Introduction To The Research Method


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Introduction To The Research Method

  1. 1. Introduction to the research Method Chamaru De Alwis
  2. 2. Definition of Research <ul><li>Well organized, Systematic ,Data based , ,objective oriented ,scientific </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inquiry or investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in to a specific problem undertaken </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>with the purpose of finding answers or solutions to it. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The purpose of research is to-- <ul><li>Review or synthesize existing knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate existing situations or problems </li></ul><ul><li>Provide solutions to problems </li></ul><ul><li>Explore and analyze more general issues </li></ul><ul><li>Construct or create new procedures or systems </li></ul><ul><li>Explain new phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Generate new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>… or a combination of any of the above! </li></ul>
  4. 5. Research Approaches <ul><li>Research can be approach in different ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative / qualitative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deductive/ inductive </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Quantitative / qualitative Research
  6. 7. Deductive / inductive research
  7. 8. Positivistic <ul><li>Positivistic approaches to research are based on research methodologies commonly used in science. </li></ul><ul><li>They are characterized by a detached approach to research that seeks out the facts or causes of any social phenomena in a systematic way. </li></ul><ul><li>Positivistic approaches are founded on a belief that the study of human behavior should be conducted in the same way as studies conducted in the natural sciences ( Collis & Hussey , 2003, p.52). </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Positivistic approaches seek to identify, measure and evaluate any phenomena and to provide rational explanation for it. </li></ul><ul><li>This explanation will attempt to establish causal links and relationships between the different elements (or variables) of the subject and relate them to a particular theory or practice. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a belief that people do respond to stimulus or forces, rules (norms) external to themselves and that these can be discovered, identified and described using rational, systematic and deductive processes. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Phenomenological <ul><li>Phenomenological approaches however, approach research from the perspective that human behaviour is not as easily measured as phenomena in the natural sciences. </li></ul><ul><li>Human motivation is shaped by factors that are not always observable, e.g. inner thought processes, so that it can become hard to generalise on, for example, motivation from observation of behaviour alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Furthermore, people place their own meanings on events; meanings that do not always coincide with the way others have interpreted them. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Phenomenological approaches are particularly concerned with understanding behaviour from the participants’ own subjective frames of reference . Research methods are chosen therefore, to try and describe, translate and explain and interpret events from the perspectives of the people who are the subject of the research </li></ul>
  11. 12. Research methodologies
  12. 13. Surveys <ul><li>Surveys involve selecting a representative and unbiased sample of subjects drawn from the group you wish to study. </li></ul><ul><li>The main methods of asking questions are by face-to-face or telephone interviews, by using questionnaires or a mixture of the two. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two main types of survey: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a descriptive survey: concerned with identifying & counting the frequency of a particular response among the survey group, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an analytical survey: to analyse the relationship between different elements (variables) in a sample group. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Experimental Studies <ul><li>Experimental studies are done in carefully controlled and structured environments and enable the causal relationships of phenomena to be identified and analyzed. </li></ul><ul><li>The variables can be manipulated or controlled to observe the effects on the subjects studied. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, sound, light, heat, volume of work levels etc can be managed to observe the effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies done in laboratories tend to offer the best opportunities for controlling the variables in a rigorous way, although field studies can be done in a more ‘real world’ environment. </li></ul><ul><li>However, with the former, the artificiality of the situation can affect the responses of the people studied, and with the latter, the researcher has less control over the variables affecting the situation under observation. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Longitudinal studies <ul><li>These are studies over an extended period to observe the effect that time has on the situation under observation and to collect primary data (data collected at first hand) of these changes. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Cross – sectional studies <ul><li>This is a study involving different organisations or groups of people to look at similarities or differences between them at any one particular time, e.g. a survey of the IT skills of managers in one or a number of organizations at any particular time. </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-sectional studies are done when time or resources for more extended research, e.g. longitudinal studies, are limited. It involves a close analysis of a situation at one particular point in time to give a ‘snap-shot’ result </li></ul>
