Global Warming and Cooperatives: Capacity Building of Farmers


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This slide trace a link between cooperative institution, farmers, agriculture and global warming. It shows how agriculture activity induce global warming.

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Global Warming and Cooperatives: Capacity Building of Farmers

  1. 1. Global Warming and Cooperatives: Capacity Building of Farmers Dr. A. K. Asthana, ( MBA,Ph.D.,Research Guide) Director, Institute of Cooperative Management,Bhopal
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • The impact of global warming is spatial and across the regions, sectors and social groups. • Extent of vulnerability is variable in each region, sector, ecosystem and social group •
  3. 3. • Vulnerability to Global Warming 2 type • Bio-physical vulnerability (refers to physical condition of landscape and its impact on human and bio-diversity) • social vulnerability
  4. 4. • Amongst the regions, developing nations are more vulnerable than the developed nations. • Due to the fact that most of the developing nation’s economy is predominantly agrarian
  5. 5. • Global warming has its ugly manifestation in uncertainty of rain, unpredictable weather pattern, extreme temperature and increased incidence of cyclonic event. • Agriculture is on the forefront of vulnerable sectors.
  6. 6. • Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions have • Carbon dioxide (CO2), Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and Methane (CH4) are three major GHGs. • GHGs trap out-going long wave radiation and bounce it back to earth surface.
  7. 7. • Increase in global temperature is due to Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels, • land use and agriculture practice also play significant roles in built up of concentration of GHGs.
  8. 8. Global Warming and Impact on Agriculture • Ricardian models conclude that agricultural productivity first improves as temperatures go from cold to warm, then deteriorates going from warm to hot
  9. 9. • Negotiations amongst the nations revolved around four key issues; • Transfer of green technology transfer, • Mitigation Strategy, • Adaptation of existing technology and practice • Finance.
  10. 10. • Strategy to handle global warming should lay emphasis on alternate mitigation mechanism that is less technical and require less investment.
  11. 11. • General belief carbon dioxide (CO2), released by burning of fossil fuel is the most important GHG. • Conventional tillage practice in agriculture also produces significant carbon dioxide emission
  12. 12. • . As per FAO estimate cultivation of about 1.8 million sq km of arable land to produce corn and wheat release 18 million tones of carbon dioxide annually
  13. 13. • FAO indicates that agriculture related deforestration may emit 2.4 billion tones of carbon dioxide into atmosphere annually • Carbon is potent GHG. • 1. Its released in atmosphere is significant • 2. it remained in atmosphere for at least 100 years
  14. 14. • Agriculture has capacity to reduce GHG( Carbon dioxide) • 1. Photosynthesis ( absorption of CO2 by plant) • 2, Sequestration(absorption of CO2 by Soil) • (Carbon fixing plant like soyabean, pulse, by crop rotation)
  15. 15. • 3. Use of Bio-fuel • ( ethanol in petrol ) • from sugar processing and Jetropha.
  16. 16. • To increase productivity of agriculture use of chemical fertiliser • Use of nitrogen based fertilizer • Farmers tend to use excess nitrogen based fertiliser • Application of nitrogen based fertiliser should be near to active root for proper absorption of nitrogen by plant.
  17. 17. • Excess nitrogen or unulitilized nitrogen released Nitrous Oxide (N2O)in atmosphere. • Nitrous oxide is another potent GHG with global warming potential of 296 (1 tone of nitrous oxide has warming effect of 296 tones of carbon dioxide)
  18. 18. • In agriculture, flooded soil such as those used for rice cultivation and other cultivated wetland crops give emission of methane (CH4). • Manure from cows, sheep, goats and camels are also source of methane (CH4) emission.
  19. 19. • Manure produced by livestocks emit methane (CH4) and/or nitrous oxide(N2O) during storage and later its application to soil. • Methane (CH4) is also very potent GHG with global warming potential of 23.(1 tone of methane has warming effect of 23 tones of carbon dioxide)
  20. 20. • Mitigation of emission from agriculture requires relevant agriculture management practice. • This can be achieved by sustained education and training to farming community so that farmers can contribute towards easing global warming by knowledge management.
  21. 21. • In Bali conference it was agreed upon by the nations that mitigation action would be supported by capacity buildings in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner.
  22. 22. • India can well tackle global warming problem by capacity building of farming community and adopting environmentfriendly farming practice. • • >>> END<<<