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    Brand indv3 Brand indv3 Document Transcript

    • Brand Management Report Individual Assignment Debashish Bagg (2010298) Harry Potter Brand evolution of „Harry Potter‟ over time Submitted by: Debashish Bagg (2010298) Under the Guidance of Prof. Rajiv KambleAbstract:This report is an analysis of strategies that have been applied by a manager; in this case author herself tomake a brand out of a character of a novel. This short report will not however be able to capture all thenuances of strategies applied throughout the story of Potter and his friends‟ journey from an idea thatoriginated in a crowded train from Manchester to London to a worldwide phenomenon that resulted insales of more than 450 million copies by April 2011. This report however will look at different brandingstrategies applied through the twists and turns in the story and how it did percolate into sales figures andmerchandizing that we see today. This study is restricted to Indian subcontinent though at many placesdata and examples from the world wide phenomenon is also drawn in. 1 Page
    • Brand Management Report Individual Assignment Debashish Bagg (2010298)ContentsAbstract: ........................................................................................................................................................ 1Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 3Birth of the Brand ......................................................................................................................................... 3Potter in India................................................................................................................................................ 3Adaption strategy .......................................................................................................................................... 4Brands actual catching up in Indian audience:.............................................................................................. 4Creation of the characters: ............................................................................................................................ 5Evolution of story/ Creating brand equity for international market: ............................................................. 5Brand Extension or sequels of the novels: .................................................................................................... 6Communications media used: ....................................................................................................................... 6Marketing of the characters and story: .......................................................................................................... 7Copyright‟s war: ........................................................................................................................................... 8Acceptance among different customer base: ................................................................................................ 8Other merchandise: ....................................................................................................................................... 9Conclusions:.................................................................................................................................................. 9Appendix 1:................................................................................................................................................. 12 1. Sales of Harry potter movies:.......................................................................................................... 12 2. Sales of competing movies for the last Harry Potter: ..................................................................... 12 3. Sales of Harry Potter movies in India: ............................................................................................ 12 4. Sales of Harry potter novels: ........................................................................................................... 13 5. Translations of Harry potter in Indian languages:........................................................................... 13Appendix 2:................................................................................................................................................. 15References:.................................................................................................................................................... 1 2 Page
    • Brand Management Report Individual Assignment Debashish Bagg (2010298)Introduction Let‟s begin with a few facts that were released by Warner Bros. after a week of release offinal movie installment of Harry Potter and summarized in Appendix1, 2. Harry potter sales werefar beyond the sales of any movie one an average first week revenue generation. It‟s also thebestselling book that has encompassed the limit of 450 million by April, 2011. Was it that magicbeing center story cause for potter‟s success or was it the story itself. Was Dark lord, Voldemortbeing more fierce than the Darth Vader of Star Wars. Adding to above Durham University inEngland is all set to run a second-year undergraduate module entitled Harry Potter and the Ageof Illusion from the next academic year. There have also been HBR cases on Marketing andBranding that has been published on Harry potter‟s phenomenon.Birth of the Brand Joanne Rowling‟s (J. K. Rowling‟s) Harry Potter was born on a fine evening of 1990, [1]though the first few pages of the story had no resemblance to the finished book . JoanneRowling - lone mother, would-be writer, church-mouse poor, sitting in a local cafe for warmth,wrote down these words from what was to be the first chapter of Harry Potter and thePhilosophers Stone: "Hell be famous - a legend - I wouldnt be surprised if today was HarryPotter Day in future - there will be books written about Harry - every child in our world willknow his name!". It was not until 1996 that Potter made it to print. Harry Potter was rejected bysix publishing house before Bloomsbury [1] finally accepted to publish it. Joanne [9] had to adoptpen name (J. K. Rowling‟s) as the book name sounded like a boys book and boys prefer booksby male authors. Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone won two publishing industry awards inthe year following, the British Book Awards Childrens Book of the Year and the BooksellersAssociation / Bookseller Author of the Year. Harry potter by 1999 has reached all English nations like UK, US, Australia. It was yet tomake it to countries that spoke languages other than English like Russia, China, and India etc.Potter in India India had to wait much longer to catch-up with the Potter mania. It was not until the 3 Pagerelease of the first movie adaptation of Harry Potter that Harry was much known in India. A
    • Brand Management Report Individual Assignment Debashish Bagg (2010298)newspaper‟s research says that Harry was hardly known to many when the first installment of itsmovie came to India. Indian launch of the movie was also delayed by six months for variousreasons including adaptations and retuning for specific markets. When USA and UK had aprivilege of seeking the movie from Nov, 2001, Indian audience had to wait for April, 2002.Market reasons and mismatch of holiday seasons in the western world and India also made it tothe reason.Adaption strategy In 1999, Rowling sold the film rights of the first four Harry Potter books to WarnerBros. for a reported £1 million ($1,982,900). Rowling demanded that the principal cast be keptstrictly British, but allowed for the casting of Irish actors such as the late Richard Harris asDumbledore, and of foreign actors as characters of the same nationalities in laterbooks. After extensive casting, filming began in October 2000 at Leavesden Film Studios and inLondon, with production ending in July 2001. “Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone” wasreleased in London on 14 November 2001. This was the start of the branding strategy and alsoleveraging brand equity created over the years. First two installments of Harry Potter novels were out by 1999 and made it many prizesand recognitions. Film right of Harry Potter was £1 million while the next best competitor TheLord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring was sold at must lower cost [2, 11]. Joanne Rowlingalso command the cast being chosen on the basis of her recommendations so that they fall in lineto her novels that were yet to be written.Brands actual catching up in Indian audience: There was a lag that Indian audience took to catch-up with the Potter mania. A surveydone on the captured sample population of IMT recently, did bring out that most of the audiencehave started to see potter movies first even before they read the books. Few more facts that cameout of this survey were as follows: 1. Movies were Harry Potter series became popular from „Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban‟, released from 2004 that filled in the special effect appetite 4 in Indian audience that was earlier nurtured by movies like „Lord of the Rings‟. Page
    • Brand Management Report Individual Assignment Debashish Bagg (2010298) 2. Many of the audience did not even like to look at the prequels as they were not heavy on special effects. Some did stick to the magic element in the movie and went back to novels. 3. There were of course audiences that were developed by the first installment of Potter and remained with it till the end of the series and have gone to the extent of registering on websites like Muggle net. The brand Harry potter was hence made popular among the Indian audience through itsmovies and specifically through movies of installment beyond HP3. Changes in the adaption ofpotter to keep it relevant to captured audience and leverage brand equity to grow.Creation of the characters: Though the characters evolved in and around England and the lifestyle there, manychanges were done in the characterization and selection of new characters to be introduced tomake the novel and movie more of global. Schools like Durmstrang Institute for MagicalLearning and Beaux batons Academy of Magic were brought in HP4 to take the novel more nearto audience of Norway and France. Characters from all over the world were introduced toincrease the adaptability of novel. There were two a character from Pakistan and one from Indiaintroduced to cater to sub continental audience.Evolution of story/ Creating brand equity for international market: The story of Harry potter starts with the murder of his parents that is symbolic and insynchronous to many of the old Indian movies that have a tragic starting and end with a happyending. Adding to the same it also portrays teaches of the schools that captures the imaginationof student in that age bracket. Characters like professor Snape portray a hard cored and terrifyingprofessor that a normal school going student face. It also shows the gamut of characters that astudent can meet in a school, a follower, a bookworm, a timid and a competitor turned foe. Not only the panorama of characters that are presented but each of these characters isnurtured and evolved in the novel till its end. Locations and wild life also adds to the way thebrand was created. Books about animals and plants referred in the novel are also published to 5add to the way one can relate oneself to the story. Page
