Hierarchical divisions: Geographical national, divisions: regional, catchments, local, etc. jurisdictions, areas, etc. Division and integrationFunctionaldivisions: Organisationalgovernment, divisions:healthcare, police, fire,commerce, etc. ambulance, etc.
The integration problem Phases of the risk and disaster cycle Decision-making, communication, governance, management Jurisdictions and Emergency serviceslevels of government and functions
The creation of a culture of civil protection HABIT INSTRUMENTS OF DISSEMINATION MASS • mass media EDUCATION CULTURE • targeted campaign PROGRAMME • social networks • internet SOCIAL CAPITAL Augmentation
Knowledge Knowledge of of hazards community and their vulnerability impacts DRR Knowledge of copingDisaster capacity and Risk resilienceReduction
Two models of organisation of civil protection servicesCommand function principle:allocating tasks according to leveland objectives of decision-making(strategic, tactical, operational).Support function principle: allocatingtasks according to functional sector(e.g. communications, logistics, utilities).
Command function principle: command and control modelInformation Management technology decisions Support function principle: collaborative and cooperation model
Command Locus of function control principleTension of Spectrum of opposites alternatives Locus of Support collaboration function (support) principle
Order..................Chaos Locus of Directed.......Ungovernable control Control.......Loss of control Autonomy.........Constraint Locus ofcollaboration Initiative.......Obey orders (support) Collaboration.."Freelancing"
P Policies/EthicsE StrategiesS Tactics Emergency and technical servicesT OperationsOR Results Public administrators General and politicians public
Rescuers Points of assembly point access to Public cordoned assembly area off areas IncidentCordon I Only rescuers Cordon Only authorised III for personnel Cordon II traffic control Multi-agency operations Pedestrians only command.
LEAD GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENT OUTER Strategic Public CORDON levelenquiriesTemporary Strategic Co-ordinating Group Mortuary Police Local authority Fire Military forces Media Ambulance Government advisors Centre Casualty Bureau Other agencies Media Survivor Liaison Relatives’ Point Reception Reception Centre Centre Local Authority Receiving Voluntary Emergency Centre Hospitals Agencies Tactical level Body Incident Control Point Vehicle Holding Ambulance Police Marshalling Area Loading Fire Area Point Ambulance Operational Liaison level Site of Disaster Casualty Police Clearing Fire Station Ambulance Specialist advisors INNER CORDON
Paramilitary forces PMF (National Guard) PF MFPolice Militaryforces forces Italy Fire Public FB PAbrigades administrations CVF Civilian volunteer PMF PMF forces PF MFPF MF USA UKFB PA FB PA CVF CVF
Concept of the lead agency Definition: the service or organisation that has the most immediate, mostfundamental or principal leadership role, by statute or de facto. United Kingdom: Police Italy: Fire and Rescue Service I.R. Iran: Red Crescent Society.
Military CivilianArmed Civil administrationforces Volunteers (civil society) Emergency services(army) [residual role]Civil defence Civil protectionCommand and control Co-ordination and co-operationChain of command Autonomy
Policies Command systems • operations centres Plans • task forces • communications • chains of commandProceduresOperations Results
Emergency response planning Incident Permanent emergency plan Contingency planning in the pre-emergency phase (days) Operational planning Short-term strategic planning (hours → days) Short-term tactical planning (hours)
Permanent emergency plan AftermathMonitoring Strategic,prediction tactical & operational& warning planning Business continuity plan Recovery and reconstruction planning Disaster
HOSPITAL AIRPORT AND AND HEALTH TRANSPORT SYSTEM EMERGENCY EMERGENCY PLANS PLAN MUNICIPAL REGIONAL AND MUTUAL NATIONAL COUNTY ORASSISTANCE EMERGENCY PROVINCIAL EMERGENCY PACTS PLAN PLAN EMERGENCY PLANS INDUSTRIAL AND CULTURAL COMMERCIAL HERITAGE EMERGENCY EMERGENCY PLANS PLAN
Co-ordinatedDisaster Disaster in the in the system EMS Disastermedical of medical plans centre centres Disaster Disaster Disaster planning in the planning for for the system external the medical of medical environment centre centres Disaster planning for the external environment
Independent Conflict with emergency other operations organisations Problems of Owner of the plan (organisation)co-ordination Director of the plan (emergency planner) Participants(users of plan; other stakeholders)
Community disaster planning Volunteerism Donations Self-organisation Community resources Organisation Resources Imposed Governmental organisation resources Laws, protocols, directivesStandards, norms, guidelines International resources
Laboratory Nuclear error with emission (NR) CBR emissionsIndustrial Terrorist Chemical,or military attack with biological accident C, B, R or N or nuclear with CNR warfare contaminants (CBN) emissions Disease Sabotage with epidemic or poisonous agent pandemic (B)
Preparatory study Creation andStakeholders updating Training opinions of plan Revision Dissemination Information Exercising Evaluation Activation Disaster
Feedback and revisionApparent chaos Model Plan Testing and revision Feedback Evalutation Disaster Result
Disaster relief as a barter market for resourcesDONATE ALLOCATE Global National Supernational Regional National LocalREQUEST DEMAND
The pressures of devolution and centrismThe natural tendency The less than natural from above tendency from above Subordinate Harmonise control negotiate repress support restrict accommodate Act autonomously Conform empower cede enable comply liberate submit The natural The less than naturaltendency from below tendency from below
SpontaneousSome publicstakeholders Individualin disaster citizensresponse Kinship groups Disaster Workplace subcultures groups Citizens Emergent organisations Charitable groups Schools NGOsOrganised Established
Obligation Editorial to inform independence the public and freedom Mutual Emergency antipathy Representatives and disaster or of the mass managers collaborative media relationship? Public information Sales and ratings; centres; warnings reputation; and alerts; revenue from informing the advertisingrelatives of victims
Common Common Commonculture objectives language Broad professional training in emergency management Professional experience and training Disciplinary training (e.g. bachelors degree)
Regional and national plansPlans for criticalfacilities:-• airports Business Local authority• utilities continuity• lifelines general plan plans• industrial sites• emergency medical Other plans Integration through planning and training
Resilience [Resiliency]• definition: readily recovering from shock, buoyant• the term is derived from rheology, the science of the deformation of matter• as with materials, so with society: aim for the optimum combination of ability to resist and absorb shocks• resilience is an amalgam of attitude, preparedness and redundancy.
RedundancyThe ingredientsof resilience Adaptability Attitude Participation ...and communication
The reduction of vulnerability to disasters and increase in coping capacity andresilience need to be a co-operative effort in which all stakeholders are involved.
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