Principles Of Emergency Planning

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Principles Of Emergency Planning

  1. 1. Principles of Emergency Planning David Alexander University College London
  2. 2. Emergency planning is not rocket science...
  3. 3. ...it's a matter of common sense...
  4. 4. ...and organisation!
  5. 5. The essence of disaster management:- To tackle pressing needs with maximum efficiency and speed but with scarce resources and in the absence of necessary information BUT emergency planning is a young field that lacks international consensus on standards, procedures, the legal basis and institutional arrangements.
  6. 6. Major event management Incident management Population (community) protection Hazard forecasting, monitoring, etc. Plans, procedures, protocols Human and material resources
  7. 7. Emergency environment Emergency procedures Emergency co-ordination plan Spontaneous improvisation
  8. 8. The need for emergency planning: • a serious lack of trained personnel, materials, equipment and time • decisions must be made rapidly • information is a prime need • inefficiency in disaster planning means avoidable damage and casualties • emergency assistance cannot be well improvised.
  9. 9. The main objective of the plan is to inform, instruct and direct participants about what procedures and emergency resources to use.
  10. 10. 13 principles of emergency planning
  11. 11. Principle no. 1 In an emergency the theatre of operations is always the local area. Local organisation and emergency planning are fundamental and indispensable.
  12. 12. QUANTITY TIME needs local self-help imported assistance unmet needsReduce unmet needs Increase local self-sufficiency Rationalise imported assistance and make it more timely The challenges of emergency planning
  13. 13. Volontary sector: support and integration Private sector: integration Disaster Municipality or other local authority: emergency operations Province, region, state, county: co-ordination, assistance Nation: policies of compatibility, harmonisation and co-ordination International: exchange and support
  14. 14. A hierarchy of emergency plans Micro- emergency Disaster or catastrophe Macro- emergency Meso- emergency Single municipality Several municipalities Regional coordination National coordination
  15. 15. Microemergency: natural or anthropogenic events that can be tackled using the resources and managerial skills of a single organization or authority without major changes in procedures, materials and manpower Catastrophe: natural, technological or social disasters that are large and serious enough to require extraordinary measures which are beyond the scope of local and many regional authorities to provide and direct Macroemergency: natural or anthropogenic events that are large enough to require concerted action by more than one authority or organization
  16. 16. Local incident Local response A Threshold of local capacity Small regional incident Co-ordinated local response B Threshold of intermunicipal capacity Major regional incident Intermunicipal and regional response B Threshold of regional capacity National disaster Intermunicipal, regional and national response C Threshold of national capacity International catastrophe Ditto, with more international assistance C
  17. 17. Aid from outside the disaster area should reinforce, not replace, local initiatives. Main objectives: develop a state of local self-sufficiency and maintain public order. The bedrock level is the local authority: higher levels of government should support and harmonise local emergency responses.
  18. 18. Principle no. 2 In emergency planning efficiency is measured in terms of lives saved and damage avoided or contained. supply demand time Disaster supply demand time urbanSAR shortage Disaster shortage reduced by efficient mobilisation
  19. 19. Principle no. 3 The most efficient emergency preparedness involves generic, all-hazards planning. There should be only one plan and it should be written in clear, simple language: ambiguity can be dangerous. Synthesis: abbreviated plan Details: data, annexes, appendices Generalised Detailed Plan: structure
  20. 20. SUDDEN-IMPACT DISASTER OCCURS TOWN CENTRE MUNICIPAL EMERGENCY OPERATIONS CENTRE - in the Town Hall ASSEMBLY POINTS AND AREAS ----- Building ----- Street ----- Square ----- Street ----- Building ----- Square Immediately the crisis begins THE MAYOR - goes to the Emergency Operations Centre - makes contact with the regional authorities - sends personnel to assembly areas EMERGENCY SUPPORT FUNCTION DIRECTORS - go to the emergency operations room EMERGENCY SUPPORT FUNCTION OPERATORS - go to the emergency operations centre and follow the orders of the Mayor MUNICIPAL WORKERS - Group A meets in --------- Street in front of Town Hall - Group B goes to the principal assembly area VOLUNTEERS OF THE "----- GROUP" - take control of the assembly areas THE POPULATION - is led to the public assembly areas THE MUNICIPAL POLICE FORCE - takes control of key points in the centre of town and directs the population to the assembly points - sends situation reports periodically by radio to the emergency operations centre
  21. 21. Principle no. 4 An emergency plan is an instrument that is best created and maintained by a qualified emergency planner and is usually best housed in an emergency operations centre.