    • Brand Management Report Individual Assignment Debashish Bagg (2010298) Harry potter had a library of add on books that were released including the book of „TheTales of Beedle the Bard‟, „Fantastic Beasts and Where to find them‟ and „Quidditch through theAges‟ which added to the closeness that an audience can go to the wizarding world. These wereavailable in India as early as 2003, which also aided to capture more audience into Potter Mania.Brand Extension or sequels of the novels: In parallel to the novel and movies Harry potter also had many websites some made byfans and some for fans for various communications to happen that helped to increase theknowhow of Harry potter. To allow spread of potter mania among fans and general public Harrypotter was licensed to be rewritten in various languages. In India alone it was licensed to 3publishers to get the novel rewritten in six different languages. Adding to this all the harrypotter‟s translated novels were sold at much cheaper price when compared to the original ones.Harry potter‟s novels were bundled and sold at cheaper price in India. Harry potter also hadgame DVD‟s sold in many bookstores along its novels and movie adaptations. The brand extensions did not only stop at novels and movie sequels and prequels onlineand offline games but also went to the extent of formation of different theme park near UniversalOrlando Resort. A themed land named „Wizarding World of Harry Potter‟ is formed MerlinWoods portion of the Lost Continent region of Universals Islands of Adventure, part of theUniversal Orlando Resort. The 20-acre area includes attractions, restaurants, and shops themedaround a recreation of Hogwarts Castle and Hogsmeade Village [12]. All the extensions in terms of rewritten novels in other language and also the sequels andprequels add to increase the brand value of patent brand.Communications media used: Communications of the brand harry potter was done at many platforms. This platformwas mainly internet for Indian audience. Other parts of world were exposed to communicationlike theme part and also promotional trips that are undertaken by harry potter group all aroundthe world. The communication platform like websites did not only carry communications fromthe author but also had various blogging forums for discussions that were mainly for the fans. 6 Page
    • Brand Management Report Individual Assignment Debashish Bagg (2010298)Communications from the produces were basically in the form of tailors that depicted mainincidence in the movie. To promote initially that was a campaign run in one of these websites that alloweddownloading the theme song as a ringtone. For phones that were not supported downloadingscripts of making the song were uploaded on the website. Most of the communication of harry potter was also done on the harry potter font that re-imposed the theme into the mind of audience. To keep the movies near to local audience Harrypotter was released in local languages. In the nation capital alone it was released in four differentlanguages that include English, Hindi, Bhojpuri and Punjabi. It was also released in all thenational languages in their states.Marketing of the characters and story: Harry potter was one of the less marketed in the initial. According to researchers andeminent professionals like Andrew Blake [21], Brown, S. [20], and Nel. P [19] harry potter started itspromotional activities by review of existing readers and these reviews helped in spreading thewild fire of potter mania. Word of mouth was the basic media of propagation that was initiallyused and that turned out to be the most prominent media for Harry potter in its initial days. This is partially true for Indian audience. The survey that was done regarding brandawareness of Harry potter and how did the knowledge about it spread signals that there were anample of customer that were lured into by friends who were potter maniac‟s themselves. But inthe latter part of Harry potter it was the movies and special effect that played a vital role.Translation of potter novels also added to increase in sales of potter in Indian terrain. Potter also had the support of Facebook maniac who kept on adding pages and contest toincrease know how about the brand in Indian domain. Rowling herself has also been launching [16] [17]websites like Mugglenet that is presently moderated by fans and also Pottermore thatimitates the school admission to Hogwarts and thus adding to the experience of harry potter eventhough the potter series is completed in terms of novels and movies. 7 One of the most marketed character for the last edition of harry potter movie and novel is PageProfessor Snape. The debate and speculation about this character went to the extent that it finally
    • Brand Management Report Individual Assignment Debashish Bagg (2010298)formulated into a series of Case publications among academicians. This was one of the mostdebated topics on Mugglenet and other blogs that supported porter maniac till the last edition ofharry potter was released.Copyright’s war: Copyright‟s is one of the main issues that publishers and directors had to deal in the caseof Harry potter. Potter was famous to the extent that any novel that titles harry potter would havebeen hotly sold. This led to many local authors write local novels that en-cashed into the brand ofharry potter. One of such novels is „Potter is Calcutta‟ [23]. Book sellers also speculate a reductionin sales of Harry potter novels due to availability of pirated novels of the same available in themarket. Many a time‟s versions of these novels were circulated on the net. I myself had two different copies of circulated mail and two pirated copies before I couldlay my hands on the original version of „Harry potter and the deathly hallows‟. All the fivenovels discussed above had completely different stories and different ends when compared to theoriginal novel. The brand image of the Harry potter in terms of movies was also tapped into by „Hari [5]Puttar‟ a comedy movie from the banner of Mirchi movies in India. Warner Bros. filed alawsuit against production company Mirchi Movies to stop the release of the film due to thesimilarity of its title to that of the Harry Potter film series. An Indian court threw out the case onthe basis that the public would be able to differentiate between the two titles, and that Warnerhad chosen to wait three years until the films release to file their case. [24] Another movie that was almost on the same line of the first installment of „Harrypotter and the philosopher‟s stone‟ was „Aabra ka Dabra‟. Though there is no data available onthe net that denotes a possible legal communication that happened on the same, people who havesee it have found both the movies similar to each other.Acceptance among different customer base: In terms of acceptance harry potter had initial difficulties in many parts of the world. In 8America and many other parts of the world Wizarding terminology was not well accepted by PageChristian community. There were also difference in acceptability in terms of language and its
