6Born on May 29, 1917 in Brookline,MassachusettsWorld War II hero when he savedhis crew after his PT boat was rammedby a Japanese destroyer in 1942His father convinced him to enterpolitics; he was elected to the Houseof Representatives in 1946 and theSenate in 1952Lost close bid for 1956 Democraticnomination for Vice-PresidentWrote Pulitzer Prize winning novel“Profiles In Courage” in 1956JFK was the second Catholic to runfor President. Al Smith ran as theDemocrat candidate in 1928 and lost.John F. Kennedy
7Born on January 11, 1913 in YorbaLinda, CaliforniaElected to the House ofRepresentatives in 1946Elected to the U.S. Senate in 1950Known as a staunch anti-communist;investigated State Department officialAlger Hiss, who was convicted ofperjuryNominated for Vice President in1952 by Dwight Eisenhower; wonsecond term as Vice President in 1956Won acclaim for “kitchen debate”with Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchevin 1959Richard M. NixonNixonacceptedthenominationforpresident in1960
8This was the first televised debate betweenpresidential candidates. Nixon was unshaven andsweating, while Kennedy was tan and full of energy.JFK was considered by many to have won the debatewhich may have had contributed to his narrowelectoral victory.Vice PresidentRichard M. NixonSenatorJohn F. KennedyThese chairs were usedby nominees John F.Kennedy and RichardM. Nixon in the firsttelevised debatebetween presidentialcandidates
10In October of 1960, MartinLuther King, Jr. wasarrested during a sit-inprotest in Atlanta, Georgia.Due to major mediacoverage both presidentialcandidates were pressuredto take a stance. Kennedycalled King’s wife andhelped arrange his releasefrom jail. As a result, manyBlacks believed JFK wouldhelp them gain equal rights.Kennedy received 70% ofthe African American vote inthe 1960 presidentialelection.
11Kennedy won a fairly substantial victory in the ElectoralCollege, but his popular vote triumph was far less secure,winning only approximately 113,000 more votes thanNixon, a margin of approximately .02%
12John F. Kennedy wassworn in as President,Lyndon B. Johnson VicePresident onJanuary 20, 1961
14BackgroundSit-insStudent Nonviolent CoordinatingCommittee (SNCC)Freedom RidesAlbany, GeorgiaCouncil of Federated Organizations
15Important events in the Civil Rights movement in the1950s1950 Sweatt v. Painter, Supreme Court ruled that the separatefacilities for Black law students were not equal and therefore AfricanAmerican students must be allowed to attend white law schools1950 McLauren V. Oklahoma law school, ruled that separatingstudents denied them educational opportunities and thereforeseparate facilities were not allowed1953 First bus boycotts Baton Rouge, Louisiana1954 Brown v. Board of Education, Supreme Court ruled that schoolsegregation is unconstitutional1955 Brown v. Board II, schools must be desegregated “with alldeliberate speed”1955 Montgomery Bus boycott1956 Supreme Court ruled that bus segregation was illegal1957 Eisenhower sent troops to help integrate Central High Schoolin Little Rock, Arkansas1957 Civil Rights Act1957 Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) was formed
16The first sit-inFebruary 1, 1960: Woolworths storeGreensboro, North CarolinaFour roommates, JosephMcNeil, Izell Blair, FranklinMcCain and David Richmondplanned to remain seateduntil they were served orarrested. They purchaseditems and sat at the counterreserved for whites.Over the next weekprotestors filled all of the68 seats until the storeclosed due to a telephonebomb threat and theescalation of the protests.
17The protests soon spread throughout NorthCarolina and eventually to 26 southern cities
18Sit-ins were also successfuldefeating segregation in:Public parksSwimming poolsTheatersChurchesLibrariesMuseumsBeaches
19Most of the sit-in protestors were students whowanted changes to happen quickly. They formedthe Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee(SNCC).They believed that if northern white Americacould see the nonviolent responses to policebrutality on television, the movement would gainmomentum.Eventually the authorities caught on and brutalitywas only practiced behind closed doors awayfrom cameras and the media.
20Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)Formed in 1960 by students in Raleigh, North CarolinaPurpose was to provide a voice for students in the civilrights movementMain goal was to register African American votersJoined with CORE to organize the Freedom Rides, FreedomSummer (freedom schools), Mississippi Democratic partyConcentrated on voter registration in and near Selma,Alabama 1964-1965Organized the voting rights march from Selma toMontgomery1966 Stokeley Carmichael took over and embraced “BlackPower”, ejected Whites from organization and began workingwith the Black Panthers1969 H. “Rap” Brown took over and he changed the namefrom “Nonviolent” to “National”, advocated the use of violenceif necessary. Brown went into hiding in 1970 and theorganization basically disintegrated.
21Map of the routes of the Freedom Rides, 1961The purpose of theFreedom Rides wasto bring the CivilRights Movementto the “Deep South”states, especiallyAlabama andMississippi wherewhite resistance todesegregation wasthe strongest
22During the Freedom Rides protestors were met withviolent hostility from local whites. Pictures below showone of the buses bombed in Alabama.John Lewis James ZwergLewis, Chairman of SNCC,and Zwerg, a student,were beaten for theirparticipation.
23The Ku Klux Klanwas issued morethan onerestraining orderto prevent themfrom interferingwith interstatebuses during thespring andsummer of 1961
24During the Freedom Rides in December of 1961, asmall group was arrested while protesting outside thesegregated train station. Local leaders organized severalmarches and rallies the rest of the month. Martin LutherKing, Jr. (MLK) arrived and was arrested along withseveral other demonstrators.Although hundreds were arrested and protests lastedfor months, white city officials refused to negotiate andclosed public facilities instead of integrating them.This lack of success led to frustration on the part ofstudents who began to advocate a more radical approachthan MLK.ALBANY,GEORGIAAlbany, Georgia
25CabinetRobert F. KennedyJFK’s family“New Frontier” legislation“War on Poverty”InflationKennedy and the Civil Rightsmovement
26The “Best and the Brightest”President Kennedy and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedystand with members of the Cabinet as they are swornin by Chief Justice Earl Warren. Many of these advisorswould lead Kennedy and later Lyndon Johnson intodisastrous policies in southeast Asia.
27JFK’s closest confidant, his brotherRobert KennedyJFK appointed his brotheras the Attorney General atthe insistence of hisfather, who believed thepresident needed anadviser who would becandid.After his brother’s death,Robert Kennedy left theCabinet, becoming aSenator from New York. In1968, while running forthe Democraticpresidential nomination hewas assassinated.
29“We stand at the edge ofa New Frontier – thefrontier of unfulfilledhopes and dreams. Itwill deal with unsolvedproblems of peace andwar, unconqueredpockets of ignoranceand prejudice,unanswered questionsof poverty andsurplus…”Kennedy named his legislative programthe “New Frontier”
30New Frontier legislationPrograms to increase economic growth to createmore jobs and legislation to increase minimum wageFederal aid for urban housing and development toredevelop depressed urban areas, and the creation ofthe new Department of Urban AffairsReform tax legislation to have cut taxesChanges to existing farm programsConserve and develop natural resourcesIncrease federal aid to educationBetter medical care for the elderlyCivil rights for African AmericansEmphasis on the Cold War: nuclear build-up
31What happened to the New frontier legislation?Almost all of JFK’s legislative programs were notpassed by Congress. Why not?• Democrats had only a narrow majority in Congress andwere not strong enough to push their liberal agenda. (Truman)• Many of the Democrats were from the south and opposedhis civil rights initiatives.•JFK needed their support for upcoming elections anddecided not to anger them by proposing new legislation.(FDR)•Despite the myth that JFK accomplished much forminorities it was his brother Attorney General RobertKennedy who was committed to civil rights.• Many older, white politicians were annoyed at hisappointments of young and minority advisers.•This reminds me of FDR & Truman’s administrations
32Kennedy & the “War on Poverty”JFK read Michael Harrington’s book, TheOther America: Poverty in the United StatesIn his book, Harrington usedcase studies to note that tens ofthousands of Americans weretrapped in a “culture of poverty”Harrington asserted that thegovernment was turning a blindeye to those who were poorJFK was so moved by the book that hebegan the framework for what eventuallywould be known as the “War on Poverty”.After Kennedy’s assassination, LyndonJohnson introduced most of the legislationthat would be an integral part of LBJ’s“Great Society”Harrington
33In 1962, Kennedy intervened in U.S. SteelCorporation’s plan to increase the price of steel by 3.5%.Kennedy believed the increase was far too high andwould trigger widespread inflation, as other steelcompanies raised their prices as well.U.S. Steel and its employees were embroiled incontract negotiations, which Kennedy helped solve aswell.Kennedy brought such intense pressure to bear thatthe companies rescinded the increases. But in theaftermath, businessmen widely criticized the presidentas being hostile to them.This is similar to T. Roosevelt’s handling of theAnthracite Coal Strike President Kennedy confrontedsteel price hikes in an attempt toslow inflation (rising prices)
34One of his manylettersdemanding hisapplication beconsidered foradmissionJamesMeredithapplied to theUniversity ofMississippi,an all-whitecollege, inJanuary 1961
35From left to right: MississippiGovernor Barnett, Georgia GovernorVandiver, and President KennedyGovernor Barnett was opposed to integrationand tried to block Merediths admission
36Meredith, with the help of the NAACP,obtained a court order to be admitted to theuniversity. He was escorted by federal agentsafter rioting ensued on campus.
