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    1.0 understanding physics teacher copy 1.0 understanding physics teacher copy Document Transcript

    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011 1.1 U N D E R S T A N D I N G P H Y S I C SRecognise the 1. Tick () the statements that are related to physics.concepts of Blood circulation in our body is controlled by heart.physics in  A large truck moves faster than a car because it has a more powerful engine.everyday objectsand natural We need water in our digestion system.phenomena Orange juice is acidic because its taste is sour.  An object on a high building has a large potential energy.  When we heat water, its temperature increased. We are sweating when our body metabolism is high. Pure water has pH 7.  We cannot see object in dark  A ship is floating in water. Human body coordination is controlled by hormone system. Oxidation will act faster in acidic medium. 1.2 UNDERSTANDING BASE AND DERIVED QUANTITIESRecognise 1. Identify Physical quantities, Magnitude, Units and Measuring instrument from thephysical quantity statements below. Write them into the table below (next page).and unit A Ismail weigh a wooden block that has mass of 500 gram using a lever beam balance. B Ong Beng Hock measures the length of a building which is 100 meter long using a measuring tape. C Siew Mei measures her body’s temperature using a digital thermometer and obtains 38C. D Bathumalai determines the volume of water using a measuring cylinder and obtains 150 milliliter. E Hanisah measures the diameter of a wire which is 1.26 millimeter using a micrometer screw gauge. F Vinisha takes the time of 20 oscillations of a pendulum using a stopwatch and obtains 24.6 seconds. Statement Physical quantity Magnitude Unit Measuring instrument Mass 500 Gram Lever beam balance A B Length 100 Meter Measuring tape C Temperature 38 C Thermometer D Volume 150 Milliliter Measuring cylinder E Diameter 1.26 Millimetre Micrometer screw gauge F time 24.6 Second stopwatch 1-1
    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011Define base 2. Identify base quantities and derived quantity from the equation below.quantities andderived quantities (a) Volume = length x length x lengthare Base quantity length = (i) _________________ volume Derived quantity = (i) _________________ (b) Area = length x length Base quantity length = (i) _________________ Area Derived quantity = (i) _________________ (c) Base quantity Mass = (i) _________________ length (ii) ____________________ Density Derived quantity = (i) _________________ cannot (i) Base quantity is physical quantity that __________ be derived from any quantities. (ii) Derived quantity is physical quantity that ___________________ from the base is derived quantities.List base quantitiesand their S.I unit PHYSICAL QUANTITY S.I UNIT Pressure Time Current Second Newton Ampere Length Area Temperature Kelvin kilogram Pascal Weight Force Volume Joule m2 Watt Work Energy Power m s-1 meter m3 Velocity Mass 3. Choose base quantities from the physical quantities given above and state their S.I units. No. Base Quantity S.I Unit 1. length meter 2. Mass kilogram 3. Time second 4. Electric current Ampere 5. temperature Kelvin 1-2
    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011List some derived 4. Write 5 derived quantities from physical quantities given in the box above (previousquantities and their page) and state their S.I units. [*any five]S.I units No. Derived Quantity S.I Unit 1. Pressure Pascal 2. Force / weight Newton 3. Work / energy Joule 4. Velocity m s-1 5. Area m2 6. Volume m3 Express quantities 5. Rewrite the values below in scientific notation (Standard notation)using scientificnotation No. Original value Scientific notation 1. 12 000 m 1.2 x 104 m 2. 3 000 000 000 s 3.0 x 109 s 3. 0.000 000 000 56 N 5.6 x 10-10 N 4. 0.000 78 J 7.8 x 10-4 J 5. 0.0034 A 3.4 x 10-3 AExpress quantities 6. Arrange the prefixes given below in ascending order. Then, state their multiple / sub-using prefixes multiple. PREFIXES MULTIPLE / SUB-MULTIPLE Nano (n) kilo (k) pico (p) 103 109 10-2 1 mega (M) centi (c) giga (G) 10 10-12 106 deci (d) deca (da) tera (T) 10-6 102 10-1 -9 hector (h) micro () milli (m) 10 10-3 1012 Multiple / Multiple / No. Prefix No. Prefix Sub-multiple Sub-multiple 1. Tera 1012 7. pico 10-12 2. Giga 109 8. nano 10-9 3. Mega 106 9. micro 10-6 4. kilo 103 10. milli 10-3 5. hecto 102 11. centi 10-2 6. deca 101 12. deci 10-1 1-3
