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Principles of
Emergency Planning
David Alexander
University College London
Emergency planning
is not
rocket science...
...it's a matter of common sense...
...and organisation!
The essence of disaster management:-
To tackle pressing needs with
maximum efficiency and speed but
with scarce resources ...
Major event
management
Incident
management
Population
(community)
protection
Hazard
forecasting,
monitoring,
etc.
Plans,
p...
Emergency
environment
Emergency
procedures
Emergency
co-ordination
plan
Spontaneous
improvisation
The need for emergency planning:
• a serious lack of trained personnel,
materials, equipment and time
• decisions must be ...
The main objective of the plan is to
inform, instruct and direct participants
about what procedures and
emergency resource...
13 principles of
emergency planning
Principle no. 1
In an emergency the theatre of
operations is always the local area.
Local organisation and emergency plann...
QUANTITY
TIME
needs
local self-help
imported assistance
unmet needsReduce unmet needs
Increase local self-sufficiency
Rati...
Volontary
sector:
support and
integration
Private
sector:
integration
Disaster
Municipality or other local
authority: emer...
A hierarchy
of emergency
plans
Micro-
emergency
Disaster or
catastrophe
Macro-
emergency
Meso-
emergency
Single
municipali...
Microemergency: natural or
anthropogenic events that can
be tackled using the resources
and managerial skills of a single
...
Local incident Local response A
Threshold of local capacity
Small regional
incident
Co-ordinated local response B
Threshol...
Aid from outside the disaster area should
reinforce, not replace, local initiatives.
Main objectives: develop a state of l...
Principle no. 2
In emergency planning efficiency
is measured in terms of lives saved
and damage avoided or contained.
supp...
Principle no. 3
The most efficient emergency preparedness
involves generic, all-hazards planning.
There should be only one...
SUDDEN-IMPACT DISASTER OCCURS
TOWN CENTRE
MUNICIPAL EMERGENCY
OPERATIONS CENTRE
- in the Town Hall
ASSEMBLY POINTS
AND ARE...
Principle no. 4
An emergency plan is an instrument
that is best created and maintained
by a qualified emergency planner
an...
Principle no. 5
The plan should be clear about
where, when and to whom it applies.
It should specify the
limits of its jur...
Principle no. 6
The plan should conform to regional,
national and international laws on civil
protection, environmental ma...
Principle no. 7
Plans should be compatible between levels
of government, sectors and functions.
Plans should be integrated...
NATIONAL
EMERGENCY
PLAN
REGIONAL AND
COUNTY OR
PROVINCIAL
EMERGENCY PLANS
MUNICIPAL
EMERGENCY
PLAN
MUTUAL
ASSISTANCE
PACTS...
Disaster in
the medical
centre
Disaster in
the external
environment
Disaster
in the system
of medical
centres
Disaster
pla...
Functional
divisions:
government,
healthcare,
commerce, etc.
Hierarchical
divisions:
national,
regional,
local, etc.
Geogr...
Principle no. 8
The plan should focus on saving lives and
reducing damage by matching urgent needs
with appropriate availa...
Principle no. 9
Plans should be based on reference
scenarios of what is likely to happen.
Scenario methodology involves ri...
evolution
development
of the
scenarioevolution
time
zero
formal evaluation of the
outcome of the scenario
consequences
at ...
Likely event:
use reference
scenario
Planning:
Improbable event:
use generic
procedures
Cascading
effects
Collateral
vulnerability
Secondary
disasters
Interaction
between risks
Climate
change
Probability
Indete...
How did this...
Emergency planning for
what magnitude of disaster?
...become this?
SMALLSMALL
LARGE
Physical
impact
Human
consequences
LARGE
Pedestrians only
Cordon
III for
traffic
control Multi-agency
operations
command.
Public
assembly area
Rescuers'
assembly p...
Bronze - operations
Silver - tactics
Gold - strategies
[Diamond - policies]
UK: 3 commands, 4 levels
Police - Fire Service...
LEAD GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENT
Media
Centre
Media
Liaison
Point
Temporary
Mortuary
Survivor
Reception
Centre
Receiving
Hospita...
Time
Response
Emergency
isolation
phase
Major
incident
declared
Consolidation
phase
Recovery
phase
Investigation
Stand-dow...
Locus of
control
Locus of
collaboration
(support)
Tension of
opposites
Command
function
principle
Support
function
princip...
Two models of organisation
of civil protection services
Command function principle: allocating
tasks according to level an...
Principle no. 10
The emergency planner should
conduct a census of resources
available for managing crisis situations.
Construction of operational
scenarios of hazard, risk, impact
and emergency response
Existence of various states
of hazard...
Principle no. 11
Planning is about ensuring that every
participant has a valid role in the
emergency response and is aware...
The essence of emergency management
is to be able to appreciate what other
agencies are doing or are expected to do.