37Voter Education Program (VEP)In reaction to the violence towards protestors, thefederal government encouraged voter registration as aless controversial method for achieving desegregation.Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy enlistedseveral charities to help fund voter registrationdrives throughout the southBegan in 1962 and ended in 1964Headed by Wiley Branton, chief counsel for the“Little Rock Nine” who also served as an attorney forarrested freedom ridersDuring this period more than 650,000 AfricanAmericans were registered to vote in 11 southernstatesWILEY BRANTON ROBERT F. KENNEDY
38In 1963, the Equal Pay Act made it illegalto pay different wages to men and womenwho perform the same work. Kennedysigned the bill into law on June 10, 1963.
39Birmingham, Alabama was one of the mostsegregated cities in the south. The purpose ofthe many sit-ins and boycotts that lasted fromJanuary through April 1963, was to end thesegregation.BIRMINGHAM,ALABAMA
40This attack by police dogs on protestors gotthe movement much needed press coverage.In April, city officials were able to get a courtorder blocking the demonstrations.
41Martin Luther King,Jr. was arrested inBirmingham,Alabama for defyingthe court orderblocking theprotests.He wrote his famous“Letter fromBirmingham Jail” inresponse to localwhite ministers thatcalled King atroublemaker.
42Eugene “Bull” Connor, Police Commissioner ofBirmingham, who openly opposed integration.After the televised images of police brutalityagainst protestors gained northern whitesympathy, Connor ordered that violence onlybe practiced out of the spotlight.Speech is Connortelling people not toattack protestorsand to leave it to theauthorities so thatthey can get thefederal governmentoff of their backsand have everythingreturn to “normal”
43Gov. George Wallacebrought in AlabamaState Troopers toconfront theprotestors. He opposedending segregation andused all of hisgubernatorial powersto prevent it fromhappening.Video clip shows Wallaceblocking the entrance to theschool and his forced removalto allow integration.
44•In May 1963, after more than 1,200 people hadbeen arrested, white leaders finally agreed tonegotiate.•Birmingham was to be desegregated, includinglunch counters, restrooms and water fountainsin exchange for an end to the demonstrations.•President Kennedy sent in federal troops tohelp restore order. This event helped tomotivate civil rights volunteers.JFK announces to thecountry that thesituation inBirmingham had beenstabilized
45“Segregation now, segregationtomorrow & segregation forever”• On June 11, 1963 in an attempt to stopdesegregation by the enrollment of twoblack students, Vivian Malone and JamesHood, he stood in front of FosterAuditorium at the University of Alabama.This became known as the "Stand in theSchoolhouse Door." After beingconfronted by federal marshals, DeputyAttorney General Nicholas Katzenbach,and the Alabama National Guard, hestood aside.
47He investigated crimesagainst AfricanAmericans in Jackson,and led boycotts againstbusinesses with unfairpracticesMedgar Evers, leader of the NAACP inJackson, MississippiEvers was assassinatedJune 12, 1963, outsideof his home after ameeting with othercivil rights activistswhere they discussedways to improve lifefor African Americansin Jackson
51The protestors wanted federallegislation to outlaw segregatedfacilities
52The event was widelytelevised, which helpedto make it one of themost importantdemonstrations of thecivil rights movement.
53 U-2 incident Berlin JFK with various world leaders Peace Corps Alliance for Progress Bay of Pigs Cuban Missile Crisis Race for the moon Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Vietnam
54A U.S. U2 reconnaissance(spy) plane was shot downover the Soviet Union and itspilot Francis Gary Powers wascaptured and put on trial.Prime Minister Khrushchevused this incident to cancel aplanned east-west summitconference in Paris.May 1960: the U-2 incidentPowers
55In 1949, Germany was divided into two nationscommonly known as East and West Germany. EastGermany was ruled by the USSR while West Germany wasindependent. The city of Berlin, located in East Germany,was also divided into a free and a communist sector. TheUSSR tried to force the Americans to surrender control ofWest Berlin.West BerlinWestGermanyEastGermany
56Relations between the two super powers worsenedafter the Vienna Summit in June 1961.Khrushchevthreatened JFKwith an ultimatumon Berlin. JFKresponded with aU.S. military build-up and a civildefense program.
57Tensions rose during the remainder of 1961.On August 13thEast Germany prepared for theconstruction of the Berlin Wall to separatecommunist Berlin from the American andEuropean controlled sectors.
58In June of 1963 President Kennedy went toBerlin and delivered his famous “Ich bin einBerliner” (I am a Berliner) to show U.S.determination to keep Berlin free.
59JFK met with various world leadersJFK and Gromyko, SovietForeign MinisterMarch 1961JFK and Willy Brandt,Mayor of West Berlin1961JFK, Indonesian PresidentSukarno, and LBJApril 1961JFK and Nkrumah PrimeMinister from GhanaMarch 1961
60Creation of the Peace CorpsKennedy signed an Executive Order to createthe Peace Corps on March 1, 1961. His brother-in-law, Sergeant Shriver, was appointed the firstdirector on March 4.Congress formally authorized program inSeptember, 1961.The purpose of the program is to fight hunger,disease, illiteracy, poverty, and lack ofopportunity by sending volunteers to assist localsin their own nation.Within two years, more than 7,000 volunteerswere serving in 44 “Third World” nations. ThirdWorld nations are usually defined as lessindustrialized and poorer than “First World”nations.
61The First VolunteersPresident Kennedy meetswith the first group of PeaceCorps volunteers during a1961 White House receptionThe first 51 Americanvolunteers arrived inAccra, Ghana, in August1961.
62During Peace Corps first year, volunteersarrived in Tanzania, Colombia, thePhilippines, Chile, and St. LuciaSince thecreation ofthe PeaceCorps,182,000volunteershaveserved in138countries
63The Peace Corps todayA business volunteerin Ghana works withfarmers to developand run a tourismbusiness.A volunteer assistsAfrican beekeepersin constructinghives.
64The Alliance for ProgressThe Alliancefor Progressinitiativefocused onmaintainingdemocraticgovernments,on industrialand agrariandevelopment,and onequitabledistribution ofwealth.Bogotá, Colombia December 17, 1961."Here is inaugurated the first schoolof 22,000 to be constructed by theColombian government within the Alliancefor Progress with the assistance of thePresident of the United States of America,John F. Kennedy”
65Goals of the AllianceGoal was to establish strongeconomic ties between North andSouth AmericaIncluded land and tax reform,more democratic government,and greater stabilityKennedy hoped to offset theemerging Communist threat inCubaFew South Americancountries wanted to commit toreform, and the programflounderedThe Alliance for Progress wasdisbanded in 1973
66In 1960, all U.S. businesses in Cuba were nationalized(taken over by the Cuban government) withoutcompensation. The U.S. broke off diplomatic relationswith Cuba and saw Castro as an enemy.Eisenhower agreed to a CIAplan for an exile invasion ofCuba to overthrow Castro inMarch of 1960
67BAY OF PIGSINVASION SITECuban exilesinvaded Cubawith the help ofthe U.S. inApril 1961
68The invasion was a failure and the entireCuban exile invasion force was either killed orcaptured by Castros army.Castro’s forces Castro’s air forcedestroyed theinvading ships
69Cuban Missile CrisisAugust to November 1962The closest the world has come to fullscale nuclear war
70U.S. intelligence began receiving reports ofSoviet missiles in Cuba. A U2 flight onAugust 29,1962 confirmed the presence ofsurface to air missile batteries in Cuba. Thesemissiles were designed to shoot down enemyaircraft.
71Map used by JFK and his advisors to plotweapons in Cuba during the missile crisis
72Declassified1962 mapshowing thedistancesnuclear armedmissiles wouldgo if fired fromCuba. Almost allmajor U.S.populationcenters werewithin range.Maps like thisconvinced JFKthat the Sovietmissiles must beremoved fromCuba.
