Resilience and vulnerability


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Resilience and vulnerability

  1. 1. Integrated Emergency Response:<br />From Vulnerability to Resilience<br />Prof. David Alexander<br />University of Florence, Italy<br />
  2. 2. Resilience [Resiliency]:<br /><ul><li>definition: readily recovering</li></ul> from shock, buoyant<br /><ul><li>the term is derived from rheology, the</li></ul> science of the deformationofmatter<br /><ul><li>aswithmaterials, so with society:</li></ul>aimfor the optimum combinationof<br />abilitytoresist and absorbshocks<br /><ul><li>resilience is an amalgam of attitude,</li></ul> preparedness and redundancy.<br />
  3. 3. Attitude:<br /><ul><li> positive outlook
  4. 4. ingenious approaches
  5. 5. searching for solutions
  6. 6. involving other people</li></ul>RESILIENCE<br />Redundancy<br /><ul><li> expensive but worthwhile
  7. 7. alternative solutions
  8. 8. extra capacity</li></ul>Preparedness:<br /><ul><li> emergency plans
  9. 9. monitoring & forecasting
  10. 10. warning & evacuation
  11. 11. public information</li></li></ul><li>Absorbing the shock through<br />the humanecologyof<br />adaptationtohazards:<br />anurbanexampleof<br />inherentresilience<br />Landslide<br />
  12. 12. Resisting the shock through<br />structuralmitigationand<br />emergency planning and management<br />
  13. 13. Vulnerability<br /><ul><li> the potential for harm or losses</li></ul> (medical, social, economic, psychological)<br /><ul><li> something that is constructed socially
  14. 14. triggered by hazard impact
  15. 15. a complex holistic phenomenon composed</li></ul> of different categories and parts<br /><ul><li> the inverse of capability and resilience.</li></li></ul><li>Impact<br />Response<br />Hazard<br />Exposure<br />x<br />Vulnerability<br />= Risk<br />
  16. 16. An asset is not<br />vulnerable unless<br />it is threatened<br />by something<br />A hazard is not<br />hazardous unless<br />it threatens<br />something<br />Resilience<br />Vulnerability<br />Hazard<br />RISK<br />Extreme<br />events<br />Elements<br />at risk<br />Exposure<br />
  17. 17. Like friction, vulnerability only exists when<br />it is mobilised by the application of forces.<br />
  18. 18. Primary<br /><ul><li> cause and effect</li></ul>VULNERABILITY<br />Secondary<br /><ul><li> interaction of causes
  19. 19. coincidences</li></ul>Complex<br /><ul><li> networks of</li></ul> interactions<br />
  20. 20. Risk perception<br />factors<br />-<br />+<br />positive<br />negative<br />Total<br />vulnerability<br />Risk<br />amplification<br />factors<br />Risk<br />mitigation<br />factors<br />
  21. 21. Vulnerability management<br />Hypothetical<br />Diffuse<br />Risk management<br />Crisis management<br />Emergency management<br />Disaster management<br />Concentrated<br />Concrete<br />
  22. 22. (Hazard x Vulnerability x Exposure)<br />Resilience<br />= Risk<br />[ -> Impact -> Response]<br />....alternatively:-<br />Hazard x (Vulnerability / Resilience)<br />[x Exposure]<br />= Risk<br />[ -> Impact -> Response]<br />
  23. 23. Resilience<br />Civil Contingencies Management<br />CivilProtection<br />Disaster<br />Management<br />Varying<br />objectives<br />ofemergency<br />management<br />Broadening<br />scope and<br />outcomes<br />
  24. 24. Causes of disaster<br />natural geophysical,<br />technological, social<br />RESILIENCE<br />History<br />single and<br />cumulative<br />impact<br />of past<br />disasters<br />Adaptation<br />to risk<br />Human<br />cultures<br />constraints<br />and<br />opportunities<br />IMPACTS<br />
  25. 25. Population<br />(community)<br />protection<br />Plans,<br />procedures,<br />protocols<br />Disaster risk<br />reduction<br />Hazard<br />forecasting,<br />monitoring,<br />etc.<br />Human<br />and material<br />resources<br />Incident<br />management<br />
  26. 26. Community disaster planning<br />Volunteerism<br />Donations<br />Self-organisation<br />Community<br />resources<br />Organisation<br />Resources<br />Imposed<br />organisation<br />Governmental<br />resources<br />Laws, protocols, directives<br />Standards, norms, guidelines<br />International resources<br />
  27. 27. Incident<br />Emergencyresponse<br />planning<br />Permanent emergency plan<br />Contingency planning in<br />the pre-emergency phase (days)<br />Operational planning<br />Short-term strategic<br />planning (hours -> days)<br />Short-term tactical<br />planning (hours)<br />
  28. 28. Resilience lies in...<br /><ul><li>anticipating changes before they occur
  29. 29. being able to adapt the plan</li></ul> flexibly to changes in circumstances<br /><ul><li> having a carefully devised, well tested</li></ul> system of command and collaboration<br /><ul><li> creating a realistic match between</li></ul> the plan and available resources<br /> (manpower, equipment, vehicles, etc.).<br />
  30. 30. Emergency<br />co-ordination<br />plan<br />Emergency<br />procedures<br />The emergency<br />environment<br />Real-time<br />contingency<br />planning<br />Spontaneous<br />improvisation<br />
  31. 31. Conclusions<br />
  32. 32. Health<br />system<br />Contingency<br />planning<br />Resilience of<br />emergency response<br />Resilience<br />of people<br />and society<br />Emergency<br />medical<br />response<br />Search<br />and<br />rescue<br />Emergency<br />response<br />Vulnerability<br />of people<br />and society<br />Vulnerability<br />of emergency<br />response<br />Emergency<br />communications<br />Emergency<br />management<br />
  33. 33. The meaning of RESILIENCE in terms<br />of emergency response systems:-<br /><ul><li> adequate training and resources
  34. 34. robust, collaborative command systems
  35. 35. inclusive of all participants
  36. 36. good, adaptable emergency plan
  37. 37. adaptability of structures & procedures
  38. 38. redundant communications, etc.</li></li></ul><li>A SUSTAINABLE<br />emergency response system:-<br /><ul><li> is supported by the local population
  39. 39. is given adequate resources
  40. 40. is continuously developing
  41. 41. is based locally, harmonised nationally
  42. 42. emergency planning is used adaptably
  43. 43. is a fundamental, everyday service.</li></li></ul><li>REGIONAL AND<br />COUNTY OR<br />PROVINCIAL<br />EMERGENCY<br />PLANS<br />MUTUAL<br />ASSISTANCE<br />PACTS<br />NATIONAL<br />EMERGENCY PLAN<br />AIRPORT AND<br />TRANSPORT<br />EMERGENCY<br />PLANS<br />HOSPITAL<br />AND HEALTH<br />SYSTEM<br />EMERGENCY<br />PLAN<br />MUNICIPAL<br />EMERGENCY<br />PLAN<br />INDUSTRIAL<br />AND<br />COMMERCIAL<br />EMERGENCY<br />PLANS<br />CULTURAL<br />HERITAGE<br />EMERGENCY<br />PLAN<br />
  44. 44. Harmonisationfromabove<br />(national or regionallevels)<br />Central<br />control<br />Devolution<br />Organisation and growthfrombelow<br />(locallevel: municipalities, volunteers, etc.)<br />
  45. 45. Thank you for your kind attention!<br /><br /><br />