  22. 22. Principle no. 5 The plan should be clear about where, when and to whom it applies. It should specify the limits of its jurisdiction.
  23. 23. Principle no. 6 The plan should conform to regional, national and international laws on civil protection, environmental management, health and safety, and so on.
  24. 24. Principle no. 7 Plans should be compatible between levels of government, sectors and functions. Plans should be integrated for government agencies, hospitals, industrial sites, airports, commercial concerns, etc.
  25. 25. NATIONAL EMERGENCY PLAN REGIONAL AND COUNTY OR PROVINCIAL EMERGENCY PLANS MUNICIPAL EMERGENCY PLAN MUTUAL ASSISTANCE PACTS AIRPORT AND TRANSPORT EMERGENCY PLANS HOSPITAL AND HEALTH SYSTEM EMERGENCY PLAN INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL EMERGENCY PLANS CULTURAL HERITAGE EMERGENCY PLAN
  26. 26. Disaster in the medical centre Disaster in the external environment Disaster in the system of medical centres Disaster planning for the medical centre Disaster planning for the external environment Disaster planning for the medical system Coordinated EMS Disaster plans
  27. 27. Functional divisions: government, healthcare, commerce, etc. Hierarchical divisions: national, regional, local, etc. Geographical divisions: catchments, jurisdictions, areas, etc. Organisational divisions: police, fire, ambulance, etc. Division and integration
  28. 28. Principle no. 8 The plan should focus on saving lives and reducing damage by matching urgent needs with appropriate available resources. Realism is necessary in emergency planning: it is wrong to plan to use resources that are not available.
  29. 29. Principle no. 9 Plans should be based on reference scenarios of what is likely to happen. Scenario methodology involves rigorous, formal investigation of probable chains of damaging events, plus their consequences and what actions will be needed. Emergency planning should be about processes, not merely numbers.
  30. 30. evolution development of the scenarioevolution time zero formal evaluation of the outcome of the scenario consequences at time n Scenario methodology in emergency planning consequences at time 2 consequences at time 1 reference event initial conditions evaluation of the progress of the scenario historical analysis hypothetical ingredients
  31. 31. Likely event: use reference scenario Planning: Improbable event: use generic procedures
  32. 32. Cascading effects Collateral vulnerability Secondary disasters Interaction between risks Climate change Probability Indeterminacy "Fat-tailed" distributions of impacts
  33. 33. How did this... Emergency planning for what magnitude of disaster? ...become this?
  34. 34. SMALLSMALL LARGE Physical impact Human consequences LARGE
  35. 35. Pedestrians only Cordon III for traffic control Multi-agency operations command. Public assembly area Rescuers' assembly point Points of access to cordoned off areas Only rescuers Cordon I Only authorised personnel Cordon II Incident
  36. 36. Bronze - operations Silver - tactics Gold - strategies [Diamond - policies] UK: 3 commands, 4 levels Police - Fire Services - Medical Services
  37. 37. LEAD GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENT Media Centre Media Liaison Point Temporary Mortuary Survivor Reception Centre Receiving Hospitals Relatives’ Reception Centre Local Authority Emergency Centre Strategic Co-ordinating Group Police Local authority Fire Military forces Ambulance Government advisors Other agencies Strategic level Voluntary Agencies Casualty Bureau Public enquiries OUTER CORDON Body Holding Area Ambulance Loading Point Casualty Clearing Station Vehicle Marshalling Area Incident Control Point Police Fire Ambulance Liaison Tactical level INNER CORDON Site of Disaster Police Fire Ambulance Specialist advisors Operational level
  38. 38. Time Response Emergency isolation phase Major incident declared Consolidation phase Recovery phase Investigation Stand-down Funerals Debriefings Anniversaries Plan revision Inquests Public enquiries Trials Awards Memorials Training Court cases Anatomy of a major incident
  39. 39. Locus of control Locus of collaboration (support) Tension of opposites Command function principle Support function principle Spectrum of alternatives
  40. 40. Two models of organisation of civil protection services Command function principle: allocating tasks according to level and objectives of decision-making (strategic, tactical, operational). Support function principle: allocating tasks according to functional sector (e.g. communications, logistics, utilities).
