OPTICAL FIBERSCOMMUNICATION      DEBANSHU GHOSH      AEIE BATCH [ F-Y ]      ROLL NO. : 40
AgENdA:• Introduction• Working• Types• Applications• Advantages• Disadvantages• References
INTROdUCTION•      Optical fibers are    long, thin strands of    very     pure     glass    usually 120 µm in    diameter...
APPROAChES TO   OPTICALCOMMUNICATION
PARTS OF OPTICAL         FIBER• Core – thin glass center of the fiber where  light travels.• Cladding – outer optical mate...
INNER STRUCTURES
TRANSMISSION OF LIghT  ThROUgh OPTICAL       FIBERS• Total Internal Reflection
TOTAL INTERNAL  REFLECTION        • The angle of the light          is always greater than          the critical angle.   ...
FIBER OPTICS SySTEMS        hAS       Transmitter       Optical Fiber    Optical Regenerator     Optical Receiver
TRANSMISSION PROCESS
TyPES OF OPTICAL           FIBERSOptical fibers come in two types:• Single-mode fibers• Multi-mode fibers1. Step Indexed2....
SINgLE-MOdE FIBERS• Single-mode       fibers  are used to transmit  one signal per fiber  (used in telephone  and cable TV...
MULTI-MOdE FIBERS• Multi-mode fibers are  used     to   transmit  many signals per fiber  (used in computer  networks). Th...
SIzES
WAvELENgTh dIvISION   MULTIPLExINg          • Signals with different            wavelengths are            combined, trans...
TIME dIvISIONMULTIPLExINg      • Several optical signals        are combined,        transmitted together, and        sepa...
APPLICATIONS• Carry plain old telephone service (POTS)• For transmission of data• Transmitting broadband signals• In the b...
INSTALLEd FIBER IN US
gLOBAL UNdERSEA FIBER SySTEMS
AdvANTAgES•   Less Expensive•   Enormous Potential Bandwidth•   High Carrying Capacity•   Less Signal Degradation•   Elect...
dISAdvANTAgES• Fiber optics are that the cables are  expensive to install.• The termination of a fiber optic cable is  com...
RESEARCh QUESTIONS• What can fiber optics do for us in the future?   – Improve our communication   – Faster internet conne...
REFERENCES1.   http://www.authorstream.com/2.   http://www.howstuffworks.com/3.   http://www.wikipedia.com/4.   http://www...
QUESTIONS?????  ThANK yOU
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optical fiber communication..

  1. 1. OPTICAL FIBERSCOMMUNICATION DEBANSHU GHOSH AEIE BATCH [ F-Y ] ROLL NO. : 40
  2. 2. AgENdA:• Introduction• Working• Types• Applications• Advantages• Disadvantages• References
  3. 3. INTROdUCTION• Optical fibers are long, thin strands of very pure glass usually 120 µm in diameter. They are arranged in bundles called optical cables and used to transmit light signals over long distances.
  4. 4. APPROAChES TO OPTICALCOMMUNICATION
  5. 5. PARTS OF OPTICAL FIBER• Core – thin glass center of the fiber where light travels.• Cladding – outer optical material surrounding the core.• Buffer Coating – plastic coating that protects the fiber.
  6. 6. INNER STRUCTURES
  7. 7. TRANSMISSION OF LIghT ThROUgh OPTICAL FIBERS• Total Internal Reflection
  8. 8. TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION • The angle of the light is always greater than the critical angle. • Cladding does not absorb any light from the core. • The extent that the signal degrades depends upon the purity of the glass and the wavelength of the transmitted light.
  9. 9. FIBER OPTICS SySTEMS hAS Transmitter Optical Fiber Optical Regenerator Optical Receiver
  10. 10. TRANSMISSION PROCESS
  11. 11. TyPES OF OPTICAL FIBERSOptical fibers come in two types:• Single-mode fibers• Multi-mode fibers1. Step Indexed2. Graded Indexed
  12. 12. SINgLE-MOdE FIBERS• Single-mode fibers are used to transmit one signal per fiber (used in telephone and cable TV). They have small core (9 microns in diameter) and transmit infra-red light from laser.
  13. 13. MULTI-MOdE FIBERS• Multi-mode fibers are used to transmit many signals per fiber (used in computer networks). They have larger cores (62.5 microns in diameter) and transmit infra-red light from LED.
  14. 14. SIzES
  15. 15. WAvELENgTh dIvISION MULTIPLExINg • Signals with different wavelengths are combined, transmitted together, and separated again.
  16. 16. TIME dIvISIONMULTIPLExINg • Several optical signals are combined, transmitted together, and separated again based on different arrival times.
  17. 17. APPLICATIONS• Carry plain old telephone service (POTS)• For transmission of data• Transmitting broadband signals• In the biomedical industry• Non-Communication Applications (sensors etc…)
  18. 18. INSTALLEd FIBER IN US
  19. 19. gLOBAL UNdERSEA FIBER SySTEMS
  20. 20. AdvANTAgES• Less Expensive• Enormous Potential Bandwidth• High Carrying Capacity• Less Signal Degradation• Electrical Isolation• Low Power• Signal Security• Small Size & Light Weight• System Reliability & Ease of Maintenance• Ruggedness & Flexibility• Low Transmission Loss
  21. 21. dISAdvANTAgES• Fiber optics are that the cables are expensive to install.• The termination of a fiber optic cable is complex and requires special tools.• They are more fragile than coaxial cable.
  22. 22. RESEARCh QUESTIONS• What can fiber optics do for us in the future? – Improve our communication – Faster internet connection• What would the Internet look like if this could happen? – Streaming capabilities – Download capabilities• What is being done to make this transition happen? – Government action – Private Companies at work
  23. 23. REFERENCES1. http://www.authorstream.com/2. http://www.howstuffworks.com/3. http://www.wikipedia.com/4. http://www.osun.com/
  24. 24. QUESTIONS????? ThANK yOU
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