  16. 17. Phenomenological Methodologies <ul><li>Case studies </li></ul><ul><li>Action research </li></ul><ul><li>Participant observation </li></ul><ul><li>Participative inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Feminist perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Grounded theory </li></ul>
  17. 18. Case Study <ul><li>Descriptive (e.g. where current practice is described in detail) </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrative (e.g. where the case studies illustrate new practices adopted by an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental (e.g. where difficulties in adopting new practices or procedures are examined) </li></ul><ul><li>Explanatory (e.g. where theories are used as a basis for understanding and explaining practices or procedures). </li></ul>
  18. 19. Action research <ul><li>Action research involves an intervention by a researcher to influence change in any given situation and to monitor and evaluate the results. </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher, working with a client, identifies a particular objective, e.g. ways of improving telephone responses to ‘difficult’ clients , and explores ways this might be done. The researcher enters into the situation, e.g. by introducing new techniques, and monitors the results. </li></ul><ul><li>This research requires active co-operation between researcher and client and a continual process of adjustment to the intervention in the light of new information and responses to it from respondents </li></ul>
  19. 20. Ethnography (Participant observation) <ul><li>this is where the researcher becomes a working member of the group or situation to be observed . </li></ul><ul><li>The aim is to understand the situation from the inside: from the viewpoints of the people in the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher shares the same experiences as the subjects, and this form of research can be particularly effective in the study of small groups/small firms. </li></ul><ul><li>Participant observation can be overt (everyone knows it is happening) or covert (when the subject(s) being observed for research purposes are unaware it is happening). </li></ul>
  20. 21. Participative inquiry <ul><li>This is about research within one’s own group or organization and involves the active involvement and co-operation of people who you would normally work and associate with on a daily basis. </li></ul><ul><li>The whole group may be involved in the research and the emphasis is on sharing, agreeing, cooperating and making the research process as open and equal as possible </li></ul>
  21. 22. Feminist Perspectives <ul><li>Research, from a feminist perspective, focuses on knowledge grounded in female experiences and is of benefit to everyone, but particularly women. </li></ul><ul><li>In a business context, for example, research might centre on the role of women in an organization and on their views, roles, influence and concerns. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Grounded Theory <ul><li>Grounded theory reverses approaches in research that collected data in order to test the validity of theoretical propositions, in favor of an approach that emphasizes the generation of theory from data. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory is generated from observations made, rather than being decided before the study. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Steps in Research <ul><li>Approval of research proposal </li></ul><ul><li>literature review </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Data Analysis (Presentation) </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  24. 25. 2. How to write a research proposal <ul><li>There is no single format for research proposals. This is because every research project is different. </li></ul><ul><li>Different disciplines, donor organizations and academic institutions all have different formats and requirements. </li></ul>
  25. 26. How to write a research proposal Cont.. <ul><li>There are, however, several key components which must be included in every research proposal. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Content <ul><li>Cover page </li></ul><ul><li>Content page </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction / background </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of Research Problum </li></ul><ul><li>Significance of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Literature of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual framework </li></ul><ul><li>Hypostasis </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Timeframe, Budget, action plan </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  27. 28. Cover page Running Title THE HUMAN SIDE OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN SRI LANKA: LEADERSHIP AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT A.I.N. De Alwis MGT/ 125/2003 Department of Human Resource Management Faculty of Commerce And Management Studies University of Kelaniya Kelaniya September 2008
  28. 29. Content page
  29. 30. 3 DESCRIBING A RESEARCH PROBLEM (Introduction /Background) <ul><li>“The introduction is the part of the paper that provides readers with the background information for the research reported in the paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Its purpose is to establish a framework for the research, so that readers can understand how it is related to other research ” (Wilkinson, 1991, p. 96). </li></ul>
  30. 31. DESCRIBING A RESEARCH PROBLEM (Introduction /Background) <ul><ul><li>Therefore, you would do well to begin this section with a clear and simple formulation of your research question. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Our Strategies <ul><li>create reader interest in the topic , </li></ul><ul><li>arrange the broad foundation for the problem that leads to the study , </li></ul><ul><li>place the study within the larger context of the scholarly literature </li></ul>
