Introducing<br />Until 1619, whatever slaves existed in America were those of “tawny” Native Indian origin. <br />It wasn’t until a Dutch slave ship needed supplies that the first Africans were bartered for. <br />In Virginia, the Dutch ship exchanged its slave ‘cargo’for food stuffs in order to complete its voyage (Billie). <br />African Entry into America<br />
Once their destination was determined, usually a plantation, slaves were put to work.<br />It is at this point that African slaves began their integral role in America’s music history.<br />‘Field hollers’ were a form of communication. Not only were they used to keep the workers’ pace, but they were also used for the benefit of slave-owners to track and located the whereabouts of their slaves (Crawford).<br />
<ul><li>On their time off, usually Sundays, the slaves would gather together and spend the day in song and dance.
“This was their time to come together and thank God they survived another day” (Free).
This drawing depicts a traditional ‘ring dance’ which was commonly preformed.</li></li></ul><li>Keeping in step…<br />This sketch illustrates several of the dance moves performed by the slaves.<br />
Here we see yet another superb example of slaves gathering in song and dance. We begin to see the use of instruments, as seen with the gentleman playing a violin.<br />
These are some of the first instruments made and used by African Americans.<br />Banjo<br />
Slaves were not allowed to have drums, because slave-owners feared that the slaves would use the drums to signal a revolt (Crawford).<br />D<br />R<br />U<br />M<br />S<br />
Slave-era Spirituals brought about songs that spoke of struggles and the yearning for personal empowerment (Celebrating).<br />Songslike Amazing Grace led to Folk music and songs of Blues.<br />http://youtu.be/B3XdXEJEI4E<br />
Despite their struggles, African American slaves were faithful and true to their Lord.<br />Great is Thy Faithfulness, Sung by CeCeWinans<br />http://youtu.be/60o3UP4Kjwg<br />
It is great wonderment this painting evokes. <br />As one takes in the singularity of the tree and its branches - void of all life, including that of the body which hangs from it, <br />the background is empty with nothing but the glow of red… All is lost, and emptiness prevails.<br />http://fc07.deviantart.net/fs15/i/2007/058/f/6Strange_Fruit_by_N1NJ4hunter.jpg<br />
“David Margolick, a staff writer for Vanity Fair cites a study by Tuskegee Institute, <br />whose ‘conservative figures’ showed that from 1889 to 1940, <br />3,833 human beings were lynched in the United States…” (Hamill).<br />
One artist bold enough to address the abuse of African Americans was Billie Holiday.<br />
This rendition of Strange Fruit is my favorite. <br />Billie Holiday took this poem and gave it life. <br />http://youtu.be/s9FZMHNhJ80<br />
Billy Holiday was born Elinore [Fagan] Harris on April 7, 1915 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. <br />As a teen, Billie had been raped, then sent to jail for supposedly seducing her attacker. Once released from jail, Billie turned to prostitution. <br />She had not been interested in Jazz until she began listening to the phonograph in the brothel she worked at. <br />Needless to say, she struggled most of her life with drugs and alcohol. On July 17, 1959, she finally lost her battle with addiction and passed away. <br />She was only 44 years old (Strange).<br />
Lady Day<br />Louis Armstrong and Billie Holiday<br /> Snapshots of…<br />“In 1936, Lester Young, a fellow musician and close friend, gave her the nickname, “Lady Day.’”.<br />
Works Cited<br />“Billie Holiday.” 2011. Biography.com. Web. 20 July 2011. Chronology on the History of Slavery. Eddie Becker, 1999.Web. 17 July 2011. http://innercity.org/holt/slavechron.html.<br />“Celebrating African Americans in Folk Music.” About.com, 2011. Web. 21 July 2011.<br />Crawford, Richard. An Introduction to America’s Music. New York:W.W. Norton, 2001. Print.<br />“Free to Dance – Behind the Dance, From Slave Ships to CenterStage.” PBS, 2001. Web. 19 July 2011.<br />Hamill, Pete. "Blood at the Root." National Review 52.9 (2000): 58-61. Military & Government Collection. EBSCO. Web. 21 July 2011.<br />“Strange Fruit.” The Pop History Dig. The Pop History Dig, 2011. Web. 21 July 2011.<br />Sydney-Jane. Billie Holiday Pictures, 2010. Writers’ Block:: Lady Day – A Pictorial Dedication. Web. 8 July 2011.<br />Timeline – Evolution of African-American Music. Indiana University, 2000. Web. 21 July 2011.<br />
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.