Bracketed duration: the period of time in which seismic shaking exceeds a predefined level. Background seismicity: small tremors that occur constantly during periods of quiescence between major earthquakes.
Types of seismic wave:- Body waves: P, primus, compression or pressure waves - longitudinal S, secundus, shear waves - transverse Surface waves: L, Love S, Stoneley R, Rayleigh C, channel R waves travel at 92%of the speed of S waves, which travel at 58%of the speed of P waves, etc.....
The main kinds of seismic wave Primus (pressure) 'P' waves Body waves Secundus (shear) 'S' waves Love 'L' waves Surface waves Rayleigh 'R' waves
LOVE WAVES EPICENTRE RAYLEIGH WAVES FAGLIA SHEAR WAVES PRESSURE WAVES HYPOCENTRE FRONT OF THE WAVES
DISASTER VICTIM Search and rescue UNINJURED INJURED Medical assistance Public health measures IMPROVEMENT OF CONDITION WORSENING OF CONDITION HEALTHY INFECTED Medical aid HEALTHY IMPROVEMENT OF CONDITION WORSENING OF CONDITION Mortuarial and funeral services DEATH DISEASES INJURIES
Injuries Emergency room injuries Hospital admissions No damage to buildings Damage to buildings Source: Linda Bourque, UCLA
In the Italian Irpinia-Basilicata earthquake of 1980 hospitals collapsed. In the El Salvador earthquake of 1986 hospitals collapsed. In the El Salvador earthquake of 2001 hospitals collapsed. In the Bam, Iran, earthquake of 2003 hospitals collapsed. ....haven't we learnt anything at all?
"At Olive View Medical Center, two buildings collapsed in 1971, and three people died, including two patients on life-support systems that failed when auxiliary generators did not start. The third was an ambulance driver who was crushed by a falling wall. Olive View was an 888-bed hospital then. It had only been open a month when the quake hit. Because of extensive damage, the hospital was rebuilt, with attention to strengthening it against any future quake. But it was much smaller. Now it has a capacity of 377 patients." [Sylmar, California, history file]
Of the 58 fatalities caused by building damage, 50 occurred in hospitals. The worst damage to medical facilities occurred at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Sylmar where two large buildings collapsed. Even though the hospital site was right on the edge of the heavily urbanized San Fernando Valley, it took one hour and 22 minutes before a fire department helicopter happened to spot the collapses and send help. The reason for such a delay? The phones didn’t work, the hospital’s radio was in one of the collapsed buildings, and the first message orally delivered by a hospital staff member to a nearby government facility was confused with an already received report of damage to a different nearby hospital. [Reitherman 2004]
Internal emergency plan Site of the disaster Other hospitals and clinics in the area Health facility network emergency plan External emergency plan The three foci of medical emergency planning
Disaster planning for the medical centre Disaster planning for the system of medical centres Disaster planning for the external environment Disaster in the medical centre Disaster in the system of medical centres Co-ordinated EMS Disaster plans Disaster in the external environment
Helicopter links Ambulance routes Emergency bus transportation Telecommunications links T1 T2 Primary triage point Secondary triage points Pulmonary specialists Hospital I Hospital II T2 Staging area T2 T1 Burns unit Disaster T2 Secondary treatment centre Incident command post Incident commander Mortuary Emergency operations commander Emergency operations centre Next-of-kin Coroner
IMPACT ON THE COMMUNITY RISK OF EARTHQUAKE Characteristics of the event: magnitude, duration, location of epicentre, level ofground acceleration Buildings, drinking water, sewerage, public transport, public buildings, hospitals, fire stations, etc. Local geological characteristics Population distribution and density Aftershocks Socio-economic characteristics RISK OF EARTHQUAKE Landslides Previous experience of risk Floods Casualties, economic damage; type, costs times of reconstruction Fires Level of community preparedness