  32. 33. Flesh out this section with some or all of the following : <ul><li>Where does this research question come from? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  If it arises out of a debate in the literature, introduce that debate . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify or quantify any concepts which may not be clear . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 34. 2. Statement of the Problem <ul><ul><li>“ A problem might be defined as the issue that exists in the literature , theory, or practice that leads to a need for the study ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Creswell, 1994, p. 50). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Statement of the Problem <ul><li>It is important in a proposal that the problem stand out — that the reader can easily recognize it. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes, unclear and poorly formulated problems are masked in an extended discussion . In such cases, supervisors will have difficulty recognizing the problem . </li></ul>
  35. 36. 3 Effective problem statements answer the question <ul><li>“ Why does this research need to be conducted.” </li></ul><ul><li>If a researcher is unable to answer this question clearly </li></ul><ul><li>then the statement of the problem will come off as confusing . </li></ul>
  36. 37. Examples <ul><li>Does automation lead to greater investment per rupee of output? </li></ul><ul><li>How do price and quality rate on consumers evaluation of products? </li></ul>
  37. 38. WHY THE RESEARCH IS IMPORTANT (Significance of the Study) <ul><li>This section, often referred to as the &quot;rationale&quot; is crucial, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>because it is one place in which the researcher tries to convince her/his supervisor that the research is worth doing. You can do this by describing how the results may be used </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Key points to keep in mind when preparing a purpose statement . <ul><ul><ul><li>Try to incorporate a sentence that begins with “The purpose of this study is . . .” This will clarify your own mind as to the purpose and it will inform the reader directly and openly . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly identify and define the central concepts or ideas of the study . Identify the specific method of inquiry to be used. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Think about how your research: <ul><li>may resolve theoretical questions in your area </li></ul><ul><li>may develop better theoretical models in your area </li></ul><ul><li>may change the way people do their jobs in a particular field, or may change the way people live </li></ul>
  40. 41. 3. Literature review <ul><li>* Provides a conceptual framework for the reader so that the research question and methodology can be better understood. * Demonstrates to the supervisor that the researcher is aware of the breadth and diversity of literature that relates to the research question. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Literature review cont.. <ul><li>It is important that you are able to provide an integrated overview of your field of study. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This means that you show awareness of the most important and relevant theories, models, studies and methodologies </li></ul></ul>
  42. 43. 4. Objectives <ul><li>The Objectives of a research project summaries what is to be achieved by the study. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives should be closely related to the statement of the research problem </li></ul>
  43. 44. Objectives of the Study Example <ul><li>The research was carried out with the expectation of accomplishing following objectives. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. To determine the level and the extent of using internet of employee recruitment in Sri Lanka </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. To identify the problems and concerns in using online recruitment effectively in Sri Lanka. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To assess the Sri Lankan HR professionals’ attitudes towards online recruiting. </li></ul></ul>Would HR professional practice online recruiting to increase the functional efficiency and compete with rivals? To what extend we have engaged in online recruiting activities? What are the major barriers and concerns in implementing effective online recruitment in Sri Lankan Context?
  44. 45. Why should research objectives be developed? <ul><li>The formulation of obj. will help U to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FOCUS the study (narrowing it down to essentials) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AVOID the collection of data which are not strictly necessary 4 understanding and solving the problems U have identified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ORGANIZE the study in clearly define parts </li></ul></ul>
  45. 46. Objectives <ul><li>Cover different aspects of the Problum </li></ul><ul><li>Use the logical sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly phrased in Operational Terms (Specifying exactly what U are going to Do, where and for what) </li></ul><ul><li>Use action verbs ( determine, compare, verify, calculate, describe, establish ) </li></ul><ul><li>Don't use non action verbs like to understand, to appreciate, to study </li></ul>
  46. 47. Keep in Mind <ul><li>How do supervisor evaluate your research? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by comparing results with objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the objectives have not been spelled out clearly the project cannot be evaluated </li></ul></ul>
  47. 48. Variables <ul><li>A VARIABLE is a characteristic of a person or object which can take on different values (attributes). </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These may be </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in the form of numbers (e.g., age) or </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>non-numerical characteristics (e.g., sex). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 49. Type of variables <ul><li>The variable that is used to describe or measure the problem under study is called the DEPENDENT variable. </li></ul><ul><li>The variables that are used to describe or measure the factors that are assumed to cause or at least to influence the problem are called the INDEPENDENT variables </li></ul>