This ...
Broad professional training
in emergency management
Professional experience
and training
Disciplinary training
(e.g. bache...
Principle no. 12
The emergency plan should apply to all
phases of the 'disaster cycle' and should
aim to provide sustainab...
Sustainable emergency management:-
• is centred upon the local level
(but is harmonised from above)
• has the support and
...
Principle no. 13
An emergency plan should be a living
document that is widely disseminated
and frequently tested and revis...
Anatomy of an emergency plan
The emergency planning procedure:-
• research: carry out initial
study and collect data
• writing: create a plan,
appendic...
Fundamental components of the plan:-
• resources
• structures and organisations
• networks
• procedures
• tasks assigned.
Local emergency resources:-
• personnel and manpower
• vehicles and heavy plant
• equipment
• materials, consumable suppli...
Other emergency resources:-
• mutual aid pacts and agreements
• regional and national resources.
• military assistance to
...
Basic elements of the emergency plan:
• the participating organisations
• command structures
• communications channels
• e...
The ingredients of an emergency plan (1):
• explain the problem
• scenarios of hazard, vulnerability,
risk and impact
• in...
• assign tasks to emergency workers
• communications protocols and procedures
• procedures for various eventualities
(brea...
Conclusions
Revision
Exercising Evaluation
Activation Disaster
Preparatory study
Dissemination Information
Creation and
updating
of pl...
Apparent
chaos
Result
Feedback
and revision
Feedback
andrevision
Evaluation
Testing
Disaster
Plan
Model
ResultsOperations
Procedures
Plans
Policies
Command systems
• operations centres
• task forces
• communications
• chains o...
Incident
Contingency planning in
the pre-emergency phase (days)
Emergency response
planning
Permanent emergency plan
Opera...
Recovery and
reconstruction
planning
Strategic,
tactical & operational
planning
Aftermath
Disaster
Monitoring
prediction
&...
Emergency planning and management
should be
fully programmed activities
based on a good estimation and accurate
knowledge ...
David.Alexander@ucl.ac.uk
emergency-planning.blogspot.com
On your phone: m.slideshare.net/dealexander
Available from Amazon
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Transcript of "Principles Of Emergency Planning"

  1. 1. Principles of Emergency Planning David Alexander University College London
  2. 2. Emergency planning is not rocket science...
  3. 3. ...it's a matter of common sense...
  4. 4. ...and organisation!
  5. 5. The essence of disaster management:- To tackle pressing needs with maximum efficiency and speed but with scarce resources and in the absence of necessary information BUT emergency planning is a young field that lacks international consensus on standards, procedures, the legal basis and institutional arrangements.
  6. 6. Major event management Incident management Population (community) protection Hazard forecasting, monitoring, etc. Plans, procedures, protocols Human and material resources
  7. 7. Emergency environment Emergency procedures Emergency co-ordination plan Spontaneous improvisation
  8. 8. The need for emergency planning: • a serious lack of trained personnel, materials, equipment and time • decisions must be made rapidly • information is a prime need • inefficiency in disaster planning means avoidable damage and casualties • emergency assistance cannot be well improvised.
  9. 9. The main objective of the plan is to inform, instruct and direct participants about what procedures and emergency resources to use.
  10. 10. 13 principles of emergency planning
  11. 11. Principle no. 1 In an emergency the theatre of operations is always the local area. Local organisation and emergency planning are fundamental and indispensable.
  12. 12. QUANTITY TIME needs local self-help imported assistance unmet needsReduce unmet needs Increase local self-sufficiency Rationalise imported assistance and make it more timely The challenges of emergency planning
  13. 13. Volontary sector: support and integration Private sector: integration Disaster Municipality or other local authority: emergency operations Province, region, state, county: co-ordination, assistance Nation: policies of compatibility, harmonisation and co-ordination International: exchange and support
  14. 14. A hierarchy of emergency plans Micro- emergency Disaster or catastrophe Macro- emergency Meso- emergency Single municipality Several municipalities Regional coordination National coordination
  15. 15. Microemergency: natural or anthropogenic events that can be tackled using the resources and managerial skills of a single organization or authority without major changes in procedures, materials and manpower Catastrophe: natural, technological or social disasters that are large and serious enough to require extraordinary measures which are beyond the scope of local and many regional authorities to provide and direct Macroemergency: natural or anthropogenic events that are large enough to require concerted action by more than one authority or organization
  16. 16. Local incident Local response A Threshold of local capacity Small regional incident Co-ordinated local response B Threshold of intermunicipal capacity Major regional incident Intermunicipal and regional response B Threshold of regional capacity National disaster Intermunicipal, regional and national response C Threshold of national capacity International catastrophe Ditto, with more international assistance C
  17. 17. Aid from outside the disaster area should reinforce, not replace, local initiatives. Main objectives: develop a state of local self-sufficiency and maintain public order. The bedrock level is the local authority: higher levels of government should support and harmonise local emergency responses.
