Land-based Agricultural Kingdoms in Southeast Asia (Khmers, Saliendra, Pagan)


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  • Other notes:Funan is an ancient state in Cambodia that arose in the 1st century AD and was incorporated into the state of Chenla in the 6th century. Funan (perhaps a Chinese transcription of pnom, “mountain”) was the first important Hinduized kingdom in southeast Asia. It covered portions of what are now Vietnam, Thailand, and Cambodia. Funan had trade relations with India as well as China, to whose emperor the people of Funan sent tribute between the 3rd and 6th centuries. Archaeological evidence shows that Funan was influenced markedly by Indian cultures.Chenla is the Chinese designation for Cambodia after the fall of Funan. That name was still used in the 13th century by the Chinese envoy Zhou Daguan, author of the Manners and Customs of Cambodia. Some modern scholars used the name exclusively for Khmer states of the period from the late 6th to the early 9th centuries.
  • Foundation of the kingdom Khmer empire c. 1200.In 790 a young Cambodian prince, claiming to be descended from the rulers of Funan, was consecrated in eastern Cambodia under the title Jayavarman II. Part of the ceremony involved breaking ties with “Java,” which probably was a reference not to the island of Java but to the kingdom of Śrīvijaya on the island of Sumatra. Over the next 10 years, Jayavarman extended his power northward into the Mekong River valley until, in 802, he was reconsecrated as a chakravartin (the ancient Indian conception of world ruler) in northwestern Cambodia. The capital seems to have been located in the Kulén Hills, north of the present-day provincial capital of Siĕmréab, where he died in 835. Despite the high status accorded him by subsequent Angkorean kings, Jayavarman II seems to have left no inscriptions of his own, and the monuments that can be dated to his reign were small and hastily built.Jayavarman's real accomplishment was less tangible and lasted longer, for he appears to have established what came to be called Kambuja-desa, a confident, self-aware kingdom that superseded and came to control a range of smaller states. He was Cambodia's first nationally oriented king. It is not known whether smaller states were forced into submission or joined of their own volition. Despite the grandeur of the Angkorean temples that were built over the next four centuries, Jayavarman II's successors were often powerless or constrained by opposing forces. Revolts and usurpations were frequent, as were foreign invasions. Rulers were the object of rival claims by family members, priests, generals, and bureaucrats. Some kings, especially usurpers, had more freedom of action than others. Those who ruled in periods of peace were also in a better position to undertake building programs and public works. Like their counterparts in medieval Europe, Cambodian kings were far removed from ordinary people. The king was perceived primarily in religious terms, and he assured the fertility of the soil and the well-being of the kingdom through the rituals he performed. In exchange for his protection, the people were subject to intermittent military service and corvée duty and were also called on to provide labour without payment for Buddhist and Hindu religious foundations and for local elites.Toward the end of the 9th century, soon after Jayavarman II's death, the Cambodian capital shifted to the northern shores of the Tonle Sap, near present-day PhumĭRôluŏs. A king named Indravarman I (ruled 877–c. 890) constructed a large reservoir and several temples there, including a pyramidical structure called the Bakong—the first Cambodian temple to be built primarily of stone rather than brick. This so-called “temple mountain” became the model for the many larger royal temples at Angkor that served as monuments to the greatness of their patrons and, subsequently, as their tombs.
  • Religious tolerance
  • Sources for Khmer History:Temples: Angkor Wat in Angkor and Bayon
  • Champans – sounth central vietnanm
  • Tai - peoples of mainland Southeast Asia, including the Thai, or Siamese (in central and southern Thailand), the Lao (in Laos and northern Thailand), the Shan (in northeast Myanmar [Burma]), the Lü (primarily in Yunnan province, China, but also in Myanmar, Laos, northern Thailand, and Vietnam), the Yunnan Tai (the major Tai group in Yunnan), and the tribal Tai (in northern Vietnam). All of these groups speak Tai languages.___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Info: For the next 200 years, however, Angkor remained a glittering, crowded, and wealthy city. It impressed a Chinese visitor, Zhou Daguan, who arrived there with a diplomatic mission in 1296. Zhou's account is the longest and most-detailed extant description of the Khmer capital, supplementing the bas-reliefs of the Bayon. He left a picture of a bustling city in which the king still went forth in great pomp and ceremony.