  49. 50. Example <ul><li>In a study of the relationship between smoking and lung cancer , </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘suffering from lung cancer’ (with the values yes, no) would be the dependent variable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘smoking’ (varying from not smoking to smoking more than three packets a day) the independent variable </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 51. Moderating variables <ul><li>The variable that has a strong contingent effect on the independent or dependent variable </li></ul>Availability of manuals No of rejects interest of leaning
  51. 52. Example Workforce Diversity Organizational effectiveness Managerial Expertise
  52. 53. Intervening variable <ul><li>Surface between the independent variable start operating to influence the dependent variable and the time their impact is felt on it. </li></ul>Workforce Diversity Creative Synergy Organizational effectiveness
  53. 54. Conceptual Framework <ul><li>the C.F is the foundation on which the entire research project is based. </li></ul><ul><li>it is a logically developed described and elaborated network of associations among the variables deemed relevant to the problem situation . </li></ul>
  54. 55. Conceptual Framework Workforce Diversity Organizational effectiveness Managerial Expertise Creative Synergy
  55. 56. Communication among flight area members Communication between ground control and flight area Decentralization Air safety violation Training
  56. 57. Hypotheses <ul><li>The logical relationship between two more variables expressed in the form of a testable statement. </li></ul>
  57. 58. Ex : <ul><li>if the pilots are given adequate training , air safety violations will be reduced. </li></ul>
  58. 59. Hypotheses <ul><li>If then Statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex : if employees are more healthy , then they will take sick leave less frequently </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Directional and nondirectional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The grater the stress experienced in the job, the lower the job satisfaction of employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a relationship between age and job satisfaction </li></ul></ul>
  59. 60. Null and Alternate Hypotheses <ul><li>Definitive , perfect , exact relationship between two variables. </li></ul><ul><li>in general null statement express </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no (significant relationship) </li></ul></ul>
  60. 61. Hypotheses writing format <ul><li>Null : There is no significant relationship between employee health and taking sick leave </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative : There is a significant relationship between employee health and taking sick leave </li></ul><ul><li>Null - H 0 Alternate - H A or H 1 </li></ul>
  61. 62. The Design--Methods and Procedures <ul><li>Population and Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumentation </li></ul><ul><li>Data Collection </li></ul><ul><li>Data Analysis </li></ul>
  62. 63. The Design--Methods and Procedures <ul><li>“ The methods or procedures section is really the heart of the research proposal. The activities should be described with as much detail as possible, and the continuity between them should be apparent” (Wiersma, 1995, p. 409). </li></ul>
  63. 64. The Design--Methods and Procedures <ul><li>Indicate the methodological steps you will take to answer every question or to test every hypothesis illustrated in the Questions/Hypotheses section . </li></ul>
  64. 65. Population <ul><li>Enter group pf people, events or things of interest that the researcher wishes to investigate </li></ul>
  65. 66. Sampling <ul><li>The key reason for being concerned with sampling is that of validity </li></ul><ul><li>validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>— the extent to which the interpretations of the results of the study follow from the study itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the extent to which results may be generalized to other situations with other people </li></ul></ul>
  66. 67. Sample <ul><li>sampling = representative . </li></ul><ul><li>“How representative is the sample of the survey population (the group from which the sample is selected) </li></ul><ul><li>How representative is the survey population of the target population (the larger group to which we wish to generalize)?” </li></ul>
  67. 68. Instrumentation <ul><li>Outline the instruments you propose to use (surveys, scales, interview protocols, observation grids). </li></ul><ul><li>If instruments have previously been used, identify previous studies </li></ul><ul><li>If instruments have not previously been used, outline procedures you will follow to develop. (a pilot study is nearly essential.) </li></ul>
  68. 69. Data Collection <ul><li>Outline the general plan for collecting the data. This may include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>survey administration procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interview or observation procedures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a general outline of the time schedule you expect to follow. </li></ul></ul>
  69. 70. Data Analysis <ul><li>Specify the procedures you will use, and label them accurately (e.g., ANOVA, Correlation) </li></ul>
  70. 71. <ul><li>Time frame </li></ul><ul><li>Action plan </li></ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul>
  71. 72. Limitations and Delimitations <ul><li>A limitation identifies potential weaknesses of the study. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about your analysis, the nature of self-report , your instruments , the sample . Think about threats may have been impossible to avoid or minimize—explain . </li></ul>
  72. 73. References <ul><li>Follow APA guidelines regarding use of references in text and in the reference list. </li></ul><ul><li>Only references cited in the text are included in the reference list </li></ul>
  73. 74. General Guide lines <ul><li>produce a professional looking proposal • be interesting • be informative • write in a way that is easy to read, </li></ul><ul><li>• include a contents page • use clear headings and sub-headings • be short and accurate • use simple language wherever possible Do not use active voice </li></ul><ul><li>• construct clear arguments • check your spelling and grammar • reference your work fully using an acceptable format </li></ul>