  18. 18. Principle no. 2 In emergency planning efficiency is measured in terms of lives saved and damage avoided or contained. supply demand time Disaster supply demand time urbanSAR shortage Disaster shortage reduced by efficient mobilisation
  19. 19. Principle no. 3 The most efficient emergency preparedness involves generic, all-hazards planning. There should be only one plan and it should be written in clear, simple language: ambiguity can be dangerous. Synthesis: abbreviated plan Details: data, annexes, appendices Generalised Detailed Plan: structure
  20. 20. SUDDEN-IMPACT DISASTER OCCURS TOWN CENTRE MUNICIPAL EMERGENCY OPERATIONS CENTRE - in the Town Hall ASSEMBLY POINTS AND AREAS ----- Building ----- Street ----- Square ----- Street ----- Building ----- Square Immediately the crisis begins THE MAYOR - goes to the Emergency Operations Centre - makes contact with the regional authorities - sends personnel to assembly areas EMERGENCY SUPPORT FUNCTION DIRECTORS - go to the emergency operations room EMERGENCY SUPPORT FUNCTION OPERATORS - go to the emergency operations centre and follow the orders of the Mayor MUNICIPAL WORKERS - Group A meets in --------- Street in front of Town Hall - Group B goes to the principal assembly area VOLUNTEERS OF THE "----- GROUP" - take control of the assembly areas THE POPULATION - is led to the public assembly areas THE MUNICIPAL POLICE FORCE - takes control of key points in the centre of town and directs the population to the assembly points - sends situation reports periodically by radio to the emergency operations centre
  21. 21. Principle no. 4 An emergency plan is an instrument that is best created and maintained by a qualified emergency planner and is usually best housed in an emergency operations centre.
  22. 22. Principle no. 5 The plan should be clear about where, when and to whom it applies. It should specify the limits of its jurisdiction.
  23. 23. Principle no. 6 The plan should conform to regional, national and international laws on civil protection, environmental management, health and safety, and so on.
  24. 24. Principle no. 7 Plans should be compatible between levels of government, sectors and functions. Plans should be integrated for government agencies, hospitals, industrial sites, airports, commercial concerns, etc.
  25. 25. NATIONAL EMERGENCY PLAN REGIONAL AND COUNTY OR PROVINCIAL EMERGENCY PLANS MUNICIPAL EMERGENCY PLAN MUTUAL ASSISTANCE PACTS AIRPORT AND TRANSPORT EMERGENCY PLANS HOSPITAL AND HEALTH SYSTEM EMERGENCY PLAN INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL EMERGENCY PLANS CULTURAL HERITAGE EMERGENCY PLAN
  26. 26. Disaster in the medical centre Disaster in the external environment Disaster in the system of medical centres Disaster planning for the medical centre Disaster planning for the external environment Disaster planning for the medical system Coordinated EMS Disaster plans
  27. 27. Functional divisions: government, healthcare, commerce, etc. Hierarchical divisions: national, regional, local, etc. Geographical divisions: catchments, jurisdictions, areas, etc. Organisational divisions: police, fire, ambulance, etc. Division and integration
  28. 28. Principle no. 8 The plan should focus on saving lives and reducing damage by matching urgent needs with appropriate available resources. Realism is necessary in emergency planning: it is wrong to plan to use resources that are not available.
  29. 29. Principle no. 9 Plans should be based on reference scenarios of what is likely to happen. Scenario methodology involves rigorous, formal investigation of probable chains of damaging events, plus their consequences and what actions will be needed. Emergency planning should be about processes, not merely numbers.
  30. 30. evolution development of the scenarioevolution time zero formal evaluation of the outcome of the scenario consequences at time n Scenario methodology in emergency planning consequences at time 2 consequences at time 1 reference event initial conditions evaluation of the progress of the scenario historical analysis hypothetical ingredients
  31. 31. Likely event: use reference scenario Planning: Improbable event: use generic procedures
  32. 32. Cascading effects Collateral vulnerability Secondary disasters Interaction between risks Climate change Probability Indeterminacy "Fat-tailed" distributions of impacts
  33. 33. How did this... Emergency planning for what magnitude of disaster? ...become this?
