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Resilience and vulnerability

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Transcript

  • 1. Integrated Emergency Response:
    From Vulnerability to Resilience
    Prof. David Alexander
    University of Florence, Italy
  • 2. Resilience [Resiliency]:
    • definition: readily recovering
    from shock, buoyant
    • the term is derived from rheology, the
    science of the deformationofmatter
    • aswithmaterials, so with society:
    aimfor the optimum combinationof
    abilitytoresist and absorbshocks
    • resilience is an amalgam of attitude,
    preparedness and redundancy.
  • 3. Attitude:
    • positive outlook
    • 4. ingenious approaches
    • 5. searching for solutions
    • 6. involving other people
    RESILIENCE
    Redundancy
    • expensive but worthwhile
    • 7. alternative solutions
    • 8. extra capacity
    Preparedness:
    • emergency plans
    • 9. monitoring & forecasting
    • 10. warning & evacuation
    • 11. public information
  • Absorbing the shock through
    the humanecologyof
    adaptationtohazards:
    anurbanexampleof
    inherentresilience
    Landslide
  • 12. Resisting the shock through
    structuralmitigationand
    emergency planning and management
  • 13. Vulnerability
    • the potential for harm or losses
    (medical, social, economic, psychological)
    • something that is constructed socially
    • 14. triggered by hazard impact
    • 15. a complex holistic phenomenon composed
    of different categories and parts
    • the inverse of capability and resilience.
  • Impact
    Response
    Hazard
    Exposure
    x
    Vulnerability
    = Risk
  • 16. An asset is not
    vulnerable unless
    it is threatened
    by something
    A hazard is not
    hazardous unless
    it threatens
    something
    Resilience
    Vulnerability
    Hazard
    RISK
    Extreme
    events
    Elements
    at risk
    Exposure
  • 17. Like friction, vulnerability only exists when
    it is mobilised by the application of forces.
  • 18. Primary
    • cause and effect
    VULNERABILITY
    Secondary
    • interaction of causes
    • 19. coincidences
    Complex
    • networks of
    interactions
  • 20. Risk perception
    factors
    -
    +
    positive
    negative
    Total
    vulnerability
    Risk
    amplification
    factors
    Risk
    mitigation
    factors
  • 21. Vulnerability management
    Hypothetical
    Diffuse
    Risk management
    Crisis management
    Emergency management
    Disaster management
    Concentrated
    Concrete
  • 22. (Hazard x Vulnerability x Exposure)
    Resilience
    = Risk
    [ -> Impact -> Response]
    ....alternatively:-
    Hazard x (Vulnerability / Resilience)
    [x Exposure]
    = Risk
    [ -> Impact -> Response]
  • 23. Resilience
    Civil Contingencies Management
    CivilProtection
    Disaster
    Management
    Varying
    objectives
    ofemergency
    management
    Broadening
    scope and
    outcomes
  • 24. Causes of disaster
    natural geophysical,
    technological, social
    RESILIENCE
    History
    single and
    cumulative
    impact
    of past
    disasters
    Adaptation
    to risk
    Human
    cultures
    constraints
    and
    opportunities
    IMPACTS
  • 25. Population
    (community)
    protection
    Plans,
    procedures,
    protocols
    Disaster risk
    reduction
    Hazard
    forecasting,
    monitoring,
    etc.
    Human
    and material
    resources
    Incident
    management
  • 26. Community disaster planning
    Volunteerism
    Donations
    Self-organisation
    Community
    resources
    Organisation
    Resources
    Imposed
    organisation
    Governmental
    resources
    Laws, protocols, directives
    Standards, norms, guidelines
    International resources
  • 27. Incident
    Emergencyresponse
    planning
    Permanent emergency plan
    Contingency planning in
    the pre-emergency phase (days)
    Operational planning
    Short-term strategic
    planning (hours -> days)
    Short-term tactical
    planning (hours)
  • 28. Resilience lies in...
    • anticipating changes before they occur
    • 29. being able to adapt the plan
    flexibly to changes in circumstances
    • having a carefully devised, well tested
    system of command and collaboration
    • creating a realistic match between
    the plan and available resources
    (manpower, equipment, vehicles, etc.).
  • 30. Emergency
    co-ordination
    plan
    Emergency
    procedures
    The emergency
    environment
    Real-time
    contingency
    planning
    Spontaneous
    improvisation
  • 31. Conclusions
  • 32. Health
    system
    Contingency
    planning
    Resilience of
    emergency response
    Resilience
    of people
    and society
    Emergency
    medical
    response
    Search
    and
    rescue
    Emergency
    response
    Vulnerability
    of people
    and society
    Vulnerability
    of emergency
    response
    Emergency
    communications
    Emergency
    management
  • 33. The meaning of RESILIENCE in terms
    of emergency response systems:-
    • adequate training and resources
    • 34. robust, collaborative command systems
    • 35. inclusive of all participants
    • 36. good, adaptable emergency plan
    • 37. adaptability of structures & procedures
    • 38. redundant communications, etc.
  • A SUSTAINABLE
    emergency response system:-
    • is supported by the local population
    • 39. is given adequate resources
    • 40. is continuously developing
    • 41. is based locally, harmonised nationally
    • 42. emergency planning is used adaptably
    • 43. is a fundamental, everyday service.
  • REGIONAL AND
    COUNTY OR
    PROVINCIAL
    EMERGENCY
    PLANS
    MUTUAL
    ASSISTANCE
    PACTS
    NATIONAL
    EMERGENCY PLAN
    AIRPORT AND
    TRANSPORT
    EMERGENCY
    PLANS
    HOSPITAL
    AND HEALTH
    SYSTEM
    EMERGENCY
    PLAN
    MUNICIPAL
    EMERGENCY
    PLAN
    INDUSTRIAL
    AND
    COMMERCIAL
    EMERGENCY
    PLANS
    CULTURAL
    HERITAGE
    EMERGENCY
    PLAN
  • 44. Harmonisationfromabove
    (national or regionallevels)
    Central
    control
    Devolution
    Organisation and growthfrombelow
    (locallevel: municipalities, volunteers, etc.)
  • 45. Thank you for your kind attention!
    David.Alexander@unifi.it
    www.emergency-planning.blogspot.com