    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011Solving problem 1. Rewrite the values below using the suitable prefix.involvingconversion of units (i) 4.1 x 1012 m 4.1 Tm = __________ (vii) 3.8 x 102 K 3.8 hK = __________ (ii) 9.3 x 101 s 9.3 das = __________ (viii) 1.7 x 109 W = __________ 1.7 GW (iii) 0.5 x 10-3 J 0.5 mJ = __________ (ix) 4.1 x 103 C 4.1 kC = __________ (iv) 11.2 x 10-2 N 11.2 cN = __________ (x) 9.5 x 10-6 A 9.5 A = __________ (v) 5.9 x 106 V = __________ 5.9 MV (xi) 8.6 x 10-12 m = __________ 8.6 pm (vi) 6.6 x 10-9 m 6.6 nm = __________ (xii) 2.2 x 10-1 s 2.2 ds = __________ 2. Replaced the prefix in the values below with the correct multiple or sub-multiple. (i) 4.1Tm = 4.1 x 1012 m (vii) 3.8 daK = 3.8 x 101 K (ii) 9.3 ms = 9.3 x 10-3 s (viii) 1.7 GW = 1.7 x 109 W (iii) 0.5 kJ = 0.5 x 103 J (ix) 4.1 hC = 4.1 x 102 C (iv) 11.2 cN = 11.2 x 10-2 N (x) 9.5 A = 9.5 x 10-6 A (v) 5.9 MV = 5.9 x 106 V (xi) 8.6 pm = 8.6 x 10-12 m (vi) 6.6 dm = 6.6 x 10-1 m (xii) 2.2 ns = 2.2 x 10-9 s 1-4
    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011Check Yourself 11. Which physical quantity has the correct S.I 6. unit? A radio station airs its programmes by transmitting waves at a frequency of Physical quantity S.I unit 102.3 MHz. How much is this frequency, in Hz? A Temperature Celcius B Time minute A 1.023 x 102 C Mass Newton B 1.023 x 105 D Length metre C 1.023 x 106 D 1.023 x 1082. Time, speed, density, and energy are .............. quantities. 7. Which of the following values is equal to 470 pF? A base C vector B scalar D derived A 4.7 x 10-10 F B 4.7 x 1011 F C 4.7 x 10-7 F3. Which of the following shows the correct D 4.7 x 102 F relationship between the base quantities for -1 density? 8. Hamid cycles at a velocity of 3.1 km h . -1 What is this velocity, in m s ? A A 0.09 C 1.16 B 0.86 D 11.61 B 9. Which measurement is the longest? C A 2.68 x 103 m B 2.68 x 10-1 mm C 2.68 x 103 cm D D 2.68 x 10-4 m 10. Which of the following conversion of unit is4. Which of the following is not a base S.I unit? correct? A Gram C Ampere A 24 mm3 = 2.4 x 10-6 m3 B Kelvin D Meter B 300 mm3 = 3.0 x 10-7 m3 C 800 mm3 = 8.0 x 10-2 m3 D 1 000 mm3 = 1.0 x 10-4 m35. Which of the following physical quantities is 11. Which of the following frequencies is the not a base quantity? same as 106.8 MHz? A Weight C Temperature A 1.068 x 10-4 Hz B Time D Electric current B 1.068 x 10-1 Hz C 1.068 x 102 Hz D 1.068 x 106 Hz E 1.068 x 108 Hz 1-5
    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011 1.3 UNDERSTANDING SCALAR AND VECTOR QUANTITIESDefine scalar and 1. Read the statements below to make a generalisation on scalar quantity and vectorvector quantities. quantity. Then classify the physical quantities into scalar quantity and vector quantity in the table below. A Hasan walks with a velocity of 2 m s-1 due West. B Husna runs with a speed of 5 m s-1. C Sangeetha walks along a displacement of 40 m due North. D Jason runs along a distance of 30 m. E Chin Wen push the table downwards with a force of 30 N. F Wen Dee has a mass of 40 kg. Scalar Quantity Vector Quantity Speed Velocity Distance Displacement Mass Force (i) magnitude Scalar quantity is physical quantity that has _______________________. magnitude (ii) Vector quantity is physical quantity that has _______________________ and direction ________________________.Differentiate 2. Underline the correct physical quantity.between distanceand displacement. (i) (Distance / Displacement) is the total length travelled by an object. (ii) (Distance / Displacement) is the shortest length measured between the initial point and the final point. 1-6
    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011 EXAMPLE: A 4m B A boy walks from A to C through B. (i) Distance of the boy =4m+3m =7m 3m (ii) Displacement of the boy = =5m CCheck Yourself 21. Which of the following quantities is a vector 3. Which quantity is a vector quantity? quantity? A Energy C Force A Area C Distance B Power D Pressure B Length D Displacement2. Diagram below shows the path travelled by a 4. Which of the following is group of vector car from P to S. quantities? 5 km A Velocity, mass, displacement P Q B Speed, time, acceleration C Force, velocity, displacement 3 km D Area, temperature, momentum S R 1 km What is the displacement of the car? A 5.0 km C 8.2 km B 6.8 km D 9.0 km 1-7
