Density Common Chemical Changes Q And A

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  • 1.
    • A physical property is a characteristic that you can observe without changing or trying to change the composition of the substance .
    • How something looks, smells, sounds, or tastes are all examples of physical properties .
    Physical Properties
  • 2.
    • You can detect many physical properties with your senses.
    • For example, you can see the color and shape of an object.
    Using Your Senses
    • You can also touch it to feel its texture.
    • You can smell the odor or taste the flavor of some matter.
  • 3.
    • To describe a sample of matter, you need to identify its state . This property, known as the state of matter , is another physical property that you can observe.
    State
  • 4. Click image to view movie.
  • 5.
    • Perhaps you are most familiar with the three states of water.
    State
    • You can drink or swim in liquid water .
  • 6. State
    • You use the solid state of water, which is ice, when you put ice cubes in a drink.
    • Although you can’t see it, water in the gas state is all around you in the air.
  • 7.
    • Some physical properties depend on the size of the object.
    Size-Dependent Properties
  • 8.
    • Another physical property that depends on size is mass , which is a measurement of how much matter it contains.
    Size-Dependent Properties
    • Weight is a measurement of force.
  • 9. Size-Dependent Properties
    • If you were to travel to other planets, your weight would change but your size and mass would not.
    • Weight depends on the mass of the object and on gravity .
  • 10.
    • Another physical property, density , does not depend on the size of an object .
    Size-Independent Properties
    • Density measures the amount of mass in a given volume .
    • To calculate the density of an object, divide its mass by its volume .
  • 11.
    • Another property, solubility , also does not depend on size.
    Size-Independent Properties
    • Solubility is the number of grams of one substance that will dissolve in 100 g of another substance at a given temperature.
  • 12.
    • The temperature at which a solid changed into a liquid is called its melting point .
    Melting and Boiling Point
    • The temperature at which a liquid changes into a gas is called its boiling point .
  • 13.
    • Some materials pull iron toward them.
    Magnetic Properties
    • These materials are said to be magnetic.
    • Lodestone is a rock that is naturally magnetic.
    • Some materials can be made into magnets.
  • 14.
    • Some properties of matter cannot be identified just by looking at a sample.
    Chemical Properties
    • For example, the ability to burn is a chemical property .
    • A chemical property is a characteristic that cannot be observed without altering the substance.
  • 15. Physical Changes
    • A physical change is one in which the form or appearance of matter changes, but not its composition. For example, a frozen lake has experienced a physical change .
    • Although the water changes states due to change in temperature, it is still made of the elements hydrogen and oxygen.
  • 16. Changing Shape
    • Crumpling a sheet of paper into a ball causes a physical change .
    • Whether it exists as one flat sheet or a crumples ball, the matter is still paper.
    • Generally, whenever you cut, tear, grind, or bend matter, you are causing a physical change .
  • 17. Dissolving
    • When you add sugar to iced tea, the sugar only seems to disappear.
    • Actually, the sugar dissolves .
    • When this happens, the particles of sugar spread out in the liquid.
    • The composition of the sugar stays the same, which is why the iced tea tastes sweet .
    • Only the form of the sugar has changed.
  • 18. Changing State
    • A physical change occurs when matter changes from one state to another.
    • When an ice cube melts, for example, it becomes liquid water.
    • Matter can change from any state to another.
    • Freezing is the opposite of melting.
    • During freezing , a liquid changes into a solid.
  • 19. Changing State
    • A liquid also can change into a gas. This process is known as vaporization .
    • During the reverse process, called condensation , a gas changes into a liquid.
  • 20. Changing State
    • In some cases, matter changes between the solid and gas states without ever becoming a liquid.
    • The process in which a solid changes directly into a gas is called sublimation .
    • The opposite process, in which a gas changes into a solid, is called deposition .
  • 21. Chemical Changes
    • The explosion of fireworks is an example of a chemical change .
    • During a chemical change , substances are changed into different substances.
    • In other words, the composition of the substance changes.
  • 22. Chemical Changes
    • When iron in steel is exposed to oxygen and water in air, iron and oxygen atoms combine to form the principle component in rust.
    • In a similar way, silver coins tarnish when exposed to air.
  • 23. Signs of Chemical Changes
    • Physical changes are relatively easy to identify.
    • If only the form of a substance changes, you have observed a physical change .
    • How can you tell whether a change is a chemical change ?
