Maxillary sinus


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maxillary sinus

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Maxillary sinus

  2. 2. Introduction Development, anatomy and physiology Blood , Nerve supply& Lymphatic drainage Functions of the paranasal sinuses Histology & Diagnostic evaluation of sinus disease Differences between odontalgia and sinus pain Developmental anomalies & pathologic conditions of maxillary sinus Clinical significance Case report Conclusion References 2
  3. 3. Paranasal air sinus Paranasal air sinuses are the air filled mucosa lined cavities which develops in the cranial and facial bones. These are the spaces which communicates with the nasal airway. These forms the various boundaries of the nasal cavity. 3 Introduction
  4. 4. 4 •Paranasal sinuses are present in a variety of animals (including most mammals, birds, and crocodile). • The sinuses are named for the bones in which they are located.
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. I n t r o d u c t i o n 6 Maxillary air sinus Frontal air sinus Ethmoidal air sinus Sphenoidal air sinus
  7. 7. Definition of maxillary sinus “Maxillary sinus is the pneumatic space that is lodged inside the body of maxilla and that communicates with the environment by way of the middle meatus and nasal vestibule.” Anatomy of the maxillary sinus was 1st described by Highmore in 1651. 7
  8. 8. Development Maxillary sinus is first of the PNS to develop. It starts as a shallow groove on the medial surface of maxilla during the 4th month of intrauterine life. 8 (Koch 1930).
  9. 9. Expansion occurs more rapidly until all the permanent teeth have erupted. It reaches to maximum size around 18years of age. 9 (Bailey 1998, Sadler 1995)
  10. 10. AGE CHANGES
  11. 11. Age changes 12
  12. 12. Anatomy Largest of PNS,communicate with other sinuses through lateral nasal wall. Horizontal Pyramidal shaped Base Apex 4 walls ◦ Wall thickness varies with superior inferior lateral anterior
  13. 13. Medial wall Formed by lateral nasal wall ◦ Below-inf . nasal conchae ◦ Behind-palatine bone ◦ Above-uncinate process of ethmoid,lacrimal bone Contains double layer of mucous membrane(pars membranacea)
  14. 14. Medial wall Imp structures Sinus ostium Hiatus semilunaris Ethmoidal bulla Uncinate process Infundibulum
  15. 15. Osteum: Opening of the maxillary sinus is called osteum. It opens in middle meatus at the lower part of the hiatus semilunaris. Lies above the level of nasal floor. 16
  16. 16. The ostium lies approximately 2/3rds up the medial wall of the sinus, making drainage of the sinus inherently difficult. 17
  17. 17. In 15% to 40% of cases, a very small, accessory ostium is also found. Blockage of the ostium can easily occur when there is inflammation of the mucosal lining of the ostium. 18
  18. 18. Superior wall Forms roof of sinus and floor of orbit Imp structures Infraorbital canal Infraorbital foramen Infraorbital nerve and vessels.
  19. 19. Posterolateral wall Made of zygomatic and greater wing of sphenoid bone. Thick laterally,thin medially Imp structures PSA nerve Maxillary artery Pterygopalatine ganglion Nerve of pterygoid canal
  20. 20. Anterior wall Extends from pyriform aperture anteriorly to ZM suture & Inferior orbital rim superiorly to alveolar process inferiorly. Convexity towards sinus Thinnest in canine fossa Imp structures Infraorbital foramen ASA, MSA nerves
  21. 21. Floor of sinus Formed by junction of anterior sinus wall and lateral nasal wall 1-1.2 cm below nasal floor Close relationship between sinus and teeth facilitate spread of pathology.