  41. 41. Principle no. 10 The emergency planner should conduct a census of resources available for managing crisis situations.
  42. 42. Construction of operational scenarios of hazard, risk, impact and emergency response Existence of various states of hazard and vulnerability Census of available resources Plan of action for emergencies Processesofconstant adaptationoftheplan
  43. 43. Principle no. 11 Planning is about ensuring that every participant has a valid role in the emergency response and is aware of the roles of other participants, especially those from other organisations.
  44. 44. The essence of emergency management is to be able to appreciate what other agencies are doing or are expected to do. This requires a common language and a common culture: it also requires good inter-organisational communication.
  45. 45. Broad professional training in emergency management Professional experience and training Disciplinary training (e.g. bachelor's degree) Common culture Common language Common objectives
  46. 46. Principle no. 12 The emergency plan should apply to all phases of the 'disaster cycle' and should aim to provide sustainable civil protection.
  47. 47. Sustainable emergency management:- • is centred upon the local level (but is harmonised from above) • has the support and involvement of the population • is based on plans that are fully disseminated and frequently revised • is a fundamental, every-day service for the population and is taken seriously.
  48. 48. Principle no. 13 An emergency plan should be a living document that is widely disseminated and frequently tested and revised. It should be the property of all participants.
  49. 49. Anatomy of an emergency plan
  50. 50. The emergency planning procedure:- • research: carry out initial study and collect data • writing: create a plan, appendices, annexes • publicity: make the plan known to all participants • operations: test the plan with field exercises, simulations, scenarios • updating: revise the plan.
  51. 51. Fundamental components of the plan:- • resources • structures and organisations • networks • procedures • tasks assigned.
  52. 52. Local emergency resources:- • personnel and manpower • vehicles and heavy plant • equipment • materials, consumable supplies, fuel • institutions and organisations. • services
  53. 53. Other emergency resources:- • mutual aid pacts and agreements • regional and national resources. • military assistance to civil communities (MACC)
  54. 54. Basic elements of the emergency plan: • the participating organisations • command structures • communications channels • emergency response procedures.
  55. 55. The ingredients of an emergency plan (1): • explain the problem • scenarios of hazard, vulnerability, risk and impact • inventory of available resources • command centres and support functions • describe monitoring, prediction and warning systems and procedures.
  56. 56. • assign tasks to emergency workers • communications protocols and procedures • procedures for various eventualities (breakages, interruptions and unexpected problems) • training and education initiatives. The ingredients of an emergency plan (2):
  57. 57. Conclusions
  58. 58. Revision Exercising Evaluation Activation Disaster Preparatory study Dissemination Information Creation and updating of plan Stakeholders' opinions Training
  59. 59. Apparent chaos Result Feedback and revision Feedback andrevision Evaluation Testing Disaster Plan Model
  60. 60. ResultsOperations Procedures Plans Policies Command systems • operations centres • task forces • communications • chains of command
  61. 61. Incident Contingency planning in the pre-emergency phase (days) Emergency response planning Permanent emergency plan Operational planning Short-term strategic planning (hours → days) Short-term tactical planning (hours)
  62. 62. Recovery and reconstruction planning Strategic, tactical & operational planning Aftermath Disaster Monitoring prediction & warning Permanent emergency plan Business continuity plan
  63. 63. Emergency planning and management should be fully programmed activities based on a good estimation and accurate knowledge of probable needs, but with improvisation to cope with unexpected developments: we must reinforce the planned activities and reduce the improvisation.
  64. 64. David.Alexander@ucl.ac.uk emergency-planning.blogspot.com On your phone: m.slideshare.net/dealexander Available from Amazon

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