Presented by: DEAN RUFFEL R. FLANDEZ as a requirement of the courseHistory 211 – Early to 17th Century Philippine History
Let’s go on a journey totake a glimpse of the past.
No one is sure whenhuman beings starteddwelling on Earth…But there were severaltheories that rose toanswer the question.
Popular Theories on Peopling the WORLD• Creationism (Biblical)• Out of Eden Theory/ Out of Africa Theory
JOURNEY OF MAN(Out of Eden Theory)
160k years ago, Modern man (Homo Sapiens) lived in Africa
160k-135k. They populated Africa.
135k-115k, The first exit through Nile.…but They died out because of the Ice Age, which reached up to North Africa from 115k-90k.
90k-85k, Crossing of the Red Sea.
85k-75k, Voyage to the East. …super eruption of Mt. Toba in Sumatra andanother Ice Age in 74k resulted to a population crash.
74k-65k onwards was the time of repopulation. With the dramatic warming of 65k onwards,Europe and other parts of Asia was populated.
40k-15k and onwards, The Americas and almost all parts of the world was also populated…. …between those times, Ice age and many naturalcalamities also happened that decreased the population. <see more in http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/journey/>
The Austronesian Migration Theory
The Austronesian Migration Theory• Austronesian Migration Theory propounds on the expansion of a group of people called the Austronesians from Asia into the Pacific by means of Taiwan 6,000 years ago. It was a theory proposed by Peter Bellwood a professor of Archeology.
The Austronesian Migration Theory• The Austronesian migrations began from the Chinese mainland, reaching Taiwan first in 3500 BC then the Philippines by 3000 BC. They reached Sumatra and Java by 2000 BC, Northern New Guinea by 1600 BC, Samoa by 1200 BC, Hawaii, Easter Island, and Madagascar by 500 AD, etc.
The theory largely explains the similarities in culture,language and physical attributes in different countries in the most Asian countries and even Madagascar. <see more in http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Austronesian_Migration_Theory>
Common to AustronesiansCultural traces include:• Tattooing• Outriggers of canoes• Prehistoric art styles• Social charactersLanguage: The Austronesian language family is usually divided into two branches: Malayo-Polynesian and Formosan. The Western sub-branch includes over 500 languages spoken in Madagascar, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, parts of Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, and Cambodia.
Prof. Otley Beyer’s Wave Migration TheoryAccording to Dr. Beyer, theancestors of the Filipinoscame in different "waves ofmigration", as follows:1. "Dawn Man", a cave-man type who was similar to Java man, Peking Man, and other Asian homo sapiens of 250,000 years ago.
Prof. Otley Beyer’s Wave Migration Theory2. The aboriginal pygmy group, the Negritos, who arrived between 25,000 and 30,000 years ago via land bridges.
Prof. Otley Beyer’s Wave Migration Theory3. The sea-faring tool- using Indonesian group who arrived about 5,000 to 6,000 years ago and were the first immigrants to reach the Philippines by sea.
Prof. Otley Beyer’s Wave Migration Theory4. The seafaring, more civilized Malays who brought the Iron age culture and were the real colonizers and dominant cultural group in the pre-Hispanic Philippines.
Jocanos theory of earlier evolution and movementAnthropologist F. Landa Jocano of the University ofthe Philippines contends that what fossil evidenceof ancient men show is that they not only migratedto the Philippines, but also to New Guinea, Borneo,and Australia. He says that there is no way ofdetermining if they were Negritos at all. However,what is sure is that there is evidence the Philippineswas inhabited as early as 21,000 or 22,000 yearsago. In 1962, a skull cap and a portion of a jaw,presumed to be those of a human being, werefound in a Tabon Cave in Palawan.
Jocanos theory of earlier evolution and movementThe discovery may show that man came earlierto the Philippines than to the Malay Peninsula. Ifthis is true, the first inhabitants of thePhilippines did not come from the MalayPeninsula. Jocano further believes that thepresent Filipinos are products of the longprocess of evolution and movement of people.
Jocanos theory of earlier evolution and movementLeft: Tabon man skull cap remains.Right: Tabon cave in Palawan