73Aerial photographs from U.S. spy planes leftno doubt that the Russians were installingnuclear missiles in Cuba aimed at the U.S.
74Low altitude view of missile preparation area. The pilottaking this shot flew at an altitude of about 250 feet, andat the speed of sound.Each one of the Russian missiles in Cuba had theexplosive power of 50 Hiroshima type atomic bombs
75Secretary of Defense Robert Mc Namara, Secretary ofState Dean Rusk and JFK, the main policy makersduring the Cuban Missile crisis along with RobertKennedy.
76JFK had two choices of how todeal with the situation inCuba:First: He could order airstrikes on the missile sites inCuba and risk an all outnuclear war with the USSRSecond: He could order anaval blockade and stopSoviet ships from bringing inmissiles and other equipment.No one knew how theRussians would react to this.He chose the naval blockadeKennedy signedCuba QuarantineProclamation,10/23/1962
77Adlai Stevenson, U.S. UN representative,shows aerial photos of Cuban missiles to theUnited Nations in November 1962.
78Above: The Soviet shipGrozny crossed thequarantine line, but turnedaround after U.S. Navy shipsfired star shells.Left: U.S. helicoptershadowed a Sovietsubmarine10/27/1962
79Khrushchev gave in to U.S. pressure andremoved Soviet missiles from Cuba inexchange for a U.S. promise not to invadeCuba.Missiles being loaded onSoviet ships for return to theSoviet UnionSoviet cargo ship leavingCuba with missiles visibleabove the desk
8002004006008001000120019451946194719481949195019511952195319541955195619571958195919601961196219631964Kennedy stressed in the 1960 election campaign that theRepublicans had spent too little on defense and allowed theRussians to get ahead in both conventional and missileweapons.Compare actual military spending underEisenhower 1953-1960 to Kennedy 1961-1963.Addsixzeros
81October 4th1957 the space age began asRussia launched Sputnik, the first artificialsatellite to orbit the earth. Americans wereshocked when the Soviets were the first intospace.
82America’s First Manned Space FlightAmerica’s first astronaut, AlanB. Shepard, blasted off fromCape Canaveral, Florida, onMay 5, 1961. Shepard’s capsule“Freedom 7” flew successfullyon a 15 minute suborbital flightto match Soviet cosmonaut andfirst man in space YuriGagarin’s orbital flight themonth before.
83A few days after Alan Shepard’s successfulsuborbital flight, President John F. Kennedy,addressing a joint session of Congress, proposedthat “I believe that this nation should commit itselfto achieving the goal, before this decade is out, oflanding a man on the moon and returning him safelyto the earth.”
84“Friendship 7” with astronautJohn Glenn aboard, lifts off onAmerica’s first orbital missionon February 20, 1962. Afterseveral delays, Glennsuccessfully orbited the globethree times, becoming one ofAmerica’s most famousastronauts.
85July 10, 1962 - Telstar 1, U.S. satellite,beams the first live transatlantic telecastTelstar 1
86After a two year hiatus, the SovietUnion resumed atmospheric testingof nuclear weapons onSeptember 1, 1961.
87Reducing the nuclear threat:The Limited Test Ban Treaty“Stokes” nucleartest, Nevada desert,August, 1957Hydrogen bombtest
88“First: Chairman Khrushchev, Prime MinisterMacmillan, and I have agreed that high-leveldiscussions will shortly begin in Moscow lookingtoward early agreement on a comprehensive test bantreaty. Our hopes must be tempered with the cautionof history--but with our hopes go the hopes of allmankind.Second: To make clear our good faith and solemnconvictions on the matter, I now declare that theUnited States does not propose to conduct nucleartests in the atmosphere so long as other states do notdo so. We will not be the first to resume. Such adeclaration is no substitute for a formal binding treaty,but I hope it will help us achieve it…For, in the final analysis, our most basiccommon link is that we all inhabit this small planet.We all breathe the same air. We all cherish ourchildrens future. And we are all mortal.”President John F. KennedySpeech at American University, June 10, 1963
89Treaty ProvisionsTreaty was negotiatedduring summer, 1963Signed in August, 1963Banned nuclear testing inthe atmosphere,underwater, or in outerspaceUnderground testingallowedChina and France, bothnuclear powers, refused tosign
90“Yesterday a shaft oflight cut into thedarkness.Negotiations wereconcluded in Moscowon a treaty to ban allnuclear tests in theatmosphere, in outerspace, and underwater. For the firsttime, an agreementhas been reached onbringing the forces ofnuclear destructionunder internationalcontrol…”John F. Kennedy President John F. Kennedy presidedover the formal signing of the 1963Test Ban Treaty
91Early History of VietnamVietnam’s history goes back to 200B.C.Vietnam was ruled by the Chinesefor over a thousand yearsMore than a dozen different dynastieshave ruledEuropean contact began in the 16thcenturyFrance became interested in Vietnam inthe 19thcentury and eventuallyconquered the nation along with Laos andCambodia.The French were firmly in control by1893 and began exploiting theeconomic wealth of the regionVietnam, Laos and Cambodia becameknown as French Indochina
92During WWII France was defeated andoccupied by Germany in 1940.Also during WWII Japan invaded and ruledVietnam through a puppet government.During the war the nationalist Communistleader Ho Chi Minh formed a resistance group,the Vietminh, that fought both the Japanese andVichy French.After the U.S. entered WWII, the Office ofStrategic Services (later the Central IntelligenceAgency), sent U.S. agents into Vietnam. Thesemen helped to train the Vietminh and theypromised Ho Chi Minh that the United Stateswould support his goal for Vietnameseindependence after the war.Ho Chi Minh believed that after the war theUnited States would support independence forVietnam but he could not foresee the Cold War.
93After WWII Ho Chi Minh, leader of theCommunist Vietnamese, believed thatthe U.S. would not allow France toreoccupy to its former colony, sincethe OSS promised that to Minh duringthe war. When French soldiersreturned to reassert their authorityand reclaim their colony a bitter nineyear war began that ended in aFrench defeat that divided Vietnaminto two halves. One, the north,became communist, while the southwas under U.S. influence.FRENCHINDOCHINAHO CHI MINH
94In July of 1954, the GenevaAccords were signed dividingVietnam at the 17thparallelfor two years until electionscould be held to unify thenation.The north became communistwhile the south establishedan anti-communist regimethat was tied to the U.S.President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Secretary ofState John Foster Dulles (from left) greet southVietnams President Ngo Dinh Diem at Washingtonnational airport, 05/08/1957
95Kennedy, to avoidbeing accused of“losing SouthVietnam” as Trumanwas accused of“losing China”,increased thenumber of militaryadvisors sent byEisenhower from 800to 16,000 and formedthe Green Beretsspecial forces.Kennedy’s goal wasto keep SouthVietnam free fromcommunist control.Kennedy’s Vietnam policy
96Psychological warfare began in 1962The purpose of psychological operations (PSYOP) was toweaken the enemy by causing dissension and unrest amonghis ranks, while at the same time convincing the localpopulation to support American troops. PSYOP units alsoprovided continuous analysis of the attitudes and behavior ofenemy forces to the commanders in the field, so they coulddevelop, produce and use propaganda in a successful manner.Examples of propaganda usedby PSYOP units
97Examples of anti-Viet Cong (communist)propaganda
98The U.S. military set up schools and clinicsin an attempt to win the “hearts andminds” of the South Vietnamese people
99To protest the Catholic Diem’s attacks onBuddhist pagodas, Buddhist priests set fire tothemselves in protest. The U.S. decided thatDiems corrupt and murderous regime was toounpopular and supported an army coup thatkilled Diem on November 1, 1963.Ngo Dinh Diem
100The Kennedy’s arrive in DallasThe motorcade routeThe assassinationThe Zapruder filmThe suspectMurder of OswaldFuneral and burialSwearing in of the new President
102President Kennedy’s visit to Dallas included a drivethrough downtown Dallas on the way to a luncheonat the Dallas Trade Mart. Along the route on ElmStreet, the presidential limousine passed the TexasSchool Book Depository where shots were fired.Who’s isthis?
103The Kennedys were seated in the rear seat of thePresidential limousine. Seated in the middle “jumpseats” were Texas Governor John Connally and hiswife, Nellie. The governor was seriously injured bythe sniper.