    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011 1.4 U N D E R S T A N D I N G M E A S U R E M E N T SRecognise 1. State the suitable measuring instrument for the physical quantities in the table below.appropriateinstrument for MEASURING INSTRUMENTphysical quantities Metre rule Barometer Thermometer Lever balance Spring balance Hydrometer Measuring cylinder Bourdon gauge Ammeter Voltmeter Stopwatch Vernier calliper Micrometer screw gauge No. Physical Quantity Measuring Instrument 1. Temperature Thermometer 2. Length Metre rule 3. Time Stopwatch 4. Mass Lever balance 5. Electric current Ammeter 6. Voltage Voltmeter 7. Density Hydrometer 8. Atmospheric pressure Barometer 9. Pressure Bourdon gauge 10. Force Spring balance 11. Volume Measuring cylinder 12. Diameter of tube Vernier calliper 13. Diameter of wire Micrometer screw gaugeMeasure physical 2. Label the part of vernier calliper below.quantity usingvernier calliper. PART OF VERNIER CALLIPER Inner jaws Outer jaws Main scale Vernier scale Inner jaws Main scale 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Vernier scale Outer jaws 1-8
    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011 3. Take the reading from a vernier calliper: EXAMPLE: (i) 0.70 (i) Read the main scale. cm Main scale reading = 0.70 cm 0 1 2 (ii) Read the vernier scale. 0 Vernier scale reading = 0.02 cm (iii) Total up the readings. (ii) 0.02 Actual reading = 0.72 cm cm 4. Read the vernier calliper below. (i) 3 4 (ii) 2 3 0 0 3.10 cm 2.10 cm Main scale = .................... Main scale = .................... Vernier scale 0.03 cm = .................... Vernier scale 0.06 cm = .................... Actual reading 3.13 cm = .................... Actual reading 2.16 cm = .................... (ii) (iv) 8 9 0 1 0 Main scale 8.50 cm = .................... Main scale 0.20 cm = .................... Vernier scale 0.06 cm = .................... Vernier scale 0.04 cm = .................... Actual reading 8.56 cm = .................... Actual reading 0.24 cm = .................... 1-9
    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011Measure physical 5. Label the part of micrometer screw gauge below.quantity usingmicrometer screw PART OF MICROMETER SCREW GAUGEgauge. Anvil Spindle Sleeve Thimble Ratchet Anvil Spindle Thimble Ratchet Main scale 6. Take the reading from a micrometer screw gauge. EXAMPLE: (i) 3.00 mm (i) Read the sleeve scale (main scale). Sleeve scale reading = 3.00 mm 0 50 (ii) Read the thimble scale. (ii) 0.44 mm Thimble scale reading = 0.44 mm 40 (iii) Total up the readings. Actual reading = 3.44 mm 7. Read the micrometer screw gauge below: (i) (ii) 0 30 0 20 20 10 Sleeve scale 5.00 mm = .................... Sleeve scale 3.00 mm = .................... Thimble scale 0.24 mm = .................... Thimble scale 0.16 mm = .................... Actual reading 5.24 mm = .................... Actual reading 3.16 mm = .................... (iii) (iv) 0 0 60 20 50 10 1-10
    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011 Sleeve scale 5.50 mm = .................... Sleeve scale 3.00 mm = .................... Thimble scale 0.19 mm = .................... Thimble scale 0.56 mm = .................... Actual reading 5.69 mm = .................... Actual reading 3.56 mm = ....................Explain sensitivity. 8. Table below shows readings from three instruments J, K, and L that are used in measuring the mass of a Petri dish. Instrument J Instrument K Instrument L 20 g 19.4 g 19.42 g A piece of dried leaf of mass 0.05 g is then put in the Petri dish. (i) Which instrument is able to detect the small change of the mass? L [...............] (ii) Which instrument is the most sensitive? L [................] (iii) Which instrument has the highest sensitivity? L [................] detect small (iv) Sensitivity of instrument is the capability of the instrument to ............................... changes. .................................................................................................................................. (v) Which instrument gives reading in the most decimal place? [.................] L more higher (vi) The ...................... the decimal place, the ........................... sensitivity of the instrument.Explain accuracy. 9. Table below shows readings from three instruments P, Q, and R that are used in measuring the length of a wire. The actual length of the wire is 10.0 cm. Instrument P Instrument Q Instrument R 10.1 cm 10.4 cm 9.6 cm (i) Which instrument gives the closest reading to the actual length of the wire? P [...............] P (ii) Which instrument gives the most accurate reading? [...............] (iii) Which instrument has the highest accuracy? P [...............] give reading (iv) Accuracy of instrument is the capability of the instrument to .................................. close to the actual size. ................................................................................................................................... 1-11