  34. 34. SMALLSMALL LARGE Physical impact Human consequences LARGE
  35. 35. Pedestrians only Cordon III for traffic control Multi-agency operations command. Public assembly area Rescuers' assembly point Points of access to cordoned off areas Only rescuers Cordon I Only authorised personnel Cordon II Incident
  36. 36. Bronze - operations Silver - tactics Gold - strategies [Diamond - policies] UK: 3 commands, 4 levels Police - Fire Services - Medical Services
  37. 37. LEAD GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENT Media Centre Media Liaison Point Temporary Mortuary Survivor Reception Centre Receiving Hospitals Relatives’ Reception Centre Local Authority Emergency Centre Strategic Co-ordinating Group Police Local authority Fire Military forces Ambulance Government advisors Other agencies Strategic level Voluntary Agencies Casualty Bureau Public enquiries OUTER CORDON Body Holding Area Ambulance Loading Point Casualty Clearing Station Vehicle Marshalling Area Incident Control Point Police Fire Ambulance Liaison Tactical level INNER CORDON Site of Disaster Police Fire Ambulance Specialist advisors Operational level
  38. 38. Time Response Emergency isolation phase Major incident declared Consolidation phase Recovery phase Investigation Stand-down Funerals Debriefings Anniversaries Plan revision Inquests Public enquiries Trials Awards Memorials Training Court cases Anatomy of a major incident
  39. 39. Locus of control Locus of collaboration (support) Tension of opposites Command function principle Support function principle Spectrum of alternatives
  40. 40. Two models of organisation of civil protection services Command function principle: allocating tasks according to level and objectives of decision-making (strategic, tactical, operational). Support function principle: allocating tasks according to functional sector (e.g. communications, logistics, utilities).
  41. 41. Principle no. 10 The emergency planner should conduct a census of resources available for managing crisis situations.
  42. 42. Construction of operational scenarios of hazard, risk, impact and emergency response Existence of various states of hazard and vulnerability Census of available resources Plan of action for emergencies Processesofconstant adaptationoftheplan
  43. 43. Principle no. 11 Planning is about ensuring that every participant has a valid role in the emergency response and is aware of the roles of other participants, especially those from other organisations.
  44. 44. The essence of emergency management is to be able to appreciate what other agencies are doing or are expected to do. This requires a common language and a common culture: it also requires good inter-organisational communication.
  45. 45. Broad professional training in emergency management Professional experience and training Disciplinary training (e.g. bachelor's degree) Common culture Common language Common objectives
  46. 46. Principle no. 12 The emergency plan should apply to all phases of the 'disaster cycle' and should aim to provide sustainable civil protection.
  47. 47. Sustainable emergency management:- • is centred upon the local level (but is harmonised from above) • has the support and involvement of the population • is based on plans that are fully disseminated and frequently revised • is a fundamental, every-day service for the population and is taken seriously.
  48. 48. Principle no. 13 An emergency plan should be a living document that is widely disseminated and frequently tested and revised. It should be the property of all participants.
  49. 49. Anatomy of an emergency plan
  50. 50. The emergency planning procedure:- • research: carry out initial study and collect data • writing: create a plan, appendices, annexes • publicity: make the plan known to all participants • operations: test the plan with field exercises, simulations, scenarios • updating: revise the plan.
  51. 51. Fundamental components of the plan:- • resources • structures and organisations • networks • procedures • tasks assigned.
  52. 52. Local emergency resources:- • personnel and manpower • vehicles and heavy plant • equipment • materials, consumable supplies, fuel • institutions and organisations. • services
  53. 53. Other emergency resources:- • mutual aid pacts and agreements • regional and national resources. • military assistance to civil communities (MACC)
  54. 54. Basic elements of the emergency plan: • the participating organisations • command structures • communications channels • emergency response procedures.
  55. 55. The ingredients of an emergency plan (1): • explain the problem • scenarios of hazard, vulnerability, risk and impact • inventory of available resources • command centres and support functions • describe monitoring, prediction and warning systems and procedures.
  56. 56. • assign tasks to emergency workers • communications protocols and procedures • procedures for various eventualities (breakages, interruptions and unexpected problems) • training and education initiatives. The ingredients of an emergency plan (2):
  57. 57. Conclusions
  58. 58. Revision Exercising Evaluation Activation Disaster Preparatory study Dissemination Information Creation and updating of plan Stakeholders' opinions Training
  59. 59. Apparent chaos Result Feedback and revision Feedback andrevision Evaluation Testing Disaster Plan Model
  60. 60. ResultsOperations Procedures Plans Policies Command systems • operations centres • task forces • communications • chains of command
  61. 61. Incident Contingency planning in the pre-emergency phase (days) Emergency response planning Permanent emergency plan Operational planning Short-term strategic planning (hours → days) Short-term tactical planning (hours)
  62. 62. Recovery and reconstruction planning Strategic, tactical & operational planning Aftermath Disaster Monitoring prediction & warning Permanent emergency plan Business continuity plan
  63. 63. Emergency planning and management should be fully programmed activities based on a good estimation and accurate knowledge of probable needs, but with improvisation to cope with unexpected developments: we must reinforce the planned activities and reduce the improvisation.
  64. 64. David.Alexander@ucl.ac.uk emergency-planning.blogspot.com On your phone: m.slideshare.net/dealexander Available from Amazon
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