104As Kennedy’s car passed the TexasSchool Book Depository Building, three shotswere fired.Kennedy was struck by a bullet, whichpassed through his neck. The same bulletpassed through Governor Connally as well.As Kennedy slumped toward his wife, asecond bullet struck him in the head, causinga massive head wound.The motorcade rushed to ParklandMemorial Hospital, where doctors franticallyworked to revive Kennedy. He waspronounced dead within a half hour.The assassination
105Using a handheld Super 8mmmovie camera (below left),Dallas dressmaker AbrahamZapruder filmed the Kennedyassassination. Above, Zapruderdescribes the wounds toPresident Kennedy on a Dallastelevision station. At top left aframe from the film showsPresident Kennedy being struckby an assassin’s bullet.The Zapruder Film
106The Zapruder FilmThis is a frame from the film, which can befound at various websites online
107This photo taken for the WarrenCommission, the committeeformed to investigate theassassination of the president,shows the Texas School BookDepository Building, where theCommission concluded theshots that killed PresidentKennedy and Governor Connallywere fired from. The red circleand black arrows show thewindow where witnesses saw arifle barrel immediately afterKennedy was hit.Upon interior examination,police found boxes stackedaround the window to create a“sniper’s nest” concealing theshooter.
108Dallas police soon beganlooking for Lee Harvey Oswald,an employee at the TexasSchool Book DepositoryEyewitnesses reportedseeing Oswald shooting apolice officer who had tried tostop him for questioning.Oswald was eventuallycaptured in a Dallas theater,and held for two days. Policedecided to move him from theDallas city jail to the DallasCounty jail. However, Oswaldwould not survive the transfer.In a picture allegedly taken byOswald’s wife in their backyard,Lee Harvey Oswald is shownwith a 6.5 Mannlicher-Carcanorifle that was found in thesniper’s nest after theassassination, as well as a copyof the “Daily Worker”newspaper.The assassin suspect
109The Murder WeaponWitnesses reported seeing a rifle muzzlebeing drawn in from a window on the 6thFloor of the Book Depository. Policesearched the building and found the riflehidden between boxes of books. They alsofound three shell casings on the floornearby the window where the shots wereallegedly fired.
110Dallas nightclub owner JackRuby approached Oswald,revolver in hand, as Oswaldwas being transferred fromthe Dallas City Jail to theCounty Jail on November 24,1963.Shot in the abdomen, Oswalddied while undergoingemergency surgery atParkland Memorial Hospital,the same hospital wherePresident Kennedy had diedtwo days before.Oswald’s death ended thepossibility for a trial in whichquestions about a possibleconspiracy in Kennedy’sdeath could have beenanswered.The alleged assassin was murderedRubyOswald
111Ruby claimed he did itto prevent Mrs.Kennedy from havingto endure a trial inDallas.Ruby was convicted ofmurder, but died ofcancer in jail.
112A Nation MournsAs dignitaries lookon, a militaryhonor guardsurroundsKennedy’s casketin the U.S. CapitolRotunda. After afuneral mass inWashington,Kennedy wasburied in ArlingtonNational Cemeteryoutside the city.One feature ofthe Kennedygravesite isthe “EternalFlame”
113Many feared that Kennedy’s assassination mighthave been part of a conspiracy against the entireU.S. government. Vice President Lyndon B.Johnson was rushed to Air Force One and swornin by Federal Judge Sarah T. Hughes. “Lady Bird”Johnson, the new president’s wife, is to the rightof Johnson, and Jacqueline Kennedy is atJohnson’s left.Inauguration of the new presidentThe PresidentialSuccession Actof 1947 allowedfor the VicePresident totake over whenthe presidentwas disabledand unable toperform theduties of theoffice. Theprocess becameformalized in1967 in the 25thamendment.
114President Johnsonappointed SupremeCourt justice EarlWarren to head acommissioninvestigating theKennedyassassination.The Commissiondetermined that LeeHarvey Oswald wasthe lone Kennedyassassin and therewas no conspiracy inthe Dallas shooting.Questions still remainif Oswald acted alone.Warren Commission
115Background on LBJ1964 ElectionEnvironmental legislationCivil rights movement in 1964Great Society programsWarren Court
116Lyndon B. Johnson36thPresident of the United States (2ndperiod)Born in 1908 in central TexasStudied education atSouthwest Texas State Teachers’CollegeServed in the Navy duringWorld War IIServed six terms in U.S. Housebefore elected to the Senate,becoming youngest majorityleader in U.S. historyHe had two main goals. Thefirst was full civil rights forAfrican Americans. The secondwas to end poverty in America
119Goldwater believed that the federal governmentshould not work to solve social and economicissues, instead they should be left to the statesGoldwater also believed that federal programssuch as Social Security should be privatized, andother programs, such as the Tennessee ValleyAuthority, should be soldGoldwater also encouraged a “get tough” policywith nations such as Cuba and North Vietnam,and many were concerned he might use nuclearweapons against those nationsGoldwater, a conservative Senator fromArizona, viewed the issues facing theU.S. much differently from the liberal LBJ
120Johnson emphasized JFK’s accomplishments,as well as his own during his year asPresidentJohnson highlighted the programs he had been ableto push through Congress, for example theenvironmental, social, and educational programsAlthough Johnson announced that he felt thatsending troops to Vietnam would not solve thatnation’s problems, he had proven that he could betough on communism when the alleged firing on twoU.S. destroyers took place in the Gulf of Tonkin. Withindays, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution,which further increased US involvement in VietnamSuccessfully characterized Goldwater as anextremist who might use nuclear weapons in Vietnam,reverse popular federal programs, and opposed civilrights for African Americans
121Highly controversial ad sponsoredby the Johnson campaignAired only once on NBC television,ad was pulled after complaints byGoldwater campAd showed picture of young girlpulling petals from daisy, and then anuclear mushroom cloud. Johnson’svoice can be heard in the backgroundsaying, “…these are the stakes, tomake a world in which all of Godschildren can live, or to go into thedarkness. We must either love eachother, or we must die.”Ad is considered to be one of thefirst examples of negative televisioncampaigningThe “Daisy girl” commercial
122Johnson won election in a landslide victory,capturing 61% of the popular vote and 486electoral votes (5thper.)
123Impact of the electionLBJ won a sweeping electoral triumph,nearly eclipsing Franklin D. Roosevelt’svictory over Alf Landon in 1936The election was a mandate for LBJ tocontinue the “Great Society”. Because hehad won a sizable victory, he did not haveto worry about appeasing conservativesouthernersHowever, the “defection” of southernstates to Goldwater indicated the beginningof a shift from the Democratic “SolidSouth” to a Republican base
125In 1962, Rachel Carsonpublished The Silent Springmaking Americans aware ofthe dangers of DDT andother chemical pesticidesto the environment.Although theenvironmental movementdid not take off on a largescale until the 1970s,Carson’s book began anational dialogue on theeffects of chemicals on theenvironment.Environment
126LBJ’s Legislation onConservation/Environment (1)1963: Clean Air Act provided anexpanded and strengthened nationalprogram to control and prevent air pollution.1964: Eight environmental laws enactedincluding the Wilderness Act, to preserve large landareas in untouched condition and the WaterResources Research Act to research ways of makingthe most of existing water resources to avoid or easeshortages1965: Eighteen environmental laws enactedincluding the Water Quality Act which strengthenedthe federal water pollution law and the HighwayBeautification Act which removed junkyards andlandscaped of areas adjacent to highways
127LBJ’s Legislation onConservation/Environment (2)1966: Thirteen environmental lawsenacted including the EndangeredSpecies Act which directed theSecretary of the Interior to protectspecies of fish and wildlife threatenedwith extinction and the Fish andWildlife Conservation Protection Actwhich also directed the Secretary of theInterior to protect 35 species ofmammals and 30-40 species of birdswhich conservationists believed wouldotherwise become extinct. Among theanimals and birds considered were thewhooping crane, trumpeter swan,prairie chicken, California condor, Kenaimoose, Kodiak bear, Key deer, fur sealand American bison.
128LBJ’s Legislation onConservation/Environment(3)1967-8: Twentyenvironmental laws enactedincluding the Air Quality Actwhich strengthened the powersof local, state, and federalauthorities to combat pollutedair and its sources and theNational WildernessPreservation System wasincreased by more than 800,000acres, which protected 9.1million acres of federally ownedlands
129Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. andPresident Lyndon B. Johnson met to discusscivil rights legislation, once Johnson tookover.
130The CivilRights Actof 1964The bill was introducedinto Congress in 1963prior to the March onWashington. JFK wastrying to push throughthe legislation when hewas assassinated. LBJwas able to use hisinfluence in Congressto help get it passedonce he becamepresident.