  22. 22. VASCULAR SUPPLY:- Arterial blood supply:- Greater palatine arteries Infraorbital artery Facial artery 23
  23. 23. Venous drinage:- • Pterygoid venous plexus • Sphenopalatine vein and • Facial vein 24 (Watzek et al. 1997)
  24. 24. yNerve supply Maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve, i.e. the posterior, middle and anterior superior alveolar nerves, the infraorbital nerve and the anterior palatine nerve. 25 Last 1959
  25. 25. 26 Lymphatic Drain The lymphatic drains in to submandibular lymph nodes. The lymphatic drainage reaches the specialised cells in the maxillary sinus via infra orbital foramen or through the anterosuperior wall and then to the submandibular lymph nodes.
  26. 26. Lymphatic drainage 27Submandibular lymph nodes
  27. 27. Functions of the maxillary sinus Humidification and warming of inspired air, Assisting in regulating intranasal pressure, Lightening the skull to maintain proper head balance, Imparting resonance to the voice, Absorption of shocks to the head, Filtration of the inspired air. (Bailey 1998). 28
  28. 28. HISTOLOGY Maxillary sinus is lined by three layers: epithelial layer, basal lamina and sub epithelial layer with periostium. Epithelium is pseudo stratified, columnar and ciliated. As cilia beats, the mucous on epithelial surface moves from sinus interior towards nasal cavity.
  29. 29. 30 CLINICAL EXAMINATION INSPECTION : Middle third of the face should be inspected for the presence of asymmetry, deformity, swelling, erythema , ecchymosis or hematom EXTRAORAL PALPATION : Include palpation of the facial wall of the sinus above the premolar where the bone is thinnest.
  30. 30. 31 INTRAORAL EXAMINATION Examination should be performed for tenderness, or paresthesia of upper molar and premolar region. TRANSILLUMINATION TEST: It is performed in a darkened room by inserting an electrically safe light into the mouth ( with the lip closed). Good transilluminatio indicates presence of air in the sinus while the failure of transillumination indicates presence of pus, fluid , solid lesion or mucosal thickening.
  31. 31. Radiographic examination Radiography is the most important supplementary investigation to clinical examination of the sinuses Intra-Oral : Extra-Oral: Periapical OPG View Occlusal Waters view (Occipitomental view) Lateral Occlusal Submentovertex view PA view 32 Others: • MRI & CT scan
  32. 32. Periapical radiograph Borders of the maxillary sinus appear as a thin, delicate radiopaque line . (White & Pharoah 2000) In the absence of disease it appears continuous, but on close examination it has small interruptions in its smoothness or density. 33
  33. 33. The roots of maxillary molars usually lie in close apposition to the maxillary sinus and may project into the floor of the sinus, causing small elevations or prominences. (White & Pharoah 2000) 34 Maxillary sinus septum
  34. 34. 35 Occlusal view Lateral occlusal view
  35. 35. 2. Panoramic radiography Provides an extensive overview of the sinus floor and its relationship with the tooth roots. 36
  36. 36. 37 OPG
  37. 37. 38 Water’s projection
  38. 38. PA view Lateral Submentovertex
  39. 39. 5. Computerized tomography (CT) & Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)  These modalities provide multiple sections through the sinuses at different planes and therefore contribute to the final diagnosis and the determination of extent of the disease. 40
  40. 40. CT scan MRI
  41. 41. 6. Ultrasound  Ultrasound is becoming the diagnostic tool of choice for more and more physicians in detecting sinusitis.  It offers a fast ,reliable and radiation free method for diagnosing sinusitis and has been used successfully in Finland for around 15 years. (Landman 1986) 42
  42. 42. 43 Ultrasound beam sent out by the sinus ultra is reflected fro the posterior wall of the sinus when the sinus contains flu and from the anterior wall when sinus contains air.