  • Thaslassocracy means sea rule.
  • (Srivijaya and Sailendra)In spite the relations were initially fairly cordial, hostilities had broken out in 1025.Nevertheless, amity was re-established between the two states, before the end of the 11th century. In 1090 a new charter was granted to the old Buddhist sanctuary (it is the last known inscription with a reference to the Sailendras).
  • List of rulers :
  • Anawrahta the first king of all of Myanmar, or Burma (reigned 1044–77), who introduced his people to Theravāda Buddhism. His capital at Pagan on the Irrawaddy River became a prominent city of pagodas and temples.
  • Theravada BuddhismAnanda Temple's Kassapa Buddha – South facingKakusandha Buddha – North facingKoṇāgamana Buddha – East facingGautama Buddha – West facingOne of the most enduring developments in Burmese history was the gradual emergence of Theravada Buddhism as the primary faith of the Pagan Empire. A key turning point came circa 1056 when the Buddhist school won the royal patronage of an ascendant empire when Anawrahta converted from his native Tantric Buddhism.
  • Land-based Agricultural Kingdoms in Southeast Asia (Khmers, Saliendra, Pagan)

    2. 2. CONTENTS KhmerSailendra (Mataram) Pagan (Burma)
    3. 3. Southeast Asia Today
    4. 4. KHMERThe Khmer Empire was oneof the most powerfulempires in Southeast Asia.The empire, which grewout of the former kingdomof Chenla, at times ruledover and/or vassalizedparts of modern-day Laos,Thailand, Vietnam, Burma,and Malaysia.
    5. 5. HistoryJayavarman II is widely regarded asthe king that set the foundation ofAngkor period in Cambodian history,began with the grandioseconsecration ritual conducted byJayavarman II (reign 790-850) in 802on sacred Mount Mahendraparvata,now known as Phnom Kulen, tocelebrate the independence ofKambuja from Javanese dominion.
    6. 6. Jayavarman II seems to have left noinscriptions of his own, and the monumentsthat can be dated to his reign were smalland hastily built.
    7. 7. HistoryJayavarmans real accomplishmentwas less tangible and lasted longer,for he appears to have establishedwhat came to be called Kambuja-desa, a confident, self-awarekingdom that superseded and cameto control a range of smaller states.He was Cambodias first nationallyoriented king.
    8. 8. HistoryLike their counterparts in medievalEurope, Cambodian kings were farremoved from ordinary people. The kingwas perceived primarily in religious terms,and he assured the fertility of the soil andthe well-being of the kingdom through therituals he performed. In exchange for hisprotection, the people were subject tointermittent military service and corvéeduty and were also called on to providelabour without payment for Buddhist andHindu religious foundations and for localelites.
    9. 9. HistoryToward the end ofthe 9th century,soon afterJayavarman IIsdeath, theCambodiancapital shifted tothe northernshores of theTonle Sap, nearpresent-dayPhumĭ Rôluŏs.
    10. 10. HistoryIndravarman I (ruled 877–c. 890)constructed a large reservoir and severaltemples there, including a pyramidicalstructure called the Bakong—the firstCambodian temple to be built primarily ofstone rather than brick.
    11. 11. HistoryIndravarmans son and successor,Yaśovarman I (ruled c. 890–c. 910),moved the capital again, this timecloser to Siĕmréab, to a location thatsubsequently became Angkor—aname derived from the Sanskrit wordnagara, meaning ―city‖—which hasbecome one of the worlds most-celebrated archaeological sites, aswell as the popular name forCambodias medieval civilization.