131The Civil Rights Act of1964Required uniformstandards for voting andabolished literacy testsMade racialdiscrimination andsegregation in publicplaces, such as theaters,restaurants and hotels,illegalOutlawed discriminationin any federally fundedprogram or job, includingdiscrimination based ongenderPresident Lyndon B.Johnson signed thebillJuly 2, 1964
132Mississippi SummerProject of 1964Organized by the Council of FederatedOrganizations (COFO)Many northern white studentsvolunteeredVolunteers registered voters andencouraged them to vote for theMississippi Freedom Democratic Party(MFDP)Volunteers set up “freedom schools”to raise awareness of the inequities ofthe education system where AfricanAmerican schools had limitedresources.MISSISSIPPI
133During the Summer Project, three volunteersturned up missing: Andrew Goodman, JamesChaney, and Michael SchwernerOn June 21, 1964 the three men setout to investigate a church bombingnear Philadelphia, MS. They werearrested for “traffic violations” andheld for several hours in jail, the lastplace they were seen alive. Theirbodies were found 6 weeks later. Bothwhite men were shot once in thechest while Chaney was brutallybeaten to death. No one was everconvicted of murder, the perpetratorswere only convicted of interferingwith their federal civil rights becausethe all-white juries refused to bringback a murder conviction.Goodman Chaney Schwerner
134MISSISSIPPI FREEDOM DEMOCRATIC PARTY(MFDP)Created in 1964 by COFO as a direct result of the MississippiSummer ProjectIts purpose was to challenge the Democratic party whichdenied access to African AmericansMembership in MFDP was open to all but was primarily BlackMembers attended the 1964 Democratic convention inAtlantic City, New JerseyThey supported LBJ but traditional white democratsthreatened to support Republican candidate Goldwater if LBJhelped MFDPThey were offered some seats at the convention but becauseso few they would have no real power so MFDP declinedEven though it was a technical defeat it became a turningpoint in civil rights movement because it helped to lead to theconcept of “Black Power”
135Photos of theMississippi DemocraticFreedom Party at the1964 Democraticconvention in AtlanticCity, New JerseyFANNIE LOU HAMER,important activist
136Malcolm XBlack Muslim, Black activistMalcolm X began his activistcareer by preaching Blackseparatism. He felt that Blacksshould not try to fit into whitesociety, instead they shouldfocus on developing their owncommunities and economicstructures. He also believed inusing violence to achieve thesegoals, if necessary.
137In 1964 Malcolm Xmade a pilgrimage toMecca as dictated by hisMuslim beliefs. On thistrip he came to believein the brotherhood of allraces and changed hisstance on separatismbetween blacks andwhites. He broke awayfrom the Nation of Islamand worked with peopleof all races.
138AMENDMENT XXIV1964SECTION 1. THE RIGHT OFCITIZENS OF THE UNITEDSTATES TO VOTE IN ANYPRIMARY OR OTHER ELECTIONFOR PRESIDENT OR VICEPRESIDENT, FOR ELECTORS FORPRESIDENT OR VICE PRESIDENT,OR FOR SENATOR ORREPRESENTATIVE IN CONGRESS,SHALL NOT BE DENIED ORABRIDGED BY THE UNITEDSTATES OR ANY STATE BYREASON OF FAILURE TO PAYANY POLL TAX OR OTHER TAX.SECTION 2. THE CONGRESSSHALL HAVE POWER TOENFORCE THIS ARTICLE BYAPPROPRIATE LEGISLATION.CARTOON IS TITLED“HERE’S ANOTHER ONE FOR YOU”
139Johnson outlined theprogram in acommencement speech atthe University of Michiganin May, 1964. Many of theideas were first proposedby JFK who couldn’t getCongress to pass themwhile LBJ did.“Your imagination, yourinitiative, and yourindignation will determinewhether we build a societywhere progress is theservant of our needs, or asociety where old valuesand new visions areburied under unbridledgrowth. For in your timewe have the opportunityto move not only towardthe rich society and thepowerful society, butupward to the GreatSociety.”The Great Society
140Development of the Great SocietyLBJ pushed many of JFK’soriginal programs throughCongress. He was successfulsince he had the clout from beinga powerful Senate majorityleader: “The Johnson Treatment”LBJ initiated “War on Poverty”Johnson’s goal was to“reshape America” similar towhat his idol, Franklin D.Roosevelt, had done with theNew Deal
141Name of Great SocietyProgramYear ProgramEnactedPurpose ofProgramEconomic Opportunity Act(EOA)1964 Created several includingJob Corps; VISTA, andHead StartMedicare 1965 Created Medicare andMedicaid federal healthinsurance programsDepartment of Housing &Urban Development(HUD)1965 Administered Federalhousing programsCorporation for PublicBroadcasting (PBS)1967 Funded educational TVand radio broadcastingClean Air Act Amendment 1965 Established emissionstandards for motorvehiclesTruth in Packaging Act 1966 Set standards for labelingconsumer productsDepartment ofTransportation1966 Dealt with air, rail, andhighway transportation
142President Johnson pushed through theEconomic Opportunity Act of 1964 as thecornerstone of his “War on Poverty”This law provided over $1 billion for poverty relief, educationand job training in programs like:1. Head Start = pre-school for poor kids2. Job Corps3. Work-Study program for university students3. VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America) = a domesticversion of the Peace Corps5. Neighborhood Youth Corps = basic education and adult jobtraining6. CAPS (Community Action Programs) = it proposed the"maximum feasible participation" by poor peoplethemselves to determine what would help them the most.CAPS was a radical departure from how government hadrun most social reform programs in the past.7. Food Stamp program
143Purpose = to meet social,nutritional, psychological, andeducational needs ofdisadvantaged preschool-agedchildrenDesigned by a panel ofchild development specialistsProgram began as an 8week summer program in 1965;was soon expanded under theDepartment of Health,Education, and Welfare (nowcalled the Department of Healthand Human Services)First Lady Johnsonvisited a classroom forProject Head Start,03/19/1966Head Start, 1964
144Based on the New Deal CivilianConservation Corps (CCC) Provided disadvantaged youngpeople with vocational, academic,and social training skillsStudents between the ages of16-24 could learn a trade, earn ahigh school diploma or GED, gethelp finding a job, and receive anallowanceSergeant Shriver (formerdirector of the Peace Corps) wasthe first directorThe Jobs Corps, 1964
146Volunteers In Service to America(VISTA)Domestic version of the PeaceCorps Provided volunteers to assistdisadvantaged persons in theirdevelopment and training;volunteers were paid a smallstipend and health insuranceIncluded vocational trainingVISTA was eventually absorbedinto AmeriCorps program duringthe Clinton Administration, andrenamed AmeriCorps/VISTA
147The official purpose of theFood Stamp Act of 1964 was tostrengthen the agriculturaleconomy & provide improvedlevels of nutrition for low-income households.Operated by state and localwelfare offices, the FederalGovernment oversees the stateoperation of the Program. Theprogram is in operation in the50 states, the District ofColumbia, Guam and the U.S.Virgin Islands.Food Stamp Act of 1964There are just under 20million recipients today
14805001000150020002500300035004000450050001940 1955 1965AFDCRise of the welfare state: Aid to Families withDependent Children (AFDC) growth rate from1940 to 1970 in 1,000’s (1,000 = 1,000,000)
149Elementary & Secondary Education BillJohnson’s 1st grade teacher,Kate Deadrich Loney sat byJohnson as he signed the bill intolaw. The Elementary & SecondaryEducation Act said children fromlow-income homes requiredmore educational services thanchildren from affluent homes.Title I = 1 billion dollars a yearin funding to schools with a highconcentration of low-incomechildren.
150Title I funding by thefederal government,1980-2006Federal spending underthe Elementary andSecondary Education Act,1966-2006
151President Lyndon B. Johnsonsigning the Medicare Bill,07/30/1965 with ex-PresidentTruman and his wife next tohimMedicare (4thperiod)Passed in Julyof 1965,Medicareprovides thoseaged 65 ordisabled withhealth care.
152How Medicare worksHealth insurance for elderly anddisabledPartially financed by payroll tax;employee and employer both pay equalamountMedicare Part A includes hospitalinsurance, Part B covers outpatientservices and doctors fees not covered inPart AMedicare doesn’t pay 100% ofcosts; insured contributes “co-pay” (co-payment)Prescription benefits added in2006Narration regardingefforts to advance healthinsurance during theperiod 1945-1960
153President Kennedy addressing Congress onthe need to create the Medicare program.
154LBJ signs up former president Truman forMedicare honoring his attempts to enacthealth care for seniors in the 1940’s.
