending to sound patterns, letter sequences and common letter combinations.
    English Onboard Enhancing Reading 1 For more information, see: English Curriculum: Pre-Foundation Level and Big Ideas in Beginning Reading What is the alphabetic principle ?
    • Decoding and encoding refers to the ability to break up words into their components and create words by combining them.
    • The ability to decode and encode is a precondition to reading with fluency and comprehending what is being read
    • How?
    • letter-by-letter (phoneme) decoding / encoding
    • pattern decoding / encoding (e.g., silent “e”)
    • decoding / encoding by analogy (e.g., rain  pain)
    English Onboard Enhancing Reading 1 Remember: Decoding / encoding must be directly and explicitly taught in order for students to become effective readers and writers. What is decoding and encoding ?
    • Fluency refers to
    • the ability to read with appropriate phrasing, expression, pace and intonation (i.e., prosody ).
    • the processing of language in lexical chunks/phrases rather than individual words thus linking decoding and comprehension.
    • Fluency is dependent on lexical and grammatical knowledge of the language.
    English Onboard Enhancing Reading 1 Research has proven that fluency level is an almost certain predictor of later reading success. Building reading fluency is critical. Learners need massive experience with reading. What is reading fluency ?
    • Target onset sounds and pictures . Students drag the pictures to the target onset sound.
    • Odd man out! Students drag the words that do not fit the rime .
    • Sound-letter correspondence : Try the Phoneme Pop game.
    • Decoding and comprehension . Hint: find the words in the picture.
    • For concepts of print: Choose any text and put it up on the IWB. Ask pupils to circle / underline / mark capital letters and final punctuation (. !?). Discuss the meaning conveyed.
    English Onboard Enhancing Reading 1 Sample Activities
    • “ A guideline that you could follow in preparing a syllabus for beginning level readers is allocating 50 percent of your syllabus to teaching bottom-up skills, 30 percent to top-down skills, and 20 percent to interactive skills.  With a strong foundation in bottom-up skills, beginning level readers will become more proficient readers more quickly.”
    •      Anderson, N. J. (2008). Practical English language teaching: Reading. New York: McGraw-Hill.  
    English Onboard Enhancing Reading 1 Remember: If students can’t decode , they can’t comprehend . If they can’t encode , they can’t write . How much focus on basic reading skills (bottom-up) should there be?
  • English Onboard Enhancing Reading 1 The End