    12. 12. HistoryThe city that Yaśovarman founded,Yaśodharapura, retained that nameand remained Cambodias capitaluntil it was abandoned in the 16thcentury. His temple mountain, nowcalled Bakheng (literally ―MightyAncestor‖), was built on a natural hillthat overlooked a teeming city, themore distant rice-growing plain, andthe Tonle Sap.
    13. 13. HistoryAfter several decades of warfare,dislocations, and disorder—Yaśodharapura itself was abandonedfor nearly 30 years—RajendravarmanII (ruled 944–968) restored the capitaland set in motion a period of peaceand prosperity that lasted nearly acentury.
    14. 14. HistoryDuring the reign of his successor,Jayavarman V (968–c. 1000), therose-coloured sandstone shrine ofBanteai Srei—arguably the loveliesttemple at Angkor—was built on theoutskirts of the capital under thepatronage of a wealthy priestlyfamily, one of whose members hadbeen Jayavarmans teacher.
    15. 15. HistoryIn Yaśodharapura itself, JayavarmanV began work on the imposingtemple mountain now called Ta Keo,which was completed under hissuccessor, Suryavarman I (ruled c.1004–c. 1050). Suryavarman I, aninnovative and demanding monarch,was a usurper with links to princelyfamilies in what is now northeasternThailand.
    16. 16. HistorySuryavarman I extended the Khmerempire westward into present-dayThailand, where he constructed thelarge mountaintop temple known asPreah Vihear. During his reign thenumber of cities ruled fromYaśodharapura grew from roughly 20to nearly 50, and foreign tradeincreased, along with tighter centralbureaucratic control.
    17. 17. HistorySuryavarman II (ruled 1113–c. 1150)Although he probably was not descendedfrom the earlier king of that name. Like hisnamesake predecessor, Suryavarman II wasa formidable military campaigner.
    18. 18. HistorySuryavarmans major accomplishment,from a modern perspective, was theAngkor Wat temple complex, still thelargest religious structure in the worldand one of the most beautiful. Thetemple, which eventually became histomb and probably was anastronomical observatory as well, wasdedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu.
    19. 19. HistoryYaśovarman II (ruled 1160–66)During his reign, several temples begununder Suryavarman were completed.Yaśovarman was overthrown by one ofhis officials after returning from a militarycampaign in Thailand. In the aftermathof the coup, a Cambodian prince, laterto rule under the name of JayavarmanVII (1181–c. 1220), hurried home fromChampa.
    20. 20. HistoryHe arrived too late, and for the next 10years he bided his time as the usurper lostcontrol and Angkor was invaded andoccupied by the Chams. In 1177, headingan army of his own, the prince attackedAngkor and defeated the Cham forces.The battles are vividly depicted in the bas-reliefs of his temple mountain, the Bayon.To forestall further Cham attacks,Jayavarman annexed the Cham capital,and Angkor controlled Champa untilJayavarmans death.
    21. 21. HistoryAfter Jayavarmans death (about 1220),few stone monuments were erected atAngkor, and very few inscriptions wereincised. Little by little, the Khmer empirebegan to contract. Jayavarmanscampaigns neutralized Champa as athreat to Angkor, but, by the early 13thcentury, vigorous new kingdoms in whatis now northern Thailand becamepowerful enough to throw offAngkorean domination, as did some Taiprincipalities in the south.
    22. 22. SAILENDRA- a dynasty thatflourished in Javafrom about 750 to850 after the fallof the Funankingdom ofmainlandSoutheast Asia.
    23. 23. SAILENDRAIt was marked by a great cultural renaissanceassociated with the introduction of MahāyānaBuddhism, and it attained a high level ofartistic expression in the many temples andmonuments built under its rule. During the reignof one of its kings, the famous stupa ofBorobuḍur (q.v.) was built.
    24. 24. HistoryThe Sailendras are considered to be aThalassocracy and ruled the maritimeSoutheast Asia, however they also reliedon agriculture pursuits through intensiverice cultivation on the Kedu Plain ofCentral Java. The dynasty appeared tobe the ruling family of both MedangKingdom of Central Java for someperiod and Srivijaya in Sumatra.