155The SupremeCourt underChief JusticeEarl Warrenmade many farreachingdecisions (5thperiod)
156During the 1960s, the Supreme Court underEarl Warren:Abolished school prayerAddressed the issue of CongressionalapportionmentEst. the “exclusionary rule” which forbids courtsto use illegally-obtained evidence at trialGuaranteed the right of counsel in felony casesGuaranteed defendants the right to have counselat police interrogationsRequired police to read a suspect theirConstitutional rights at the time of arrest (Mirandawarnings)
157Cleveland police searched DollreeMapp’s home looking for a fugitive.At first they did not have a warrant; laterthey came back with a “paper”. When Mappasked to see the warrant, the police refused.They searched the home; the police did notfind the fugitive, but they found what theybelieved were “obscene materials”. Mappwas convicted on the obscenity charge.The Supreme Court overturnedMapp’s conviction because theybelieved the evidence had beenobtained illegally, and should beexcluded at trial (this became knownas the Exclusionary Rule).Mapp v. Ohio, 1961
158Baker vs. Carr, 1962Wesberry v. Sanders, 1963Reynolds vs. Sims, 1964Baker vs. Carr, Supreme Court ordered thatfederal courts can ensure that state legislativedistricts be as near equal in population as possible,since some districts had millions and other hadhundredsWesberry v. Sanders, applied “one man, onevote” to House districts so that they would be asnear equal in population as possibleReynolds vs. Sims, extended the “one person-one vote” concept to redrawing of state legislativedistricts
159Engel v. Vitale, 1962Abbington v. Schempp, 1963Engel v. Vitale = prohibited state-sponsoredrecital of prayer in public schools due the 1stAmendment’s establishment clause (Congress shallmake no law respecting an establishment ofreligion…) and the 14thAmendment’s due processclause (…nor shall any state deprive any person oflife, liberty, or property, without due process oflaw…)Abbington v. Schempp = prohibited devotionalBible reading in public schools for the samereasons as in Engel
160Clarence Earl Gideonhandwrote this petition tothe U.S. Supreme CourtGideon was convicted of armedrobbery in Florida in 1961; sentenced to5 years in prisonHe asked the court to appoint anattorney for him because he could notafford one. The judge refused becauseSupreme Court precedent did not allowpoor defendants a public defenderGideon wrote a petition to theSupreme Court stating his 6thamendment right to counsel wasviolated; the Court agreed, and Gideonwon a new trial with a lawyer. He wasacquitted in his second trial.Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963
161Griswald v. Connecticut, 1965Established a right to privacy throughthe 4thand 9thAmendmentsSet a precedent for Roe v. Wade4thAmendment: The right of the peopleto be secure in their persons, houses,papers, and effects…9thAmendment: The enumeration in theConstitution, of certain rights, shall not beconstrued to deny or disparage othersretained by the people
162Miranda’s mug shotErnesto Miranda wasarrested for kidnapping andrape; signed confessionwithout seeking legal counselor being read his rightsSupreme Court ruled his 5thAmendment rights wereviolated because the police didnot inform him of right tocounsel or self-protection;conviction overturnedMiranda was convictedagain, using other evidence, inhis second trialMiranda v. Arizona, 1966
163Miranda Rights“You have the right to remain silent”“Anything you say can (and will) beused against you at trial”“You have the right to legalcounsel.”“If you cannot afford counsel, it willbe provided to you at no charge”
164Civil Rights movement 1965-69Native American empowermentMigrant farmersFeminist movementCountercultureInventionsStatistics
165Major social changes in the U.S. = American societyhad been dominated primarily by old-stock, whiteAnglo-Saxon males (WASP) but during the 1960s,minority groups that had been subordinate beganto more forcefully and successfully assertthemselves. They had allies in the new generationof baby boom college students who joined themovement for greater openness and accessibility topower. % of 18-24year oldsenrolled incollegedegreeprograms051015202530351940 1950 1960 1970
166This began at the University of California atBerkeley in 1964. Students were fundraising for civilrights workers in the south who were registeringvoters and participating in civil disobedienceactivities to protest segregation throughout thesouth.Berkeley officials stopped the fundraising, citingthe fact that protestors in the south were arrestedand $ could not be raised on campus to fund illegalactivities.The students responded with sit-ins anddemonstrations. Over 800 students were arrestedfor occupying the U.C. Administration Building, thelargest mass arrest of students in U.S. history up tothat time.This event brought college campuses across thenation into the anti-war movement, as they reactedto the brutal suppression of free speech.The Free Speech Movement
167Malcolm X wasassassinated whilegiving a speech onFebruary 21, 1965.The three gunmenarrested andconvicted werebelieved to beNation of Islammembers.
168A march was organized by the SCLC from Selma toMontgomery, Alabama on March 7, 1965. Why? Thedemonstrators demanded fairness in votingregistration (want a Voting Rights Act).SELMA TOMONTGOMERY
169Speech is order given to statetroopers to make suredemonstrators disperseDemonstrators were met by police with teargas and clubsThis event became known as “Bloody Sunday”
170A second march wasorganized forMarch 10, 1965Movie clip shows theimpact of the Selmamarch along with scenesfrom the second march.
171PresidentLyndon B.Johnson signedThe VotingRights Act of1965 in AugustSelma March worked
172VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965Authorized the use of federal voting registrarsPrevented states from changing their electionlaws without clearance from the nationalgovernmentPrevented the use of literacy tests as aprerequisite for votingLBJ announcedthe VotingRights Act
173Watts riotsAugust 1965Riots broke out in Watts, CA(L.A.)! Why? To protest thebeating of a drunk driving suspectby police officersParticipants were expressinganger over police brutality andthe poverty suffered in thecommunityDuring the 7 day period 34people were killed, over 1,000people were injured, and about$40 million dollars in propertydamaged
174Movie shows the destruction caused by theWatts riotsWATTS, CA
175Black Panther party founded in Oakland, CA in1966 (4thper)Bobby Sealeand HueyNewton, co-founders ofthe BlackPanther partyThe Black Pantherparty had a 10point platformwhich describedtheir goals ofBlackempowerment.
176Chicago race riots July 1966•In July, MLK traveled to Chicagoto protest housing conditions.•In mid-July, rioting took place inblack communities, ending onlyafter police and nationalguardsmen were brought in. •MLK took the protest to the all-white community of Cicero, whereprotestors were pelted with rocksand beaten with sticks byresidents. •City officials agreed to end thehousing discriminatory practicesand King ended the protests.•MLK wins again!
1771967 race riots occurred in Detroit, Michigan;Atlanta, Georgia; Cincinnati, Ohio; Newark,New Jersey; and Tampa, FloridaVIDEO CLIP SHOWSSCENES FROM RIOTSIN 1967 AND 1968
1784/4/1968 = Martin Luther King AssassinatedKing shot in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968He had been in Memphis to help lead a strike byMemphis sanitation workersHe was shot through the neck with a high poweredrifleHe died a half hour later in a local hospitalJames Earl Ray, a prison escapee and careercriminal, was later arrested and convicted of King’smurder. He was sentenced to 99 years in prison. Helater died in jail of natural causes.Excerpt from hislast speech,April 2, 1968
179Martin Luther King’s widow, Coretta Scott King,and his children mourn during his funeral
181Native Americans pushed for their rightsUp until 1961 the federal government actively tried toget Indian people to move off their reservations and intocities to encourage assimilation.In 1961, when the policy was discontinued, the U.S.Commission on Civil Rights noted that, for NativeAmericans, "poverty and deprivation are common."With the Civil Rights movement as amodel Native Americans became moreactive in seeking a better life for their people.In a series of court victories NativeAmericans began winning back propertyillegally taken from them in previous decades.A new group called AIM (American Indian Movement)began a series of confrontations with the federalgovernment.Many more Americans became aware of the plight ofNative Americans as a result of these actions.
182Indian Occupations of Alcatraz Island, 1969In 1964, a group of five Sioux occupied the island forfour hours. They demanded the use of the island as acultural center and an Indian university.The November 9, 1969, occupation was planned bymany different tribes and the name "Indians of All Tribes"was adopted for the initial 100 member group.They wanted the deed to the island, to establish anIndian university, a cultural center, and a museum.On June 10, 1971, the year and a half long occupationended when armed federal marshals, FBI agents, andspecial forces police removed five women, four children,and six unarmed Indian men.As a result of the occupation the official governmentpolicy of termination of Indian tribes was ended and apolicy of Indian self-determination became the official U.S.government policy.During the period the occupiers were on AlcatrazIsland, President Nixon returned Blue Lake and 48,000acres of land to the Taos Indians. Occupied lands nearDavis California would become home to a Native Americanuniversity.