    • Brand Management Report Individual Assignment Debashish Bagg (2010298)usage. Hindi and other regional version of harry potter have no doubt increased the reach ofpotter to common student but is not welcome by those who like the English version of theproduct. Different customer base till date react to this adaptability in different ways. The slangs that were used in the original novel were far more specific to England thatthey could not even be repeated even to American audience. When it came to the Indianaudience who read it in local language have found no slang being used for different character.For many other languages these terminologies were reinvented of coined with the help ofacademicians. The same was not done in case of India of any Asian language.Other merchandise: This is also one of the not used strategies in India. There has been no merchandise thathas been supporting the brand potter in India. Movies of potter were supported by its novels andvice versa. There was no additional push that was available in terms of theme park orpromotional activities for movies. The movies have stood challenges that were imposed by manyBollywood and movies in local languages but without support of any other promotion. Word of mouth and blogs of fans were the only way that helped in the popularization ofharry potter in India.Application of Aaker’s Measure of Brand Equity: Parameter Measure in Scale of 10 Loyalty Price Premium 7 Satisfaction/ Loyalty 8 Perceived Quality and leadership Perceived quality 9 Leadership in Market 10 Esteem 8 Association and Differentiation Perceived value 9 Personality 8 9 Page Organization (Novel and author) 10
    • Brand Management Report Individual Assignment Debashish Bagg (2010298) Differentiation 8.5 Awareness Brand Awareness 10 Market Behavior Market Share 8 Price Distribution Indices 10 Table 1: Measure of Brand Equity of Potter in Indian sub-continent The above matrices values are obtained on the basis the survey conducted and also on theliterature on net. This shows that the brand Harry potter though might not have been the best butis still performing well enough on Indian soil.Brand Report Card:To find the areas in which Potter as a brand could have performed better, let‟s look at the brandreport cared analysis that can be done with the knowledge at hand.Parameter Ratings CausesManagers understanding of 10 The author who is also the manager have understand thethe Brand brand well, else it would not have formedPositioning of the brand 9 Positioning on Indian scenario is not completely right as Indian schooling system is different from England‟sCustomer receive superior 8 Same reason as abovedeliveryFull advantage of branding 7 Brand started marketing on word of mouth too low leveland marketing activities to become a world class brand. Also the movies and games were branding themselves rather than coming from the same platformMarketing and 8 Same reasoncommunication effortsPricing strategy 10 Premium pricing and customer was willing to payImagery to support 10 Proper image was put forward so though there were 10 many similar and pirated novels available customer base Page
    • Brand Management Report Individual Assignment Debashish Bagg (2010298) waited for the original novel to reach IndiaInnovative and relevant 10 Kept the novel relevant to the customer base by keeping Potter and his friends growingMultiproduct and 10 Single product brandmultibandMonitoring system 7 Copyrights were monitored not the product matching Table 2: Brand Report Card for Harry Potter As can be seen from above mostly the only place that Harry potter lagged was that thetranslation of the novels was mere language translation rather than translation on the culturalbase of the novel. If this point could have been catered to in some sense then Potter could havebeen a bigger brand than t stands today.Conclusions: In contrast that has been discussed so far it can be concluded that Harry Potter in Indiawas a brand that was left to the mercy of its fan for promotion. It also can be concluded thatword of mouth and fan blogs for evaluation can be still of great use in Indian peninsula forpromotion. Brand like harry potter was build on sheer value of the product. Branding exerciseand customization of international products to specific geographical zones is one of the needs tothe day, but some customization may eat into the brand equity. Hence a trade off may be neededbetween dilution of brand equity and en-cashing of the same. 11 Page