  43. 43. 7. Diagnostic endoscopy  It is an optimal method especially for the assessment of foreign bodies (such as root filling materials and root tips) that have penetrated into the maxillary sinus. (Kennedy et al. 1985) 44
  44. 44. Transoral access via the canine fossa. Transalveolar access via an already existing connection between the oral cavity and the antrum.  Access the inferior meatus of the nose. 45
  45. 45. 46
  47. 47. Developmental anomalies 1.Aplasia 2. Agenesis 3. Hypoplasia Aplasia
  48. 48. Pathologic conditions of maxillary sinus Maxillary Sinusitis Odontogenic cystic lesions of maxillary sinus Tumors of maxillary sinus. 49
  49. 49. Maxillary Sinusitis Acute Maxillary Sinusitis  Sudden onset  Duration of 4wks or less Subacute Maxillary Sinusitis  Duration of 4 – 12 wks Chronic Maxillary Sinusitis  Duration of atleast 12 wks 50
  50. 50. Maxillary sinusitis 1. Infectious causes a) Bacterial b) Viral c) Fungal 2. Non infectious causes a) Allergic b) Non allergic c) Pharmocologic d) Irritants 3. Disruption of mucociliary drainage a) Surgery c) Trauma Etiology
  51. 51. Maxillary sinusitis Signs and symptoms associated with maxillary sinusitis Major signs and symptoms Minor signs and symptoms Facial pain/pressure Headache Facial congestion/fullness Fever Nasal obstruction/blockage Halitosis Nasal discharge/purgulence/discolored postnasal discharge Fatigue Hyposmia/anosmia Dental pain Purulence in nasal cavity on examination Cough Ear pain
  52. 52. Maxillary sinusitis of Dental Origin 1.Dental abscess(periodontal and periapical abscess) 2.Infected dental cyst 3.Dental material 4.Oro-antral communication 53
  53. 53. 54 Spread of infection from periapical region .
  54. 54. 55 Overextention of dental material like sealers, cements ,Gp or silver cones A root tip of the maxillary first molar accidentally pushed into the sinus at the time of tooth extraction.
  55. 55. 56 Oro-antral communication (It is a pathologic tract that connects the oral cavity to the maxillary sinus. ) Patient complained of regurgitation of food through the nose while eating. • Maxillary sinus perforation occurs occasionally during the extraction of a maxillary tooth, and it may be a cause of maxillary sinusitis or oro- antral fistula.
  56. 56. 57
  58. 58. 59 : -Radicular cyst -Dentigerous cyst -Mucous retention cyst Odontogenic Cystic Lesions of the maxilla
  59. 59. 60 Maxillary sinusitis caused by an apical inflammatory lesion ( radicular cyst) at the root apices of the 2nd molar - NOTICE the cloudiness ( Radio- opacity) of the sinus Radicular cyst
  60. 60. 61 Dentigerous cyst Also known as follicular cyst,2nd most common cyst , it usually appear on the impacted maxillary 3rd molar
  61. 61. 62 Mucous retention cysts Mucous retention cysts in the sinuses are very common, they are expansile and potentially destructive lesions
  63. 63. 64 Benign tumor of MS: Ameloblastoma: Ameloblastoma is the most common benign tumor affecting maxillary sinus.
  64. 64. 65 Malignant tumors of MS They are Invasive and destructive lesions For Examples : Squamouse cell carcinoma
  65. 65. Clinical Considerations: The chances of creating an oro-antral fistula in patient less than 15 yrs are comparatively lesser than in adults due to incomplete development of sinus. The distance between apical end of maxillary posterior teeth and floor of sinus is approximately 1-1.2 cm. In some cases the gap may be still lesser. 66 • Maxillary sinus perforation occurs occasionally during the extraction of a maxillary tooth, and it may be a cause of maxillary sinusitis or oro- antral fistula. Oro-antral communication and oro-antral fistula
  66. 66. Root which is most close to the sinus is “palatal root of maxillary 2nd molar Followed by : 1st molar 3rd molar 2nd premolar 1st premolar canine 67
  67. 67. 68  Lin et al. in 1991 reported that the maxillary sinus is more developed in female and therefore greater possibility of the occurrence of oro-antal communication and oro-antral fistula in female .