183Cesar Chavez led the fight for fairtreatment of migrant farm workers throughboycotts, demonstrations, and marches
184The United Farm Workers led byCesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta,the UFW gained many importantrights for the historicallyunderrepresented migrant farmworkers.Before the UFW, workingconditions were brutal for mostagricultural workers. Wages werefar below the poverty level and notsubject to minimum wagestandards mandated upon mostother professions. Field workersdid not have access to cleandrinking water or portable toilets.Employers did not adhere to fairbusiness practices. Housing wasrarely equipped with indoorplumbing or a kitchen facilities.“Strike”
185Chavez’s career during the ’60sChavez worked for the Community ServiceOrganization outside of San Jose, California where heserved as Director from 1958-19621962 Chavez formed the National Farm Workers’Association (NFWA)1965 NFWA authorized a strike against Californiagrape growers; the strike lasted five years1966 Chavez led marchers on 340 mile march toSacramento to draw attention to plight of farmworkers1966 NFWA merged with Filipino farm workers tocreate the United Farm Workers of America (UFW)1967 UFW began grape boycott1968 Chavez fasted for 25 days; broke fast withSenator Robert F. Kennedy during Mass
186Background to theFeminist Movement of the1960’sThe origins of the feministmovement stretched back to thesuffragists of the 19thand early 20thcenturies. The issues during thattime were voting rights, owning andinheriting property and control overtheir own lives.By the 1960’s, women had securedequal rights under the law.Feminists of the 1960’s and 70’sturned to other issues such aslegalizing birth control, securingreproductive freedom by legalizingabortion and equal access toeducation and jobs.Simone deBeauvoirwrote TheSecond Sex in1949, a bookthat impactedfuturefeminists
187Betty FriedanIn 1963 Friedan’s book, TheFeminine Mystique, became a bestseller with over three million copiessold in the first few years.The book argued that manyAmerican women led boring andunhappy lives because they wereexpected to find fulfillment throughthe achievements of husbands andchildren.Betty Friedan encouraged herreaders not to be defined by a male-dominated society but to seek newroles and responsibilities and tofind their own personal andprofessional identities.
188In 1966, 28 professional women, includingBetty Friedan, established the NationalOrganization for Women (NOW).The stated purpose of the new organizationwas:“We, men and women… believe that thetime has come for a new movement towardtrue equality for all women in America, andtoward a fully equal partnership of thesexes, as part of the world-wide revolutionof human rights now taking place within andbeyond our national borders.The purpose of NOW is to take action tobring women into full participation in themainstream of American society now,exercising all the privileges andresponsibilities thereof in truly equalpartnership with men.”National Organization of Women
1890 20 401940195019601970WomenWorkers% of females in the labor force1940 to 1970
190Chart comparing the median salary income ($) of maleand female professional and technical workers from1939 to 1970
191Divorce rates went up for various reasons, inpart due to women’s increased ability to getwork, changing societal attitudes towards sexand acceptance of divorce
1921950’s American familyMuch of therebellion inthe 1960swas inreaction toconservativegender rolesandconsumerismof the 1950s.The Counterculture of the 1960s6thperiod
193Origins of counter cultureideas:Ralph Waldo Emerson andTranscendentalism in the mid-19thcentury discussed looking inward andexperiencing the universe in apersonal way.Emerson was the first “drop out”withdrawing to a cabin on WaldenPond from 1845 to 1847. He also wasone of the first to express mistrust ofhis elders, those over 30. "I havelived some thirty years on thisplanet," he wrote "and I have yet tohear the first syllable of valuable oreven earnest advice from my seniors.They have told me nothing, andprobably cannot tell me anything tothe purpose.”Walden
194Walt WhitmanWhitman sought toreconcile the newestachievements of Westernscience with the oldesttruths of Eastern religion,the "myths Asiatic."Whitman, along with otherwriters and artists duringthe 1860s, werefascinated with "Oriental"thought, especiallyHinduism and Buddhism.In the 1960s, the childrenof the American middleclass would turn again tothe East.
195Beats in the 1950s: literary rebels againstconformity and the consumer cultureThey took their name from a Zen Buddhist termthat means to search for inner grace.Beats met in coffee houses where they recitedpoetry accompanied by jazz musicSeveral famous poets and authors identified withthe beat movement. Allen Ginsburgs poem Howlserved as an anthem for the movement.Jack Kerouac, the most famous writer of thegroup, had literary and financial success with hisnovels, the most popular being On the road.The Beats were a forerunner to the largercounterculture movements that would take place inthe 1960’s.
197•The 60s were the age of youth,as 70 million children from thepost-war baby boom becameteenagers and young adults. •No longer content to be imagesof the generation ahead of them,young people wanted change.•The changes affectededucation, values, lifestyles,laws, and entertainment. Manyof the revolutionary ideas whichbegan in the sixties arecontinuing to evolve today. College students formed thebulk of the anti-war movement,part of the counter-culturemovement.
19805000100001500020000250003000035000400001940 1950 1965 1970Population of persons aged 15 to 24:1940 – 1970 (in thousands, add threezero’s)
199Part of the counter-culture movement wasexperimentation with drugs and sex!Timothy Leary, a symbol of the drugculture, urged people to discover thefreedom produced by drugs and to "turn on,tune in, drop out." To Leary, thehallucinogen LSD offered a path topsychedelic ecstasy and religiousrevelation. (5thperiod) Leary
200Major 1960’s inventions:1963 zip codes were firstintroduced in the U.S.1963 Douglas Engelbart inventedthe computer mouse1966 first successful commercialfax machine invented by XeroxRecent zipcode map
205A Walk in SpaceAstronaut Ed White maneuvered outside the GeminiIV spacecraft during the first American walk in spacein June, 1965. After six successful Mercury one-manflights, Gemini two-man flights were rehearsals ofskills astronauts would need in lunar flights. Whitelater would die in the 1967 Apollo I fire.
206Fire in the Spacecraft!America’s moon landing hopesnearly collapsed with the January1967, Apollo I fire. AstronautsGus Grissom, Ed White, and RogerChaffee died in the fire from awire striped of its insulationwhich occurred in a “dressrehearsal” for the flight.
207After the Apollo I fire, NASA moved quickly toregain lost ground. In fall 1968, Apollo 7signified America’s return to space, and inDecember, Astronauts Frank Borman, JamesLovell and William Anders embarked on man’sfirst mission to orbit the moon.Apollo 8 was launched on December 21, 1968.
208Man on the moon,The Flight of Apollo 11From left, mission commander NeilArmstrong, center, command modulepilot Michael Collins, and right, lunarmodule pilot Edwin (“Buzz”) Aldrin.July 20, 1969July 16, 1969
209“That’s one small step for man, one giantleap for mankind” -Neil ArmstrongMillions of televisionviewers worldwidewatched in black andwhite as Armstrongdescended the Eagle’sladder to the lunarsurface.At 10:56 p.m. on July20, 1969, Armstrongbecame the first manto walk on the moon.Below, the firstfootprint on lunar soil.
210Soon after Armstrongstepped on the lunarsurface, Aldrinfollowed
211The two astronauts raisedthe American flag. Abovepicture was taken by amechanized camera insidethe cabin of Eagle. Attachedto one of the Eagle’s landinglegs was a plaquecommemorating the landing.Left, the astronauts unveilthe plaque during theirmoonwalk.
212The astronauts splashed down onJuly 24, 1969. In this picture, they arewearing bio-isolation suits in case theybrought any diseases with them from thelunar surface.
213Military Spending under President Johnson in billionsof dollars:Why did it increase so much after 1966?
214USS MaddoxTarget of afictionalNorthVietnamesenaval attackTonkin Gulf Incident, August 1964The official story was that North Vietnamese torpedoboats launched an "unprovoked attack" against a U.S.destroyer on "routine patrol" in the Tonkin Gulf onAugust 2, 1964, and that North Vietnamese PT boatsfollowed up with a "deliberate attack" on a pair of U.S.ships two days later. Evidence uncovered since the eventhas proven that there was no attack that night, and somehave suggested that this incident was an excuse toescalate U.S. involvement in the region.
215President Johnson signed the Gulf of TonkinResolution, August 7, 1964The Gulf of Tonkin Resolutionauthorized President Johnson to"take all necessary measures torepel any armed attack againstforces of the United States and toprevent further aggression”.The resolution passedunanimously in the House, andby a margin of 82-2 in theSenate.The Resolution allowedJohnson to wage all out waragainst North Vietnam withoutever securing a formalDeclaration of War fromCongress!!!!!!SenatorWayneMorseopposed theresolution
216LBJ had stated in his 1964 presidential campaignthat he was “not going to send American boysnine or ten thousand miles away from home to dowhat Asian boys ought to be doing forthemselves.”By early 1965, the communists were well on theirway to victory and Johnson had to either increaseU.S. involvement or see South Vietnam defeated.
