Research Methods for Mobile Messaging

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Slides for a presentation I gave at Texting 4 Health (Stanford University, 2007). Provides a survey of three related research methods for mobile messaging: diary methods, Wizard of Oz techniques, and field experiments. Relevant both for design-oriented research and scientific research.

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  • Some great ideas here, shame it hasn't kept up to date since 2008! We recently shared some new stats on mobile messaging in one of our own slideshare posts, have a look in our profile if you'd like!
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Research Methods for Mobile Messaging

  1. 1. Research Methods for Mobile Messaging Dean Eckles Nokia Research Center, Palo Alto Research Scientist and Designer http://deaneckles.com/blog February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 1
  2. 2. Overview Motivations & focus Methods & examples • Diary studies • Wizard-of-Oz techniques • Field experiments Enabling technologies February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 2
  3. 3. Focus Research Design-oriented research Informing application-specific decisions Finding needs, evaluating solutions and/or Scientific research Creating generalizable knowledge Motivated by phenomena and theory February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 3
  4. 4. Focus Mobile Messaging About mobile messaging and using mobile messaging and/or About something else but using mobile messaging February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 4
  5. 5. About something else, but using mobile messaging Shopping Information needs and communication in shopping decisions Self-disclosure Factors that influence self-disclosure Influence strategies Comparing different strategies and implementations Media consumption Desires for finding photo media Health February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 5
  6. 6. About mobile messaging interactions This research area has implications for using mobile messaging for research and interventions in other domains. Some research questions • What factors influence compliance in surveys administered via mobile messaging? • What new diary methods are enabled by mobile messaging technology (e.g. two-step diary methods, event detection)? • How do people orient to proximal and distal sources of messages (e.g. their own mobile phone, the human or computer sender)? February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 6
  7. 7. Overview Motivations & focus Methods & examples • Diary studies • Wizard-of-Oz techniques • Field experiments Enabling technologies February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 7
  8. 8. Diary methods Participants record events as they happen, or shortly after Designed to reduce revision in retrospection, forgetting events Widely used in human-computer interaction research and product development, as well as e.g. psychology and medicine Taxonomy: What triggers entries? (Wheeler & Reis 1991) • Interval-contingent • Signal-contingent • Event-contingent Burden on participants, sometimes in demanding contexts February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 8
  9. 9. Diary studies with mobile messaging 4l8r with snippets technique (Brandt, Weiss, & Klemmer 2007) Participants (1) capture text, MMS, or voice snippets (2) annotate snippets later the same day on the Web Example: Information and communication needs in shopping Entries coded and analyzed by researcher Entries used to ground interviews with a subset of participants February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 9
  10. 10. Wizard-of-Oz techniques Wizard-of-Oz techniques A human “wizard” simulates functions of the computer Widely used for prototyping recognition- and AI-based interactions With post-use interviews Can use logs of interaction to ground interviews February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 10
  11. 11. Mobile messaging studies using wizards Suited to mobile messaging, e.g. Easy for wizards to interact Participants use their own devices Example: Photo-consumption study Needfinding for photo browsing and search Participants could make unbounded requests for photos WOZ prototype provided realistic motivations for requests Wizards reviewed request on the Web, responses sent via MMS February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 11
  12. 12. Field experiments with text messaging Manipulate features of mobile messaging interactions experimentally Can range from product-optimizing “A-B testing for text messages” to scientific experiments testing theory Example: Self-disclosure and influence strategies (Eckles et al. 2007) 2 (sender: computer or human) x 3 (influence strategy) design Deception about humanity of sender is possible Participants signed up on a Web-based form Received text messages with questions of increasing intimacy Analyzed breadth (length) of disclosures February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 12
  13. 13. Enabling technologies Sending and receiving messages Web server running PHP & MySQL NowSMS GSM modem Other software 4l8r service PhotoFinder prototype Participants’ mobile phones February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 13
  14. 14. Contributors Diary studies Nokia Research Center, Palo Alto: Yan Xu, Mirjana Spasojevic Stanford University: Joel Brandt, Scott Klemmer Wizard-of-Oz techniques Yahoo! Research Berkeley: Shane Ahern, Simon King, Mor Naaman Field experiments Stanford University: Douglas Wightman, Claire Carlson, Attapol Thamrongrattanarit, Marcello Bastea-Forte, BJ Fogg, Leila Takayama, Clifford Nass February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 14
  15. 15. References Brandt, J., Weiss, N., & Klemmer, S. R. (2007). txt 4 l8r: lowering the burden for diary studies under mobile conditions. Proc. CHI '07 Extended Abstracts. Eckles, D., Wightman, D., Carlson, C., Thamrongrattanarit, A., Bastea- Forte, M., & Fogg, B.J. Self-disclosure via mobile messaging: influence strategies and social responses to communication technologies. Adjunct Proc. Ubicomp 2007. Wheeler, L., & Reis, H. (1991). Self-recording of everyday life events: origins, types, and uses. Journal of personality, 59 (3). February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 15
  16. 16. Photo credits Creative Commons photos • Slide 1: http://flickr.com/photos/yewenyi/539606563/ February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 16

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