    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011Explain 10. Table below shows four readings from three instruments X, Y, and Z that are used inconsistency measuring the length of a wire. Each instrument repeats the measurement for four(Precision) times. Instrument X 10.0 cm 10.1 cm 10.1 cm 10.0 cm Instrument Y 10.1 cm 10.4 cm 10.2 cm 9.8 cm Instrument Z 9.8 cm 9.6 cm 9.9 cm 9.5 cm (i) Which instrument gives readings with the smallest deviation (difference)? X [...............] X (ii) Which instrument gives the most consistence readings? [...............] (iii) Which instrument has the highest consistency? X [...............] give reading (iv) Consistency of instrument is the capability of the instrument to ............................. with small deviation/difference. ...................................................................................................................................Explain type of 11. In an experiment, the readings of measurement taken may have slightly difference dueexperimental error. error to some mistakes. The difference in the readings is called as ......................................... 12. These errors can be caused by the change of environment, human factors or the deficiency of measuring instrument. 13. Error that is caused by environment and human usually is (constant / changeable)*. 14. Error that is caused by the instrument is always (constant / changeable)*. 15. Type of Error: Random Error Difference Systematic Error Human factor and Cause Instrument environment Magnitude / Random Constant value Parallax error Example Zero error Add or deduct the zero error from the reading. Method to Take few readings and find reduce the the average reading Use different instrument error while taking readings and find the average 1-12
    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011Check Yourself 31. A, B, C, and D shows the shooting marks on a 4. A, B, C, and D show parts of four different target. Which marks can explain the concept balance scales. Which balance is the most. of precision of a measurement? sensitive? A C A C B D B D2. Diagram below shows the target board in a 5. The diagrams show the scales on a pair of game. vernier callipers and a metre rule. Target board Target Which result is consistent but not accurate? A C Vernier calliper Metre rule Which comparison is correct about the sensitivity of the vernier callipers and the metre rule when measuring the thickness of a B D wire? Vernier callipers Metre rule A Low sensitivity Low Sensitivity B Low sensitivity High sensitivity C High sensitivity Low sensitivity3. The diagram shows the scale of a micrometer D High sensitivity High sensitivity screw gauge. 6. Table below shows the readings of the thickness of a board which are taken by four students. Reading/cm Student 1 2 3 4 What is the reading of the micrometer? A 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 B 2.53 2.53 2.53 2.53 A 7.02 mm C 7.03 mm C 2.52 2.53 2.54 2.53 B 7.52 mm D 7.58 mm 1-13 D 2.71 2.73 2.74 2.74
    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011 Each student made four measurements. If the 11. Diagram (a) shows the reading of a actual thickness of the board is 2.53 cm, vernier calliper while its jaws are closed. which of the students A, B, C, and D made Diagram (b) shows the reading of the vernier the measurements that are accurate but not calliper when a metal sheet is placed between consistent? the jaws.7. The diagram shows the scale of a vernier calliper. (a) (b) What is the thickness of the metal sheet? A 0.46 cm C 0.38 cm What is the reading of the vernier calliper? B 0.42 cm D 0.32 cm A 2.16 cm C 1.86 cm 12. Which of the following statements is correct B 2.06 cm D 1.76 cm about zero error? A Can be reduced by determining average reading.8. Atmospheric pressure can be measured by B The magnitude of error increases when using the value of the reading increases. C Exist either in positive or negative. A hydrometer D The magnitude of error increases if the B Bourdon gauge and manometer range of scale is large. C Bourdon gauge and mercury barometer Diagram below shows two types of ammeters, D manometer and mercury barometer 12. X and Y, that can be used to measure electric current.9. Four students, A, B, C, and D use a micrometer screw gauge, a metre rule, and a vernier calliper to measure the thickness of a board. Which student records the reading correctly? Micrometer Metre Vernier screw rule/mm calliper/mm gauge/mm A 11.1 11 11.13 B 11.13 11.1 11.128 C 11.128 11.1 11.13 D 11.13 11 11.110. The diagram shows the scale of a micrometer screw gauge. (a) Which ammeter is more sensitive? Ammeter Y ................................................................... (b) State one reason for your answer above. Ammeter Y has smaller division of ................................................................... scale ................................................................... 1-14 What is the reading of the micrometer? ................................................................... A 4.95 mm C 4.50 mm B 4.55 mm D 4.45 mm