  • 24. Signs of Chemical Changes
    • You have witnessed a spectacular chemical change if you have seen the leaves on a tree change from green to bright yellow, red, or orange.
    • But, it is not a change from a green pigment to a red pigment , as you might think.
    • Pigments are chemicals that give leaves their color.
  • 25. Signs of Chemical Changes
    • The green pigmen t that you see during the summer is chlorophyll (KLOHR uh fihl).
    • In autumn, however, changes in temperature and rainfall amounts cause trees to stop producing chlorophyll .
  • 26. Signs of Chemical Changes
    • The chlorophyll already in the leaves undergoes a chemical change into colorless chemicals.
  • 27. Signs of Chemical Changes
    • The pigments that produce fall colors have been present in the leaves all along.
    • However, in the summer, chlorophyll is present in large enough amounts to mask these pigments .
    • In the fall, when chlorophyll production stops, the bright pigments become visible.
  • 28. Color
    • The reason a half-eaten apple turns brown is that a chemical change occurs when the apple is exposed to air.
    • The color of food changes as it is cooked because a chemical change occurs.
  • 29. Energy
    • Another sign of a chemical change is the release or gain of energy by an object.
    • Many substances must absorb energy in order to undergo a chemical change .
    • For example, energy is absorbed during the chemical changes involved in cooking.
  • 30. Energy
    • Another chemical change in which a substance absorbs energy occurs during the production of cement.
    • This process begins with the heating of limestone.
    • When it absorbs energy during heating, it undergoes a chemical change in which it turns into lime and carbon dioxide.
  • 31. Energy
    • Energy also can be released during a chemical change .
    • Fireworks release energy in the form of light that you can see.
  • 32. Odor
    • When eggs and other foods spoil, they undergo chemical change .
    • The change in odor is a clue to the chemical change .
    • When you smell an odd odor in foods, such as chicken, pork, or mayonnaise, you know that the food has undergone a chemical change .
    • You can use this clue to avoid eating spoiled food and protect yourself from becoming ill.
  • 33. Gases or Solids
    • The formation of a gas is a clue to a chemical change .
    • The formation of a solid is another clue to a chemical change .
    • A solid that separates out of a solution during a chemical change is called a precipitate .
    • A common precipitate forms when a solution containing sodium iodide is mixed with a solution containing lead nitrate.
  • 34. Not Easily Reversed
    • Physical and chemical changes are different from one another.
    • After solid ice melts into liquid water, it can refreeze into solid ice if the temperature drops enough.
    • Freezing and melting are physical changes .
  • 35. Not Easily Reversed
    • The substances produced during a chemical change cannot be changed back into the original substances by physical means.
    • Wood that has changed into ashes and gases cannot be restored to its original form as a log.
    • The substances that existed before the chemical change no longer exist.
  • 36. Chemical Versus Physical Changes
    • In a physical change , the composition of a substance does not change.
    • In a chemical change , the composition of a substance does change.
    • When a substance undergoes a physical change , only its form changes.
    • In a chemical change , both form and composition change.
  • 37. Chemical Versus Physical Changes
    • When substances like wood and copper undergo physical changes , the original wood and copper still remain after the change.
    • When a substance undergoes a chemical change , however, the original substance is no longer present after the change.
  • 38. Chemical Versus Physical Changes
    • Instead, different substances are produced during the chemical change .
    • When wood and copper undergo chemical changes , wood and copper have changed into new substances with new physical and chemical properties.
  • 39. Chemical Versus Physical Changes
    • Physical and chemical changes are used to recycle or reuse certain materials.
  • 40. Conservation of Mass
    • During a chemical change , the form or the composition of the matter changes.
    • The particles within the matter rearrange to form new substances, but they are not destroyed and new particles are not created.
  • 41. Conservation of Mass
    • The number and type of particles remains the same.
    • As a result, the total mass of the matter is the same before and after a physical or chemical change . This is known as the law of conservation of mass .
  • 42. Conservation of Mass
    • In many chemical changes in which mass seems to be gained or lost, the difference is often due to a gas being given off or taken in.
    • If the gases could be contained in a chamber around the candle, you would see that the mass does not change.
  • 43. Conservation of Mass
    • The scientist who first performed the careful experiments necessary to prove that mass is conserved was Antoine Lavoisier (An twan . luh VWAH see ay) in the eighteenth century.
