Growth of bone

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Growth of bone

  1. 1. Growth of Bone Lloyd Dean Skeletal System
  2. 2. Ossification <ul><li>Humans have 206 bones </li></ul><ul><li>New born babies have more than </li></ul><ul><li>300! </li></ul><ul><li>In the embryo (our state before </li></ul><ul><li>birth) most of the skeleton is made </li></ul><ul><li>up of cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage is a firm, but elastic </li></ul><ul><li>material </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ossification <ul><li>As the embryo grows, cartilage is changed to bone </li></ul><ul><li>The development of bone from cartilage is termed “ossification” </li></ul><ul><li>Ossification is impacted by 3 cells </li></ul><ul><li>“ Osteo” is Greek for “bone” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoblasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoclasts </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Ossification <ul><li>Completed during three stages: </li></ul><ul><li>Production of an extracellular matrix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoblasts produce collagen (Tough elastic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium is utilised </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mineralisation of matrix to form bone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoblasts fill spaces in bone with matrix, and then become trapped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are then known as Osteocytes and have a star shape appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bone remodelling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoclasts break down bone and Osteoblasts rebuild them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables skeleton to repaid, adapt and build strong bones </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts
  6. 6. Bone Remodelling
  7. 7. Osteoblasts, Osteoclasts and Osteoporosis
  8. 8. <ul><li>Bone growth cannot occur without sufficient dietary intake </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium required for bones </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamins C (Orange ), A (Milk), K (Wholegrain), and B 12 (Red meat ) are all necessary for bone growth </li></ul>Nutritional Impact On Bone
  9. 9. <ul><li>Growth hormone stimulates bone growth </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroxine (Thyroid gland) increases the rate of osteoblast activity </li></ul><ul><li>At puberty, sex hormones (estrogens in females and androgens in males) cause osteoblasts to produce bone faster than the epiphyseal cartilage can divide. Commonly know as “growth spurt” as well as the closure of the epiphyseal plate. </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogens cause faster closure of the epiphyseal growth plate than androgens - Girls grow faster than boys! </li></ul>Hormones Impacting Bone Growth
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