Nicholas P. Cushner holds a Ph.D. in History from the University of London. He is the author of seven scholarly books, two contemporary novels and over 50 articles and book reviews. Dr. Cushner is a Fulbright Scholar and has traveled extensively to lecture on historical topics, literature and society and the effects of culture on business. He has been a professor at SUNY Empire State College for over 21 years. Dr. Cushner leads the Praxiis Publishing Division, providing guidance and direction for the development of training programs, seminar and workshop based coursework, E-publishing, print publishing and digital publishing-on-demand, and support for the development of firm and client marketing collateral. His areas of specialty include Training Programs and Support Material, Arts, Corporate Communications, Textbooks, Fiction and Non-fiction works. Praxiis Publishing Division staff including Dr. Cushner provides three primary levels of publishing support. Copyediting is offered to aide in correcting grammar, usage, spelling, punctuation, and making sure manuscripts are consistent and accurate. Substantive Editing is delivered when Praxiis staff makes significant changes to a manuscript, such as rewriting and reorganizing a text. Publishing Management / Project Editing sees a project through from start to finish. Editorial processes are coordinated and supervised, and when necessary additional copy editors, proofreaders, indexers and other editorial workers are recruited and assigned. The accountabilities of this function include graphic editing, presentation, overall design, coordination with publishing resources, and assuring completion of finished works on a timely and cost effective basis. Dr. Cushner maintains active participation and oversight in these efforts.
John A. Larkin, Professoroffice: 575 Parkemail: email@example.com: 645-2181 ext: 575 Education: PhD, New York University, 1966Field(s): AsiaHub(s): Culture & SocietySelected Publications:Sugar and the Origins of Modern Philippine Society (University of California Press, 1993; Philippine edition, New Day Publishers, 2001)The Pampangan: Colonial Society in a Philippine Province (University of California Press, 1972; Philippine edition, New Day Publishers, 1993)“Early Guerrilla Struggle In The Philippines” Peasant Studies 1991 19(1): 39-48.“Philippine History Reconsidered: A Socioeconomic Perspective” American Historical Review 1982 87(3): 595-628.
Roya l land grants in colonial philippines 1571 1626 (early spanish)
Nicholas P. Cushnerand John A. Larkin
holds a Ph.D. in History from theUniversity of London. He is theauthor of seven scholarly books, twocontemporary novels and over 50articles and book reviews. Dr.Cushner is a Fulbright Scholar andhas traveled extensively to lectureon historical topics, literature andsociety and the effects of culture onbusiness. He has been a professor atSUNY Empire State College for over21 years.
Education: PhD, New YorkUniversity, 1966Field(s): AsiaHub(s): Culture & SocietyPublication(s):Sugar and the Origins of ModernPhilippine Society (University ofCalifornia Press, 1993; Philippineedition, New Day Publishers,2001)
This particular article takes to consideration several documents which are dated from 1571- 1626. In this particular years are part of the Early Spanish period in the Philippine history.
Importance of the documents found in the LillyLibrary collection on the Philippines (the copy of theRoyal Land Grants made by the colonial governmentbetween 1572-1626) It reveals in detail a mechanism used to reward Spaniards and natives for services rendered for the crown. It verifies the special role of Pampangans in Spanish colonial affairs. It demonstrates how a new set of determinants for class differentiation or ranking, based on land ownership.
Thegrants changed the notion of landownership in the Philippines.One of the major incentives for the reconquest ofSpain from the Moors was the promise of land tothe captains and commanders of the Christianarmy.
Terms used in the size of the grant: Estancia para ganado mayor (5000 pasos square) Estancia para ganado menor (3000 pasos) Caballera (64 acres) Cabalita (32 acres) Pedazo (irregular dimension)
The idea of ownership of land resided in one person, the king, or that land could be owned in fee simple, were totally new concepts diametrically opposed to the traditional practice of Filipinos. Although the land granted by the governors was supposed to have been vacant, early grants took no account of swidden farming. Many of these grants could have reduced native farming.
It is clearfrom the geographical distribution that royal grants affected primarily, the Manila area, principally Tondo, Cavite, and Pampanga. The rest of Philippines, atleast untouch for 50 years of Spanish rule.
This particular article talk of how people (of Spanish descent or not) have occupied and took ownership of the land of Philippines. We could trace how the oligarch families of the Philippines started with this particular research.