    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 201113. Which of the following ways can reduce the 13. parallax error while taking reading of current (a) The external diameters of the cylinder at from an ammeter? four different places are shown in the table below. A Use a higher sensitivity ammeter. B Repeat the measurement and calculate Relative External diameter/cm the average reading. deviation/% C Take the reading using a magnifying 2.04 2.05 2.04 2.06 0.37 glass. D Use ammeter that has plane mirror below the pointer. (i) Why is the external diameter measured four times? To get average reading / To find .............................................................13. What is the function of the plane mirror under the pointer in an ammeter? relative deviation ............................................................. A To increase the consistency of the measurement. (ii) What is the purpose of calculating the B To increase the accuracy of the relative deviation? measurement. C To avoid parallax error. ............................................................. To determine the consistency of the D To prevent zero error. measurement ............................................................. ............................................................. 14. Figure below shows the meniscus of oil in a measuring cylinder. P, Q and R are three eye16. Figure below shows the scale of an ammeter. positions while measuring the volume of the oil. Mirror (a) Name the physical quantity measured by the ammeter. (a) Which position of the eye is correct while taking the reading of the volume of oil? Electric current ................................................................... Q. (but the direction must be 90) ................................................................... (b) What is the value of the smallest division on the scale? (b) Give one reason for the answer above. Position of eyes is at the level of the 0.1 A ................................................................... ................................................................... meniscus of the oil (c) State the function of the mirror located ................................................................... under the scale. To avoid parallax error ................................................................... 18. 1-15 ...................................................................
    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 201117. Figure below shows a vernier calliper used to measure external diameter of a hollow (i) What is the zero error of the vernier cylinder. calliper? ............................................................. -0.04 cm (ii) Calculate the thickness of the metal sheet. (b) Name the part labelled X. Inner jaws ................................................................... Zero error = - 0.04 cm (c) What is the function of X? To measure internal diameter of hollow Reading = 3.62 cm ................................................................... object Actual reading = 3.62 – (-0.04) cm ................................................................... = 3.66 cm19. A student is assigned to measure the thickness of a metal sheet. The student is provided with a vernier calliper. 3.66 cm Thickness = ................................. (a) The student uses the vernier calliper to measure the thickness of the metal sheet. Figure (i) shows the scale of the vernier calliper while the jaws are closed. Figure (ii) shows the scale of the vernier calliper when the metal sheet is put between the jaws. (i) (ii) 1-16
    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011 1.5 U N D E R S T A N D I N G S C I E N T I F I C I N V E S T I G A T I O NIdentify variables 1. Identify and state the variables that can be investigated from the situations below.in a given situation EXAMPLE: The car moves faster when it is pushed harder. Cause : pushed harder Manipulated variable : Force Effect : moves faster Responding variable : Speed/Velocity/ Acceleration Manipulated Responding No. Situation variable variable 1. The temperature of smaller block rises Mass Temperature faster when it is heated. 2. The pendulum system with longer string Length Time takes longer time to stop. 3. The loaded lorry is harder to stop than the Mass Time to stop empty lorry. 4. The trolley that falls from the higher place Height Speed moves faster. 5. The spring becomes longer when it is Force Length pulled harder. 1-17
