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1.0 understanding physics teacher copy

1. 1. Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011 1.1 U N D E R S T A N D I N G P H Y S I C SRecognise the 1. Tick () the statements that are related to physics.concepts of Blood circulation in our body is controlled by heart.physics in  A large truck moves faster than a car because it has a more powerful engine.everyday objectsand natural We need water in our digestion system.phenomena Orange juice is acidic because its taste is sour.  An object on a high building has a large potential energy.  When we heat water, its temperature increased. We are sweating when our body metabolism is high. Pure water has pH 7.  We cannot see object in dark  A ship is floating in water. Human body coordination is controlled by hormone system. Oxidation will act faster in acidic medium. 1.2 UNDERSTANDING BASE AND DERIVED QUANTITIESRecognise 1. Identify Physical quantities, Magnitude, Units and Measuring instrument from thephysical quantity statements below. Write them into the table below (next page).and unit A Ismail weigh a wooden block that has mass of 500 gram using a lever beam balance. B Ong Beng Hock measures the length of a building which is 100 meter long using a measuring tape. C Siew Mei measures her body’s temperature using a digital thermometer and obtains 38C. D Bathumalai determines the volume of water using a measuring cylinder and obtains 150 milliliter. E Hanisah measures the diameter of a wire which is 1.26 millimeter using a micrometer screw gauge. F Vinisha takes the time of 20 oscillations of a pendulum using a stopwatch and obtains 24.6 seconds. Statement Physical quantity Magnitude Unit Measuring instrument Mass 500 Gram Lever beam balance A B Length 100 Meter Measuring tape C Temperature 38 C Thermometer D Volume 150 Milliliter Measuring cylinder E Diameter 1.26 Millimetre Micrometer screw gauge F time 24.6 Second stopwatch 1-1
2. 2. Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011Define base 2. Identify base quantities and derived quantity from the equation below.quantities andderived quantities (a) Volume = length x length x lengthare Base quantity length = (i) _________________ volume Derived quantity = (i) _________________ (b) Area = length x length Base quantity length = (i) _________________ Area Derived quantity = (i) _________________ (c) Base quantity Mass = (i) _________________ length (ii) ____________________ Density Derived quantity = (i) _________________ cannot (i) Base quantity is physical quantity that __________ be derived from any quantities. (ii) Derived quantity is physical quantity that ___________________ from the base is derived quantities.List base quantitiesand their S.I unit PHYSICAL QUANTITY S.I UNIT Pressure Time Current Second Newton Ampere Length Area Temperature Kelvin kilogram Pascal Weight Force Volume Joule m2 Watt Work Energy Power m s-1 meter m3 Velocity Mass 3. Choose base quantities from the physical quantities given above and state their S.I units. No. Base Quantity S.I Unit 1. length meter 2. Mass kilogram 3. Time second 4. Electric current Ampere 5. temperature Kelvin 1-2
3. 3. Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011List some derived 4. Write 5 derived quantities from physical quantities given in the box above (previousquantities and their page) and state their S.I units. [*any five]S.I units No. Derived Quantity S.I Unit 1. Pressure Pascal 2. Force / weight Newton 3. Work / energy Joule 4. Velocity m s-1 5. Area m2 6. Volume m3 Express quantities 5. Rewrite the values below in scientific notation (Standard notation)using scientificnotation No. Original value Scientific notation 1. 12 000 m 1.2 x 104 m 2. 3 000 000 000 s 3.0 x 109 s 3. 0.000 000 000 56 N 5.6 x 10-10 N 4. 0.000 78 J 7.8 x 10-4 J 5. 0.0034 A 3.4 x 10-3 AExpress quantities 6. Arrange the prefixes given below in ascending order. Then, state their multiple / sub-using prefixes multiple. PREFIXES MULTIPLE / SUB-MULTIPLE Nano (n) kilo (k) pico (p) 103 109 10-2 1 mega (M) centi (c) giga (G) 10 10-12 106 deci (d) deca (da) tera (T) 10-6 102 10-1 -9 hector (h) micro () milli (m) 10 10-3 1012 Multiple / Multiple / No. Prefix No. Prefix Sub-multiple Sub-multiple 1. Tera 1012 7. pico 10-12 2. Giga 109 8. nano 10-9 3. Mega 106 9. micro 10-6 4. kilo 103 10. milli 10-3 5. hecto 102 11. centi 10-2 6. deca 101 12. deci 10-1 1-3