    • Brand Management Report Individual Assignment Debashish Bagg (2010298)Appendix 1: 1. Sales of Harry potter movies:Movie Year Revenue earned on box-officeHarry Potter and the Philosopher‟s (Sorcerer‟s) Stone 2001 $974,755,371Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets 2002 $878,979,634Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban 2004 $796,688,549Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire 2005 $896,911,078Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix 2007 $939,885,929Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince 2009 $934,416,487Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1 2010 $955,417,476Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2 2011 $640,200,000 Table 3: Sales as per statement given out by Warner Bros (worldwide) 2. Sales of competing movies for the last Harry Potter: Movie Weeks of release Revenue earned Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2 1 $481,500,000 Transformers: Dark of the Moon 3 $762,800,252 Kung Fu Panda 2 8 $582,063,774 Cars 2 4 $311,926,000 Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides 9 $1,028,741,000 Zookeeper 2 $58,152,466 Mr. Popper‟s Penguins 5 $100,763,246 Table 4: Sales of competing movies across the world to the last installment of Harry potter 3. Sales of Harry Potter movies in India: Movie Year Revenue earned Harry Potter and the Philosopher‟s (Sorcerer‟s) Stone 2001 10crores Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets 2002 8crores Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban 2004 11crores Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire 2005 16crores 12 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix 2007 26crores Page
    • Brand Management Report Individual Assignment Debashish Bagg (2010298) Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince 2009 22crores Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1 2010 25crores Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2 2011 Table 5: Sales of Harry potter‟s franchise in India 4. Sales of Harry potter novels: Movie Year Revenue earned Harry Potter and the Philosopher‟s (Sorcerer‟s) Stone 2001 10crores Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets 2002 8crores Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban 2004 11crores Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire 2005 16crores Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix 2007 26crores Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince 2009 22crores Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1 2010 25crores Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2 2011 Table 6: Sales of Harry potter‟s novels in India 5. Translations of Harry potter in Indian languages:Language of Author Parts of the Publisher(s)/translation series distributor(s)Bengali Sohrab Hasan 1 Ankur Prakashani Muniruzzaman 2, 3 Asim Chowdhury 4, 5, 6 Mohsin Habib 7Gujarati Harish Nayak 1, 2, 3, 4 Manjul Publishing House Jagruti Trivedi 5, 6, 7 Pvt. Ltd.Hindi Sudhir Dixit 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7Marathi Bal Urdhwareshe 1 Priyanka Kulkarni 3 13 Manjusha Amdekar 2, 4, 5, 6 PageMalayalam Radhika C. Nair 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
    • Brand Management Report Individual Assignment Debashish Bagg (2010298) 6, 7Urdu Darakhshanda Asghar 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, Oxford University Press Khokhar 6, 7There has been translation into many other languages and dialects that has not been tracked.Some of the above translation was also for neighboring countries like Bangladesh, and Pakistan. [8] Table 7: Translations of Harry potter in India 14 Page
    • Brand Management Report Individual Assignment Debashish Bagg (2010298)Appendix 2: [12] Figure 1: Map of Harry Potters wizarding world Figure 2: Cover page of Harry potter novels in Hindi [18] 15 Page
    • Figure 3: Hary Puttar Figure 4: Aabra ka Dabra; The school of Magic
    • Brand Management Report Individual Assignment Debashish Bagg (2010298)References: 1. Biography of J.K. Rowling; http://www.jkrowling.com/textonly/en/biography.cfm 2. Harry Potter page on Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Potter#cite_note- Harry_falls_into_author.27s_head-45 3. Bestselling books, Wikipedia; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_best- selling_books#cite_note-202 4. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 2 releases today; http://businesstoday.intoday.in/story/harry-potter-and-the-deathly-hallows-part-2-final- movie/1/17035.html 5. Indias Hari Puttar triumphs over Warner bros HARRY POTTER, http://reporter.blogs.com/thresq/2008/09/indias-hari-put.html 6. Beyond Hogwarts; http://www.beyondhogwarts.com/harry-potter/news/ 7. http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/mp/2002/04/11/stories/2002041100350400.htm 8. Translation of Harry potter in Indian and other foreign languages, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Potter_in_translation 9. Eccleshare, J., "The Publishing of a Phenomenon". A guide to the Harry Potter novels. Continuum International. pp. 7–14, 2002. 10. Launch dates of Harry Potter and Philosopher‟s Stone. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0241527/releaseinfo 11. The lord of the rings page, Wikipedia; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Lord_of_the_Rings 12. Wizarding world theme park; http://www.officialticketcenter.com/wizarding-world-of- harry-potter-theme-park-tickets.aspx 13. Harry potter: The complete Guide, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book:Harry_Potter 14. Tere Stouffer, „The Complete Idiots Guide to the World of Harry Potter‟, penguin group, 2007. 15. The sphinx‟s song in 13 languages, http://www.iti.org.uk/pdfs/newPDF/HarryPotter.pdf 16. Mugglenet, http://www.mugglenet.com/ 17. Pottermore, http://www.pottermore.com/ 1 18. Cover pages of harry potter in different region, Page http://home.hccnet.nl/h.kip/kaft/page7.html
    • Brand Management Report Individual Assignment Debashish Bagg (2010298) 19. Nel, P.,"J.K. Rowlings Harry Potter novels: a readers guide”, Continuum International. ISBN 0826452329.2001. 20. Brown, S., "Marketing for Muggles: The Harry Potter way to higher profits". Business Horizons 45 (1): 6–14. doi:10.1016/S0007-6813(02)80004-0, 2002. 21. Andrew Blake, “The irresistible rise of Harry Potter”, Verso publishers, London, 2002 22. Elizabeth E. Heilman, “Critical perspectives on Harry Potter”, Taylor and Frincis, 2008. 23. Wu, Tim. "Harry Potter and the International Order of Copyright." Slate. Friday 27 June 2003. Retrieved on 11 May 2009. 24. Aabra Ka Daabra, http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1137434/plotsummary, 2004 25. 2 Page