    • It was Lavoisier who recognized that the mass of gases that are given off or taken from the air during chemical changes account for any differences in mass.
  • 44. MATCHING
    • State
    J. Release of energy K. Mass L. Liquid I. Behavior H. Physical property G. Physical change F. Color E. Density D. Chemical property C. Chemical change B. Boiling point 1. ___an indication that a chemical change has taken place. 2. ___temperature at which liquid changes to gas. K A I D B L E H F C J G
  • 45. MATCHING
    • State
    J. Release of energy K. Mass L. Liquid I. Behavior H. Physical property G. Physical change F. Color E. Density D. Chemical property C. Chemical change B. Boiling point 3. ___a physical property of matter. 4. ___size, shape, or state of matter. K A I D B L E H F C J G
  • 46. MATCHING
    • State
    J. Release of energy K. Mass L. Liquid I. Behavior H. Physical property G. Physical change F. Color E. Density D. Chemical property C. Chemical change B. Boiling point 5. ___measure of how much of an object there is. 6. ___property that could be used to indicate physical or chemical change. K A I D B L E H F C J G
  • 47. MATCHING
    • State
    J. Release of energy K. Mass L. Liquid I. Behavior H. Physical property G. Physical change F. Color E. Density D. Chemical property C. Chemical change B. Boiling point 7. ___melting is an example. 8. ___the ability to burn is an example K A I D B L E H F C J G
  • 48. MATCHING
    • State
    J. Release of energy K. Mass L. Liquid I. Behavior H. Physical property G. Physical change F. Color E. Density D. Chemical property C. Chemical change B. Boiling point 9. ___liquid, gas, or solid. 10. ___how something acts. K A I D B L E H F C J G
  • 49. MATCHING
    • State
    J. Release of energy K. Mass L. Liquid I. Behavior H. Physical property G. Physical change F. Color E. Density D. Chemical property C. Chemical change B. Boiling point 11. ___a state of matter 12. ___rusting of iron is an example K A I D B L E H F C J G
  • 50. MULTIPLE CHOICE 13. ____Which of these is not a physical property of matter. A. Density B. Mass D. Texture C. Ability to burn C 14. ____An example of physical change involving more than one substance is. A. Evaporating B. Rusting C. Burning D. Dissolving D
  • 51. MULTIPLE CHOICE 15. ____an example of a change of state is A. Evaporating B. Rusting C. Burning A D. Dissolving
  • 52. MULTIPLE CHOICE 16. ____Which of the following shows a behavioral property. A. Peeling a banana B. Iron attracted to a lodestone D. Hammer hitting a nail C. Snow melting in the Sun. B
  • 53. MULTIPLE CHOICE 17. ____is an example of a chemical change. A. Melting of chocolate. B. Freezing of water D. Burning of paper C. Salting of food D 18. ____which of the following is an example of a chemical change A. Evaporating B. Melting C. Burning D. Sublimation C
  • 54. MULTIPLE CHOICE 19. ____Which of these indicates that a chemical change has taken place A. Change from a liquid to a gas B. Change in shape D. Dissolving of a solid C. Release of heat energy. C
  • 55. MULTIPLE CHOICE 20. ____the density of a material is _____. A. How much the material weighs B. The mass of a unit volume D. Whether or not the material floats in a liquid C. How much space the material takes up B
  • 56. MULTIPLE CHOICE 21. ____The process of a liquid changing into a gas is called_______. A. Sublimation B. Condensation D. Deposition C. Vaporization C 22. ____the process of a gas changing into a liquid is called________. A. Sublimation B. Condensation C. Vaporization D. Deposition B
  • 57. 23. ____The process of a solid changing directly into a gas, without ever becoming a liquid is called is called_______. A. Sublimation B. Condensation D. Deposition C. Vaporization A 24. ____the process in which a gas changes directly into a solid without ever becoming a liquid is called________. A. Sublimation B. Condensation C. Vaporization D. Deposition D
  • 58. MULTIPLE CHOICE 25. ____an objects odor _____. A. Physical property B. Chemical property D. Chemical change C. Physical change A 26. ____a change in an object’s odor is the result of a _____. 27. ____the precipitation of a solid can indicate a _____. D D
  • 59. SHORT ANSWER List 3 ways you could change the physical properties of the piece of paper Crumpling the paper Tearing the paper Coloring the paper Dissolving the paper