Structure and function of the lungs
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  • Explain difference between inspiration, expiration and respiration Page 5 in Books
  • Page 6 in Books
  • Page 6 in Books
  • Page 6 in Books
  • Link Breathing to Gaseous exchange. Where does it occur? How Does it occur?
  • Page 7 in Books
  • Page 7 in Books ACTIVITY - Turn Two Tables Upside Down Table 1 (ALVEOLI) 3 Students being “Oxygen” 1 Student being “Carbon Dioxide” Table 2 (CAPILLARIES) 3 Students being “Carbon Dioxide” 1 Student being “Oxygen” Which partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen has highest concentration? Let them diffuse Link to oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
  • Page 7 in Books


  • 1. Lloyd Dean Respiratory System
  • 2. Lesson Objectives
    • By the end of the lesson you should be able to:
    • Describe the structure and function of the respiratory system
    • Identify, describe and explain the role of the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles in the mechanics of breathing
    • Explain how the transport of gases is achieved from the respiratory system into the cardiovascular system
  • 3.  
  • 4. Component Structure Function Epiglottis
    • Small flap of cartilage
    Prevents food entering the trachea Trachea
    • Tube which carriers air
    • Covered in hairs (Cilia)
    • Surrounded by C-shaped cartilage rings (Protect)
    Also known as the wind pipe; passage for oxygen to travel through Bronchus
    • Cartilage rings
    • Smooth muscle
    Splits trachea into two tube to allow oxygen in right and left lungs Bronchioles
    • Further division of bronchi
    • Very narrow tubes
    • Lead to alveoli
    Allows oxygen to filter into alveoli Alveoli
    • Air sacs
    • Thin walls
    Site for exchange of gasses Diaphragm
    • Muscle that sits underneath lungs
    • Attached to the ribs and sternum
    • Base of thoracic cavity
    Enables thoracic cavity to be increased and decreased Intercostal muscles
    • Muscles that sit between the ribs
    • Internal and external
    Enables thoracic cavity to be increased and decreased
  • 5. Breathing Mechanics
    • Four things need to happen in order for respiratory system to fulfil its function:
    • Inspiration
    • External Respiration
    • Internal Respiration
    • Expiration
  • 6. Inspiration
    • Diaphragm flattens and stretches lungs downward
    • Intercostals pull the ribcage up and out causing the lungs to stretch
    • Expansion of air causes a drop in air pressure in the lungs
    • Air in the lungs is at a lower pressure than the air outside, so air enters the lungs
  • 7. Expiration
    • Diaphragm relaxes
    • Intercostals relax
    • Lungs recoil
    • Volume of air in the lungs decreases causing an increase in the air pressure
    • Air flows from higher to lower pressure so the air flows out of the lungs
  • 8. Intercostal and Diaphragm Muscles
    • Diaphragm
    • Dome shaped muscle
    • Separates thoracic cavity from abdominals
    • Intercostal Muscles
    • Changes the shape rib cage during breathing
    • External intercostals contract to breathe in
    • Internal intercostals contract during forced breathing out
    • (Author Unknown, Date Unknown)
    (Dugdale, 2009)
  • 9. Inspiration and Expiration During Exercise
  • 10. Inhalation and Exhalation
  • 11. External Respiration (WebMD, 2009)
    • Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon dioxide between the lungs and blood stream
    • Occurs at Alveoli
  • 12. Diffusion
    • Oxygen (0 2 ) is required in tissues
    • Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has to be removed
    • Exchange occurs through Diffusion
    • Movement of particles from a high concentration area, to a low concentration area
    • Rule = Diffusion only occurs down a concentration gradient
    • Concentration (pressure ) oxygen in lungs must be higher than concentration (pressure) in capillaries
  • 13. Partial Pressure
    • Individual pressure of a particular gas within a mixture of gases
    • Diffusion occurs from high to low concentrations
    INHALED % GAS EXHALED % 79.04 Nitrogen 79 20.93 Oxygen 17 0.03 Carbon Dioxide 4
  • 14. Exchange of Gases
    • Fast rate of diffusion occurs with:
    • Large surface area
    • Small distance between areas involved
    • Other Factors:
    • Capillary size
    • Moist surface of alveoli
    • Slow capillary blood flow = Complete Oxygenation
    • Haemoglobin – Magnet for oxygen
    • Internal Respiration
    • Exchange of gases in the bodies cells
    • Works similar to external respiration
    • Cell use of oxygen to make ATP
  • 15. Gas Exchange
  • 16. Gas Exchange