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Structure and function of the lungs
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Structure and function of the lungs


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  • Explain difference between inspiration, expiration and respiration Page 5 in Books
  • Page 6 in Books
  • Page 6 in Books
  • Page 6 in Books
  • Link Breathing to Gaseous exchange. Where does it occur? How Does it occur?
  • Page 7 in Books
  • Page 7 in Books ACTIVITY - Turn Two Tables Upside Down Table 1 (ALVEOLI) 3 Students being “Oxygen” 1 Student being “Carbon Dioxide” Table 2 (CAPILLARIES) 3 Students being “Carbon Dioxide” 1 Student being “Oxygen” Which partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen has highest concentration? Let them diffuse Link to oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
  • Page 7 in Books
  • Transcript

    • 1. Lloyd Dean Respiratory System
    • 2. Lesson Objectives
      • By the end of the lesson you should be able to:
      • Describe the structure and function of the respiratory system
      • Identify, describe and explain the role of the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles in the mechanics of breathing
      • Explain how the transport of gases is achieved from the respiratory system into the cardiovascular system
    • 3.  
    • 4. Component Structure Function Epiglottis
      • Small flap of cartilage
      Prevents food entering the trachea Trachea
      • Tube which carriers air
      • Covered in hairs (Cilia)
      • Surrounded by C-shaped cartilage rings (Protect)
      Also known as the wind pipe; passage for oxygen to travel through Bronchus
      • Cartilage rings
      • Smooth muscle
      Splits trachea into two tube to allow oxygen in right and left lungs Bronchioles
      • Further division of bronchi
      • Very narrow tubes
      • Lead to alveoli
      Allows oxygen to filter into alveoli Alveoli
      • Air sacs
      • Thin walls
      Site for exchange of gasses Diaphragm
      • Muscle that sits underneath lungs
      • Attached to the ribs and sternum
      • Base of thoracic cavity
      Enables thoracic cavity to be increased and decreased Intercostal muscles
      • Muscles that sit between the ribs
      • Internal and external
      Enables thoracic cavity to be increased and decreased
    • 5. Breathing Mechanics
      • Four things need to happen in order for respiratory system to fulfil its function:
      • Inspiration
      • External Respiration
      • Internal Respiration
      • Expiration
    • 6. Inspiration
      • Diaphragm flattens and stretches lungs downward
      • Intercostals pull the ribcage up and out causing the lungs to stretch
      • Expansion of air causes a drop in air pressure in the lungs
      • Air in the lungs is at a lower pressure than the air outside, so air enters the lungs
    • 7. Expiration
      • Diaphragm relaxes
      • Intercostals relax
      • Lungs recoil
      • Volume of air in the lungs decreases causing an increase in the air pressure
      • Air flows from higher to lower pressure so the air flows out of the lungs
    • 8. Intercostal and Diaphragm Muscles
      • Diaphragm
      • Dome shaped muscle
      • Separates thoracic cavity from abdominals
      • Intercostal Muscles
      • Changes the shape rib cage during breathing
      • External intercostals contract to breathe in
      • Internal intercostals contract during forced breathing out
      • (Author Unknown, Date Unknown)
      (Dugdale, 2009)
    • 9. Inspiration and Expiration During Exercise
    • 10. Inhalation and Exhalation
    • 11. External Respiration (WebMD, 2009)
      • Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon dioxide between the lungs and blood stream
      • Occurs at Alveoli
    • 12. Diffusion
      • Oxygen (0 2 ) is required in tissues
      • Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has to be removed
      • Exchange occurs through Diffusion
      • Movement of particles from a high concentration area, to a low concentration area
      • Rule = Diffusion only occurs down a concentration gradient
      • Concentration (pressure ) oxygen in lungs must be higher than concentration (pressure) in capillaries
    • 13. Partial Pressure
      • Individual pressure of a particular gas within a mixture of gases
      • Diffusion occurs from high to low concentrations
      INHALED % GAS EXHALED % 79.04 Nitrogen 79 20.93 Oxygen 17 0.03 Carbon Dioxide 4
    • 14. Exchange of Gases
      • Fast rate of diffusion occurs with:
      • Large surface area
      • Small distance between areas involved
      • Other Factors:
      • Capillary size
      • Moist surface of alveoli
      • Slow capillary blood flow = Complete Oxygenation
      • Haemoglobin – Magnet for oxygen
      • Internal Respiration
      • Exchange of gases in the bodies cells
      • Works similar to external respiration
      • Cell use of oxygen to make ATP
    • 15. Gas Exchange
    • 16. Gas Exchange