4. 4. Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011Solving problem 1. Rewrite the values below using the suitable prefix.involvingconversion of units (i) 4.1 x 1012 m 4.1 Tm = __________ (vii) 3.8 x 102 K 3.8 hK = __________ (ii) 9.3 x 101 s 9.3 das = __________ (viii) 1.7 x 109 W = __________ 1.7 GW (iii) 0.5 x 10-3 J 0.5 mJ = __________ (ix) 4.1 x 103 C 4.1 kC = __________ (iv) 11.2 x 10-2 N 11.2 cN = __________ (x) 9.5 x 10-6 A 9.5 A = __________ (v) 5.9 x 106 V = __________ 5.9 MV (xi) 8.6 x 10-12 m = __________ 8.6 pm (vi) 6.6 x 10-9 m 6.6 nm = __________ (xii) 2.2 x 10-1 s 2.2 ds = __________ 2. Replaced the prefix in the values below with the correct multiple or sub-multiple. (i) 4.1Tm = 4.1 x 1012 m (vii) 3.8 daK = 3.8 x 101 K (ii) 9.3 ms = 9.3 x 10-3 s (viii) 1.7 GW = 1.7 x 109 W (iii) 0.5 kJ = 0.5 x 103 J (ix) 4.1 hC = 4.1 x 102 C (iv) 11.2 cN = 11.2 x 10-2 N (x) 9.5 A = 9.5 x 10-6 A (v) 5.9 MV = 5.9 x 106 V (xi) 8.6 pm = 8.6 x 10-12 m (vi) 6.6 dm = 6.6 x 10-1 m (xii) 2.2 ns = 2.2 x 10-9 s 1-4
5. 5. Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011Check Yourself 11. Which physical quantity has the correct S.I 6. unit? A radio station airs its programmes by transmitting waves at a frequency of Physical quantity S.I unit 102.3 MHz. How much is this frequency, in Hz? A Temperature Celcius B Time minute A 1.023 x 102 C Mass Newton B 1.023 x 105 D Length metre C 1.023 x 106 D 1.023 x 1082. Time, speed, density, and energy are .............. quantities. 7. Which of the following values is equal to 470 pF? A base C vector B scalar D derived A 4.7 x 10-10 F B 4.7 x 1011 F C 4.7 x 10-7 F3. Which of the following shows the correct D 4.7 x 102 F relationship between the base quantities for -1 density? 8. Hamid cycles at a velocity of 3.1 km h . -1 What is this velocity, in m s ? A A 0.09 C 1.16 B 0.86 D 11.61 B 9. Which measurement is the longest? C A 2.68 x 103 m B 2.68 x 10-1 mm C 2.68 x 103 cm D D 2.68 x 10-4 m 10. Which of the following conversion of unit is4. Which of the following is not a base S.I unit? correct? A Gram C Ampere A 24 mm3 = 2.4 x 10-6 m3 B Kelvin D Meter B 300 mm3 = 3.0 x 10-7 m3 C 800 mm3 = 8.0 x 10-2 m3 D 1 000 mm3 = 1.0 x 10-4 m35. Which of the following physical quantities is 11. Which of the following frequencies is the not a base quantity? same as 106.8 MHz? A Weight C Temperature A 1.068 x 10-4 Hz B Time D Electric current B 1.068 x 10-1 Hz C 1.068 x 102 Hz D 1.068 x 106 Hz E 1.068 x 108 Hz 1-5
6. 6. Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011 1.3 UNDERSTANDING SCALAR AND VECTOR QUANTITIESDefine scalar and 1. Read the statements below to make a generalisation on scalar quantity and vectorvector quantities. quantity. Then classify the physical quantities into scalar quantity and vector quantity in the table below. A Hasan walks with a velocity of 2 m s-1 due West. B Husna runs with a speed of 5 m s-1. C Sangeetha walks along a displacement of 40 m due North. D Jason runs along a distance of 30 m. E Chin Wen push the table downwards with a force of 30 N. F Wen Dee has a mass of 40 kg. Scalar Quantity Vector Quantity Speed Velocity Distance Displacement Mass Force (i) magnitude Scalar quantity is physical quantity that has _______________________. magnitude (ii) Vector quantity is physical quantity that has _______________________ and direction ________________________.Differentiate 2. Underline the correct physical quantity.between distanceand displacement. (i) (Distance / Displacement) is the total length travelled by an object. (ii) (Distance / Displacement) is the shortest length measured between the initial point and the final point. 1-6
7. 7. Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011 EXAMPLE: A 4m B A boy walks from A to C through B. (i) Distance of the boy =4m+3m =7m 3m (ii) Displacement of the boy = =5m CCheck Yourself 21. Which of the following quantities is a vector 3. Which quantity is a vector quantity? quantity? A Energy C Force A Area C Distance B Power D Pressure B Length D Displacement2. Diagram below shows the path travelled by a 4. Which of the following is group of vector car from P to S. quantities? 5 km A Velocity, mass, displacement P Q B Speed, time, acceleration C Force, velocity, displacement 3 km D Area, temperature, momentum S R 1 km What is the displacement of the car? A 5.0 km C 8.2 km B 6.8 km D 9.0 km 1-7