    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011Making inference 2. Write inference from the given variables. EXAMPLE: Manipulated variable : Length Responding variable: Time Inference : The length affects the time taken. Manipulated Responding No. Inference variable variable 1. Force Acceleration The force affects the acceleration 2. Mass Temperature The mass affects the temperature 3. Force Extension The force affects the extension 4. Mass Time The mass affects the time 5. Force Pressure The force affects the pressure 6. Area Pressure The area affects the pressure 7. Temperature Volume The temperature affects the volume 1-18
    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011Form hypothesis. 3. Write hypothesis from the given variables. EXAMPLE: Manipulated variable : Length Responding variable: Time Hypothesis : The longer the length, the longer the time taken. Manipulated Responding No. Hypothesis variable variable The larger the force, the higher the 1. Force Acceleration acceleration The larger the mass, the lower the 2. Mass Temperature temperature The larger the force, the longer the 3. Force Extension extension 4. Mass Time The larger the mass, the longer the time The larger the force, the higher the 5. Force Pressure pressure 6. Area Pressure The larger the area, the lower the pressure The higher the temperature, the larger the 7. Temperature Volume volumeAnalyse the data. 4. Data obtained from an experiment can be analysed by plotting a line graph. Manipulated variable is on the x-axis, and responding variable is on the y-axis. The variables must be stated together with the correct unit. Time/min EXAMPLE: Manipulated variable : Mass Responding variable : Time Mass/kg 1-19
    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011 5. Sketch a graph to analyse the following variables: (i) Manipulated variable : Force (ii) Manipulated variable : Mass Responding variable : Acceleration Responding variable : Temperature Acceleration/m s-2 Temperature/C Force/N Mass/kg (iii (iv) Manipulated variable : Mass Manipulated variable : Force ) Responding variable : Extension Responding variable : Time Extension/cm Time/s Force/N Mass/kg 1-20
    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011 (v) Manipulated variable : Force (vi) Manipulated variable : Area Responding variable : Pressure Responding variable : Pressure Pressure/Pa Pressure/Pa Area/cm2Interpret data to 6. The conclusion of an experiment is made based on the line graph obtained.draw a conclusion. EXAMPLE: Time/min Pressure/Pa m-2 Mass/kg Conclusion: Conclusion: The time is directly proportional The pressure is inversely proportional to the mass. to the area. Temperature/C Time/min Conclusion: The temperature is linearly increasing with the time. 1-21
    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011Interpret data to 7. Write a conclusion based on the line graphs below:draw a conclusion. (i) Period2/s2 (ii) Temperature/C kg-2 Length/cm Conclusion: Conclusion: The square of period is directly The temperature is inversely proportional to the length proportional to the mass (iii) (iv) Volume/m3 Extension/cm Pressure/kPa Force/N Conclusion: Conclusion: The volume is linearly increasing The extension is directly with the pressure proportional to the force 1-22
    • Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011Check Yourself 41. Which of the following graphs obeys the 4. Diagram below shows an investigation about equation F = kx, where k is a constant? the stretching of a spring. Babies of different. masses are supported by identical springs. A C B D Which of the following variables are correct? Manipulated Responding Constant variable variable variable A Mass of the Length of Diameter of baby the spring the spring B Length of Mass of the Diameter of2. Table below shows the results of an experiment the spring baby the spring to investigate between load and extension when C Diameter of Length of Mass of the a spring is stretched. the spring the spring baby Load, F/N 100 150 200 250 300 D Mass of the Diameter of Length of baby the spring the spring Extension, 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 x/cm 5. The graph shows the relationship between The original length of the spring is l0 = 15.0 cm. physical quantities P and Q. What is the manipulated variable? A Load, F B Extension, x C Original length of the spring, l0 D Material used to make the spring3. The graph shows the relationship between v and t. Which statements about the graph is correct? A If Q = 1, then P = 2. B The gradient of the graph is 1. C P is directly proportional to Q. D The equation of the graph is P = 1 + 3Q The relationship between v and t is represented by the equation A C 1-23 B D