  68. 68. 69
  69. 69. 70 Symptoms of fresh oroantral communication: Escape of fluids Epistaxis Escape of air Enhanced column of air. Excruciating pain
  70. 70. 71 Symptoms of established oroantral fistula: Pain. Persistent purulent unilateral nasal discharge. Post nasal drip. Popping out of antral polyp.
  71. 71. Buccal flap advancement operation Von Rehermann - 1936. Operative technique
  72. 72. 73
  73. 73. 74 PALATAL FLAPS Rotational-advancement.(Ashley 1939)
  74. 74. 75 SUBMUCOUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE FLAP( Ito et al 1980)
  75. 75. 76 BUCCAL FAT PAD(Hanazawa et al 1995)
  76. 76. Maxillary sinus pneumatization : The expansion of the sinus is larger following extraction of several adjacent posterior teeth, if dental implant placement is planned in these cases, immediate implantation and/or immediate bone grafting should be considered to assist in preserving the 3-dimensional bony architecture of the sinus floor at the extraction site. 77
  77. 77. 78 Implants in the maxilla Lack of sufficient bone height along maxillary sinus, produces significant difficulty for placement of implants in edentulous maxillary jaw, in that case, we go for sinus lift, which is a surgical procedure which aims to increase the amount of bone in the posterior maxilla.
  78. 78. 79 SINUS LIFT There are two main approaches to lift the maxillary sinus Direct( Caldwell luc) Indirect
  79. 79. ` I D R E C T Jensen and Terheyden in 2009,
  80. 80. 81 Direct sinus lift - advantage 1.It is clear 2. Easy access 3.More efficient work is done.
  81. 81. 82 Disadvantage 1. More painful. 2. More post operative discomfort 3. More time consuming 4. Needs highly efficient practitioner 5. More susceptible to infection
  82. 82. 83 INDIRECT TECHNIQUE Invented by SUMMER IN 1994
  83. 83. ADVANTAGE 84 1. Minimally invasive surgical procedure 2. Requires less time and expertise than direct technique. DISADVANTAG E 1.Blind procedure 2.More chances of errors to occur.
  84. 84. 85  Maxillary Sinusitis : Because of the thickned and inflammed sinus lining compresses the nerve supply of the maxillary posterior teeth causing tenderness of the maxillary teeth. The infraorbital and superior alveolar vessels are freqently ruptured in maxillary fracture causing hemotoma formation in the antrum. Foreign body: Foreign body like GP, silver point, calcium hydroxide, sodium hypochloride, sealers, root piece ,may sometimes be accidentally forced into the maxillary antrum causing maxillary sinusitis.
  85. 85. Differences between symptom of odontalgia and sinus pain History of cold, allergy, congestion or nasal drainage. Dull aching pain that is difficult to localized Feel pressure in the cheek and below the eyes Position change like bending forward produces pain Dental local anesthetic blockade will not relief sinus pain Normal pulp vitality test. 86
  86. 86. 87
  87. 87. 88
  88. 88. 89
  89. 89. Conclusion Due to close proximity of maxillary sinus to orbit, alveolar ridge, maxillary teeth, diseases involving these structures may produce confusing symptoms. Hence a precise information about the surgical anatomy is essential to surgeons. •Knowledge of the anatomical relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the maxillary posterior teeth is important for the preoperative treatment planning of maxillary posterior teeth. Clinicians must be particularly cautious when performing dental procedures involving the maxillary posterior teeth.
  90. 90. References • Textbook of oral and maxillofacialsurgery, Neelima malik Maxillary sinus and its implication Killey and Kay Textbook of Maxillary sinus Mc’gowan Orban’s, Oral histology and embryology, 11th edition. Cate A.R. Ten, Oral Histology: development, structure, and function. 6th edition. ITI Treatment Guide , sinus floor elevation procedures, H. Katsuyama & S.S. Jensen Textbook of general anatomy, B.D. Chaurasia IEJ vol 35 2002 J Endod. 2001 July;(27) 91
  91. 91. 92