8. 8. Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011 1.4 U N D E R S T A N D I N G M E A S U R E M E N T SRecognise 1. State the suitable measuring instrument for the physical quantities in the table below.appropriateinstrument for MEASURING INSTRUMENTphysical quantities Metre rule Barometer Thermometer Lever balance Spring balance Hydrometer Measuring cylinder Bourdon gauge Ammeter Voltmeter Stopwatch Vernier calliper Micrometer screw gauge No. Physical Quantity Measuring Instrument 1. Temperature Thermometer 2. Length Metre rule 3. Time Stopwatch 4. Mass Lever balance 5. Electric current Ammeter 6. Voltage Voltmeter 7. Density Hydrometer 8. Atmospheric pressure Barometer 9. Pressure Bourdon gauge 10. Force Spring balance 11. Volume Measuring cylinder 12. Diameter of tube Vernier calliper 13. Diameter of wire Micrometer screw gaugeMeasure physical 2. Label the part of vernier calliper below.quantity usingvernier calliper. PART OF VERNIER CALLIPER Inner jaws Outer jaws Main scale Vernier scale Inner jaws Main scale 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Vernier scale Outer jaws 1-8
10. 10. Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011Measure physical 5. Label the part of micrometer screw gauge below.quantity usingmicrometer screw PART OF MICROMETER SCREW GAUGEgauge. Anvil Spindle Sleeve Thimble Ratchet Anvil Spindle Thimble Ratchet Main scale 6. Take the reading from a micrometer screw gauge. EXAMPLE: (i) 3.00 mm (i) Read the sleeve scale (main scale). Sleeve scale reading = 3.00 mm 0 50 (ii) Read the thimble scale. (ii) 0.44 mm Thimble scale reading = 0.44 mm 40 (iii) Total up the readings. Actual reading = 3.44 mm 7. Read the micrometer screw gauge below: (i) (ii) 0 30 0 20 20 10 Sleeve scale 5.00 mm = .................... Sleeve scale 3.00 mm = .................... Thimble scale 0.24 mm = .................... Thimble scale 0.16 mm = .................... Actual reading 5.24 mm = .................... Actual reading 3.16 mm = .................... (iii) (iv) 0 0 60 20 50 10 1-10
11. 11. Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 – Introduction to physics GCKL 2011 Sleeve scale 5.50 mm = .................... Sleeve scale 3.00 mm = .................... Thimble scale 0.19 mm = .................... Thimble scale 0.56 mm = .................... Actual reading 5.69 mm = .................... Actual reading 3.56 mm = ....................Explain sensitivity. 8. Table below shows readings from three instruments J, K, and L that are used in measuring the mass of a Petri dish. Instrument J Instrument K Instrument L 20 g 19.4 g 19.42 g A piece of dried leaf of mass 0.05 g is then put in the Petri dish. (i) Which instrument is able to detect the small change of the mass? L [...............] (ii) Which instrument is the most sensitive? L [................] (iii) Which instrument has the highest sensitivity? L [................] detect small (iv) Sensitivity of instrument is the capability of the instrument to ............................... changes. .................................................................................................................................. (v) Which instrument gives reading in the most decimal place? [.................] L more higher (vi) The ...................... the decimal place, the ........................... sensitivity of the instrument.Explain accuracy. 9. Table below shows readings from three instruments P, Q, and R that are used in measuring the length of a wire. The actual length of the wire is 10.0 cm. Instrument P Instrument Q Instrument R 10.1 cm 10.4 cm 9.6 cm (i) Which instrument gives the closest reading to the actual length of the wire? P [...............] P (ii) Which instrument gives the most accurate reading? [...............] (iii) Which instrument has the highest accuracy? P [...............] give reading (iv) Accuracy of instrument is the capability of the instrument to .................................. close to the actual size. ................................................................................................................................... 1-11