    25. 25. HistoryAround 852 the Sanjaya ruler Pikatanhad defeated Balaputra, the offspringof the Sailendra monarchSamaratunga and princess Tara. Thisended the Sailendra presence in Javaand Balaputra retreated to the Srivijayakingdom in Sumatra, where hebecame the paramount ruler.From Sumatra, the Sailendras alsomaintained overseas relations with theChola kingdom in Southern India
    26. 26. History
    27. 27. HistoryKing Sanjaya of Mataram (AD 732 — 746) orin complete stylized name known as RakaiMataram Sang Ratu Sanjaya (King SanjayaRakai (lord) of Mataram) was the founder ofMataram Kingdom during the eighthcentury.
    28. 28. PAGAN(BURMA)Another group ofTibeto-Burmanspeakers had becomeestablished in thenorthern dry zone.They were centeredon the smallsettlement of Paganon the IrrawaddyRiver.
    29. 29. HistoryBy the mid-9th century, Pagan hademerged as the capital of a powerfulkingdom that would unify Myanmarand would inaugurate the Burmandomination of the country that hascontinued to the present day.
    30. 30. HistoryDuring the 8th and 9th centuries thekingdom of Nanchao became thedominant power in southwestern China;it was populated by speakers of Lolo (orYi), a Tibeto-Burman language.Nanchao mounted a series of raids onthe cities of mainland Southeast Asia inthe early decades of the 9th centuryand even captured Hanoi in 861.
    31. 31. HistoryThe Mon and Khmer cities held firm,but the Pyu capital of Halingyi fell.The Burmans moved into this politicalvacuum, establishing Pagan as theircapital city in 849.
    32. 32. History Nanchao acted as a buffer against Chinese power to the north and allowed the infant Burman kingdom to grow. The Burmans learned much from the Pyu, but they were still cut off from the trade revenues of southern Myanmar.
    33. 33. HistoryIn 1044 Anawrahta came to thethrone at Pagan and began theunification process in Myanmar thatwould recur in cyclic fashion until theBritish conquered the country in 1886.Anawrahta first strengthened hisdefenses on the north—the ―frontdoor‖ of Myanmar—and createdalliances through marriage with theneighbouring Shan to the east.
    34. 34. History He declared himself the champion of Theravāda Buddhism and used that ideology to justify his conquest of southern Myanmar, which was accomplished with the defeat of the Mon city of Thaton in 1057.
    35. 35. HistoryBy the mid-11th century the core ofmodern-day Myanmar had beenunited into a single kingdom centredat Pagan, and Myanmars longest-surviving dynasty had beenestablished. Anawrahtas work wascontinued by his great commanderKyanzittha (ruled 1084–c. 1112) andby another great ruler, Alaungsithu(ruled c. 1112–c. 1167).
    36. 36. HistoryPagans consolidation of the Irrawaddyvalley southward to the ports of southernMyanmar divided most of mainlandSoutheast Asia into two great empires,Khmer and Burman. Anawrahtasdynasty of kings lasted until the 13thcentury. By that time, their greattemples had been built, and theirmessage of Theravāda Buddhism hadbeen carried not only to the Shan butalso to the Khmer.
    37. 37. HistoryCenturies of temple building and ofdonations of land and manpower tothe tax-exempt sangha (monkhood),however, had diverted much of thestates most valuable resources. Yet, thelegitimacy of state and societydepended on continued patronage ofthe sangha.
    38. 38. History
    39. 39. History
    40. 40. HistoryAs a result, Pagan had been weakenedby the end of the 13th century, preciselywhen the Mongols threatened. Paganhad lost its northern buffer in the early1250s when Nanchao was destroyed andsubjugated by the Mongols under KublaiKhan. The Mongols demanded submissionby and tribute from Pagan, which refusedto comply. It is not clear if the Mongolarmies actually reached Pagan, but by1300 Pagan no longer was the centre ofpower in Myanmar.
    41. 41. THANK YOU