217In 1965 after Viet Cong forces attackedseveral American bases LBJ authorized the"Rolling Thunder" campaign, the systematicbombing of North Vietnam. This bombingwould continue off and on for the next sevenyears.
218Tet Offensive 1967-1968Planned by General Giap,commander of the NorthVietnam Army, who hadplanned and executed thebattle which drove theFrench out of Vietnam in1954.By the end of 1966, NorthVietnam had suffered largecausalities in manpowerand supplies through thebombing of the North andthe fighting in the South.The primary goals of Giapwere to destabilize theSaigon regime and to forcethe United States tonegotiate a settlement.
219The Tet OffensiveIn October 1967, the first stage of the offensivebegan with a series of small attacks in remote and borderareas designed to draw the Southern Vietnamese army(Army of Republic of Vietnam, ARVN) and U.S. forces awayfrom the cities, the real targets.Even though there were warnings of an attack, morethan one-half of the ARVN were on leave because of theapproaching TET (Lunar New Year) holiday.On January 31, 1968, the full-scale offensive began,with simultaneous attacks by the communists on fivemajor cities, thirty-six provincial capitals, sixty-fourdistrict capitals, and numerous villages. In Saigon, suicidesquads attacked many strategic points including the radiostation, the ARVNs joint General Staff Compound, Tan SonNhut airfield, and the United States embassy, causingconsiderable damage and throwing the city into turmoil.The U.S. attacked the communist forces effectivelythroughout the country through bombing and artilleryattacks, which extensively damaged the urban areas.
220The Tet OffensiveUp until this attack Americans weretold that the communists were losing thewar, but many questioned how a“defeated” army could launch such alarge-scale and effective attack.This offensive made it clear that thiswar could only be won through a greatercommitment of men and resources.On March 31, 1968, Johnsonannounced that he would not seek hispartys nomination for another term ofoffice, declared a halt to the bombing ofNorth Vietnam (except for a narrow stripabove the DMZ), and urged Hanoi toagree to peace talks.U.S. troops at this point in Vietnamwas 525,000.
221My Lai Massacre March 16, 1968My Lai village was located in an area ofSouth Vietnam entrenched with communists.Army Lieutenant William Calleycommanded and led the Charlie Companysoldiers into the village firing, even thoughthere had been no report of opposing fire.Numerous members of their unit had beenmaimed or killed in the area during thepreceding weeks.During their search and destroy mission,over 300 apparently unarmed civilians,including women, children, and the elderlywere massacred. Calley was said to haverounded up a group of the villagers, orderedthem into a ditch, and mowed them down ina fury of machine gun fire.When news of the atrocities surfaced, itsent shockwaves through the U.S. politicalestablishment, the militarys chain ofcommand, and an already divided Americanpublic.Army First LieutenantWilliam Calley, Jr
222The Vietnam War at Home: Demonstrations and Civil DisobedienceIn 1965 when Johnson began the massivebombing campaign against North Vietnam theanti-war movement began organizing protests.Extensive media coverage, especially on thenightly TV news, brought the violent and bloodyguerrilla war home each night into everyAmerican living room.When draftees were sent to Vietnam, youngpeople on college and university campuses allaround the country organized protests andteach-ins against the war.Over the next 2 years the anti-warmovement snowballed. Activists, celebrities andmusicians took up the anti-war cause and wavedanti-war banners. Their speeches and theirmusic reflected the anger and hopelessness thatAmericans felt over the Vietnam war. Even someGI’s stationed overseas began supporting theanti-war movement in whatever capacity theycould, from wearing peace symbols to refusingto obey orders.
223Examples of anti-war posters from the 1960’s
224There were several types of protestsranging from “teach-ins” on collegecampuses to marches and civildisobedience.
225CandidatesMcCarthyKennedyLBJ drops outHumphrey1968 Democratic ConventionWallaceNixonElection resultsFirst year of Nixon’s presidency
227Minnesota Senator Eugene McCarthyannounced his candidacy late in 1967Anti-war coalition withinDemocrat Party looks for acandidate to oppose LBJRobert Kennedy declined soMcCarthy decided to runMcCarthy attractedhundreds of students to hiscampaign for the NewHampshire primaryWhile LBJ won the primary,McCarthy’s strong showing of42% of the vote showed thepresident was vulnerable
228Robert Kennedy entered theraceKennedy decided to enter therace a few days afterMcCarthy’s showing in the NewHampshire primaryMany saw Kennedy asopportunistic after McCarthy’sshowing. Others saw hiscandidacy as a personalvendetta against LBJKennedy won primaries inIndiana and Nebraska, but wasassassinated soon after hisvictory in the California primaryon June 5, 1968
229During anationallytelevisedaddress on theVietnam War onMarch 31, 1968,PresidentLyndon Johnsonshocked theaudience byannouncing,“I will not seek,nor will I accept,the nominationof my party foranother term asyour president”
230Soon after LBJdropped out of therace, Vice PresidentHubert Humphreyannounced hiscandidacy for theDemocraticnomination. Withthe assassination ofKennedy and thesplit of theDemocratic Party,Humphrey won thenomination withoutentering anyprimaries.
231As Democrats met inChicago in August1968 to nominate acandidate, more than10,000 anti-wardemonstratorsprotested. Chicagopolice mowedthrough the crowds inan attempt todisperse them,attacking not onlydemonstrators, butinnocent civilians andnews mediapersonnel. Millionssaw a city, and apolitical party, out ofcontrol.Democratic National Convention,August 1968
232The Candidacy of George WallaceAlabama Governor George C.Wallace, Alabama governor andwell-known segregationist, ranas the nominee of the AmericanIndependent Party. RetiredGeneral Curtis LeMay wasWallace’s running mate.Wallace ran on a strong “law-and-order” platform,emphasizing states’ rights, firmstance on Vietnam, and treatinganti-war critics as “traitors”Wallace was able to carry fivesouthern states in the Novemberelection
233The Republican TicketRichard Nixon, left, loser to John F. Kennedy in 1960,re-entered political life and easily captured theRepublican nomination. He selected little knownMaryland Governor Spiro Agnew, right, as his vicepresidential running mate.
234Nixon won a substantial victory in the Electoral Collegeand a relatively small victory in the 1968 popular vote.Wallace took slightly over 8% of the popular vote. Manypolitical scientists believe that Wallace’s candidacy tookmore votes away from Nixon than from Humphrey.
235President Richard M. Nixon•Elected in 1968•March 1969 Secret bombing campaign Cambodia•May 1969 Appointed Burger Chief Justice SupremeCourt•July 1970 announced creation EPA & NOAA•February 1971 Columbus Day federal holiday•December 1971 appointed Powell, Rehnquist to theSupreme Court•February 1972 visited China•June 1972 signed SALT Treaty•November 1972 reelected president•January 1973 peace treaty to end Vietnam Conflict•April 1973 accepted responsibility for Watergatebreak-in and cover-up•December 1973 Gerald Ford appointed new VicePresident after Spiro Agnew resigned in October•August 1974 Resigned from office after impeachmentarticles presented in House of Representatives
236Conservatives believe that the nationalgovernment should play a smaller role in people’slives. Nixon, a conservative, reacted to the GreatSociety policies of the 1960s by giving power backto the states:Revenue sharing: the federal governmentreturned some of the federal taxes to state andlocal governments to meet their needs.Local control for desegregation of schools. Thiswas a major success in the south where prior tothe program in the late 1960s more than 70% ofAfrican American students attended all blackschools. After local biracial committees intervenedthat number dropped to less than 20% by 1970.Nixon’s conservative domestic policiesbecame known as “New Federalism”
237Nixon’s campaign strategy to win the 1968 and 1972 elections wasto appeal to what he called the “silent majority”, the “greatmajority of Americans, the forgotten Americans, the non-shouters,the non-demonstrators”. He basically tried to appeal to middleclass whites who were angered by the Civil Rights movement, theVietnam War, and resentment towards the expanding federalgovernment. After he was in office however he faced a Democraticmajority Congress who kept his conservative policies in check.During his first term he approved liberal policies such as:Increased Social Security benefits and food stamps programsBuilt public housingApproved the 26thamendment to lower voting age to 18Established the Environmental Protection AgencyEstablished National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationEstablished Occupational Safety and Health AdministrationCreated a Presidential Task Force on Women’s RightsNixon at a rallywith religiousleader BillyGraham