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The nervous and endocrine system
 

The nervous and endocrine system

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    The nervous and endocrine system The nervous and endocrine system Presentation Transcript

    • Lloyd Dean The Nervous and Endocrine System
    • Aims
      • By the end of the lesson you should be able to:
      • Explain the role of the nervous system
      • Describe the two parts of the nervous system
      • State how regular activity can enhance neuromuscular connections and improve motor fitness
      • List the endocrine glands and hormones involved in exercise preparation and performance
    •  
    • The Role of The Nervous System
      • Question:
      • What happens when someone shines a bright light in your eye?
      • What do you do if you place your hand on something hot, for example an hob on an oven?
      • This is the role of the nervous system; your brain registers the event after it has happened. When a doctor taps your knee they are testing the involuntary response of the brain!
      • Actions throughout the body need to be coordinated in an effective and productive way
      • The nervous system communicates with the body to help this
      • The nervous system and endocrine systems are the communication super powers!
    • The Nervous System
      • Nervous system can be broken down into
        • Central Nervous System (CNS)
        • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
      • Central Nervous System (CNS)
      • The CNS is the main “switchboard” of the communication
      • Brain and spinal cord
      • Controls the movements of the body by working with the PNS
      • Interprets stimuli
    •  
    • The Nervous System
      • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
      • Consists of all the other neurones outside of the CNS
      • Communicates and works with, the CNS
      • Receives the stimuli via senses (Touching hot iron)
      • Further subdivided into:
        • Sensory Neurones – Transmit impulses from a receptor to CNS
        • Motor Neurones – Transmit impulses from CNS to effectors (Muscle or Gland). Further subdivided into:
          • Somatic Nervous System – Involves voluntary movement of skeletal muscles
          • Autonomic Nervous System – Carries nerve impulses from CNS to organs.
    • Autonomic Nervous System
      • This means “self adjusting” and is involuntary
      • Is further broken down into:
        • Sympathetic Nervous System – Arouses the body “Fight or Flight” (Increase HR, vasodilatation)
        • Parasympathetic Nervous System – Relaxes the body (Decrease HR, vasoconstriction)
    •  
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    • What Does Pinky Keep On Saying?!
    •  
    • Enhancing Neuromuscular Connections
      • The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the communication point between the brain and the muscles
      • Anaerobic training, usually 7 weeks required, can increase the communication and improve motor fitness - HOW?!
      • Increasing the overall area of NMJ
      • More dispersed synapse
      • Increase of acetylcholine receptors
    • Improving Motor Fitness
      • Increasing the overall area of NMJ
        • When the overall area of the NMJ increase more muscle fibres can become recruited, thus increasing strength over a period of time
        • Training in first 4 weeks
      • More dispersed synapse
        • A synapses if where two neurones meet
        • They control the messages sent from the nervous system
        • They allow one neurone to stimulate several other neurones
        • An increase can result in more activation of the muscle
      • Increase of acetylcholine receptors
        • Used for skeletal muscle contraction
        • More of this hormone results in more recruitment of muscle fibres
    • Endocrine Glands and Hormones
      • Understanding endocrine glands and hormones is vital when planning training
      • Different types of training methods can impact hormonal release and adaptations
      • Hormones are chemical messengers that are released into the body by endocrine glands
      • These are released via neural stimulation
      • Hormones will put body in a anabolic (insulin, testosterone, hgh) or a catabolic state (cortisol, progesterone)
    •  
    • Etherton, (2006)
    • Endocrine System
      • Pancreas
      • Adrenal Glands
      • Large, pale coloured gland found behind stomach
      • Produces insulin and glucagon
      • Controls blood glucose levels
      • Failure to regulate insulin is know as “diabetes mellitus”
        • Mellitus is Latin for honey
      • Blood glucose mechanisms cannot work properly
        • Type 1 – Unable to produce insulin
        • Type 2 – Cannot produce sufficient insulin
      • Sits at the top of the kidneys
      • Produce adrenaline which is used for fight or flight response
      • Adrenaline increases the sensitivity of the nervous system
    •  
    • How Can Athletes Manipulate The Endocrine System With Resistance Training (Baechle & Earle, 2008)
      • General Concepts
      • The more muscle fibres recruited for an exercise, the greater the extent of potential remodelling process in the whole muscle
      • To Increase Growth Hormone Levels
      • Use workouts with higher lactate concentrations
      • High intensity (10RM with 3 sets of each exercise and short rest periods)
      • Supplement diet with carbohydrate and protein before and after workloads
      • To Increase Testosterone Concentrations
      • Large muscle group exercises (Deadlift, Power Clean, Squats)
      • Heavy Resistance (85 – 95% of 1RM)
      • Short rest intervals (30 – 60 seconds)
      • To Optimise Responses To Adrenal Hormones
      • Use high volume, large muscle groups and short rest periods but vary the training protocol and the rest period length and volume to allow the adrenal gland to engage in recovery processes and to prevent a catabolic effect. This will ensure that the stress of training will not result in overtraining or overuse injuries.
    • Aims
      • You should now be able to:
      • Explain the role of the nervous system
      • Describe the two parts of the nervous system
      • State how regular activity can enhance neuromuscular connections and improve motor fitness
      • List the endocrine glands and hormones involved in exercise preparation and performance