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Prostitution in nineteenth century manila (late spanish)

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  • 1.  She is the chairperson of the Department of History, College of Social Sciences and Philosophy (CSSP) of the University of the Philippines. She obtained her doctorate de troisieme cycle at the Ecoledes Haustes Etudes on Science Sociales in Paris, France and has written numerous articles exploring various issues Philippine social history.
  • 2.  Her earlier publication, Kasaysayang Panlipunan ng Manila (1765-1898) won the 1993 National Book Awards in the category of History. She is also the Director of the University of the Philippines (UP) Press.
  • 3.  This particular article talks about the Late Spanish period of Philippine History – approximately in the 19th century. It mentioned several documents dated on year 1849.
  • 4. Venereal diseases of 19th century Philippines › Syphilis - A common venereal disease caused by the treponema pallidum spirochete; symptoms change through progressive stages; can be congenital (transmitted through the placenta)
  • 5. Public awareness › Advertisements of drugs for gonorrhea and syphilis › Medicines are available in drugstores (made in France)Arrests of Prostitutes › Go far back as 1849 and even before. › Deportation to Nueva Quipuzcua (Davao) and later to Isla de Balabac in Palawan.
  • 6. Comisaria de Vigilancia and Carcel de Bilibid › Runs thorough background check on alleged prostitutes. › Runs health checks. If the alleged is infected with syphilis (and other venereal diseases), she is confined at Hospital de San Juan de Dios instead of Carcel de Bilibid. › Punishments run from 10, 15, and 30 days, and/or deportation. › Most of the arrested (prostitutes) had previous apprehensions for estafa, illegal gambling, public disorder, and prostitution. › Inside prison, they are subjected to hard labor.
  • 7. Deportation › Either Davao or Balabac › Families petitions to the Governor General to spare family members accused of prostitution from punishment of deportation. › Mid 19th century, deportation was only for habitual offenders
  • 8. List of Deportees › To Davao
  • 9. List of Deportees › To Balabac
  • 10. Marriage › Served to circumvent or avert deportation › Means of reforming prostitutes.Social Profile of Prostitutes › Most are in late teens or early twenties. › Older prostitutes were married or widowed. › Most have legitimate occupations (author suspects that the little income they have from these jobs drove them to prostitution)
  • 11. › Four categories:a) Under a prostitution houseb) Posted themselves in certain streetsc) Going to the homes of the clientsd) Renders services their own homes(author has questions on whether they wereseen obviously as prostitutes with theirappearances)
  • 12. Popular Perception of Prostitutes › Various names of prostitutes: prostituta, mujer publica, vagamunda, and indocumentada. › Vagamunda – reflected the roving lifestyle. › Indocumentada – because of inability to register in a particular locality.
  • 13. Conclusions of the Author › Colonial authorities regulated prostitution to check the spread of venereal diseases and respect public morals. › Prostitution was viewed as livelihood by natives.
  • 14.  Venereal diseases are rampant in areas of prostitution (densely populated areas) Reaction of family members about the punishment of deportation shows the Filipino value of having close family ties. Low income drives women to prostitution. Southern regions of Philippines, which are of lesser population are ideal deportation sites for prostitution.
  • 15.  It is important to have a historical knowledge of how and why one of the social ills of Philippines (prostitution) have existed in the past and possibly postulate why it still continues to exist today.