Models of Civil
Protection:
The Italian Case
Modelli di Protezione
Civile: Il Caso Italia
David Alexander
University Colle...
Caveat lector: this 2010 publication
is based on self-assessment.
The
theoretical
stuff
(la roba
teorica)
VulnerabilityHazard
An asset is not
vulnerable unless
it is threatened
by something
A hazard is not
hazardous unless
it th...
Organisational
systems:
management
Social
systems:
behaviour
Natural
systems:
function
Technical
systems:
malfunction
Vuln...
Emergency
isolation
The Phases of Disaster
needs to be shortenedneeds to be
lengthened
preparation
for the
next event
warning
and
evacuation
recovery and
reconstruct...
Armed aggression
on the part of states
Civil defence
Natural disasters
Civil protection
"Homeland security"
(civil defence...
Civil defence
Hazard
Vulnerability
Threat
Exposure
Risk
Response
Mitigation Protection
Civil protection
Civil Defence
Civil Protection
Instability
threats
Enhanced
natural hazards
Complex
hazards
Natural
hazards
Evolving
strat...
Civil contingencies
Resilience
management
The risk environment
Business
continuity
Civil
protection
Civil
defence
DRR
Knowledge of
community
vulerability
Knowledge
of hazards
and their
impacts
Knowledge
of coping
capacity and
resilience...
• civilian vs military command structure
• command function principle
versus support function principle
• centrism versus ...
Disaster risk
reduction
Incident
management
Population
(community)
protection
Plans,
procedures,
protocols
Human
and mater...
Broader
scope and
outcomes
Changing
objectives
of emergency
management
Civil Protection
Disaster
Management
Resilience
Civ...
Hierarchical
divisions
National,
regional,
local, etc.
Geographical
divisions
Catchments,
jurisdictions,
areas, etc.Organi...
Organised
Spontaneous
Established
Kinship
groups
Individual
citizens
Disaster
subcultures
Emergent
groups
Citizens'
organi...
Governance:
democratic
participation
in decision
making
Livelihoods:
diversity
and security
Hazards
and risks:
disaster
pr...
Organisation Resources
Self-organisation
Imposed
organisation
Volunteerism
Community disaster planning
Laws, protocols, di...
Military Civilian
Armed Civil administration
forces Volunteers (civil society)
Emergency services
(army)
[residual role]
C...
Locus of
control
Locus of
collaboration
(support)
Tension of
opposites
Command
function
principle
Support
function
princip...
Harmonisation from above
(national or regional levels)
Organisation and growth from below
(local level: municipalities, vo...
The natural tendency
from above
subordinate
control
repress
restrict
The less than natural
tendency from above
harmonise
n...
Global
Supernational
National
National
Regional
Local
Disaster relief as a barter
market for resources
DONATE
REQUEST
ALLO...
Local incident Local response A
Threshold of local capacity
Small regional
incident
Co-ordinated local response B
Threshol...
Around Italy
in 80 disasters
(giro d'Italia
in 80 disastri)
Earthquakes:
• Belice Valley, Sicily, 1968
• Friuli, NE Italy, 1976
• Irpinia-Basilicata, S. Italy, 1980
• Umbria-Marche, ...
Forgotten disasters:
• Balvano 1944:
world's worst rail
disaster
• dam collapse and
mudflow at Val di
Stava, Lombardy,
198...
The death of Alfredino Rampi
in a well at Vermicino, 1981:
the "emotional birth" of
modern Italian civil protection
Molise...
In Italy 60,000
schools are
attended by 6.6
million children:
18,000 of the
schools (30%)
are located in
the country's
mai...
70% of population
lives in seismically
active areas, 40%
in the 2965
municipalities
subject to
moderate and
high seismicit...
There are now an estimated 10,000
cars in the city centre of Florence
Florence floods, 4-5 November 1966
Somma-Vesuvius Portici (pop. 80,000)
1631
pyroclastic flow
Few areas of the world
have such complex
and intractable
volcanic problems.
Etna: population on flanks 700,000
In 1993-4 lava flowed for 431 days.
Some emergency preparedness lessons:
• emergency planning is limited by physical,
cultural and conceptual constraints
• a ...
The practical stuff
(la roba pratica)
What is welfare?
The provision of
care to a minimum
acceptable standard
to people who are
unable adequately
to look after
...
Analysis
• registered
• archived
• forgotten
• ignored
Vulnerability
maintained.
-
• utilised
• adopted
• learned
Disaster...
• magnitude 6.3, duration 25 seconds
• acceleration on hard rock 0.3g,
on soft sediments 0.7-1.0g
• part of an earthquake ...
• 308 deaths
• 1,500 injuries: 202 serious,
550 moderate, 750 light
• 67,000 homeless survivors
• 100,000 buildings seriou...
• c.21,000 people in tents for summer
months, April-September 2009
• c. 22,000 people in hotels,
some far away from L'Aqui...
• 4,600 apartments in 184
buildings on 19 sites
• €280,607 per apartment (€3,875
per square meter of living space).
C.A.S....
• €1,427 per base isolator @40 per bldg.
C.A.S.E. at Assergi - built on
an unstabilised asbestos dump.
Lack of wastewater treatment facilities.
• standard prefabs without base isolation
• 54 sites, half of them in L'Aquila city
• 8,500 people accommodated.
M.A.P. - ...
• social fragmentation leads to
depression, isolation and marginalisation
• total lack of services and transportation
• in...
• stagnation of reconstruction
through lack of funds and planning
• political paralysis and
intimidation by central govern...
The L'Aquila recovery process is driven by
short-term political expediency, leading
to the repetition of ancient policy er...
Organisation Resources
Self-organisation
Imposed
organisation
Volunteerism
Community disaster planning
Laws, protocols, di...
Earth-
quake
Political
response
National
Regional
Local
Permanent
reconstruction
Bad
(functional
problems)
Good
(functiona...
Without participatory governance,
disasters can open a Pandora's box
of irrational, debatable, deleterious,
noxious and ar...
Public
participation in
decision making
Government
paternalism
Inclusive
outcomes
Social
exclusion
Discontent
Satisfaction...
The orthodox approach: emergency
response begins at the local level.
The Italian approach: in L'Aquila
local administratio...
The Italian approach: overwhelming
force, regardless of cost.
The orthodox approach: response should be
proportional to th...
The Italian approach: there isn't one.
The orthodox approach: emergencies
need an incident command structure.
The Italian approach: either supply
it all from Rome or abandon the
local forces to their own devices.
The orthodox approa...
The Italian approach: mind-boggling sums
of money have been spent on transitional
settlement, and so far very few funds
ha...
The Italian approach: in L'Aquila
no thought whatsoever was given
to this problem and the result is a
high incidence of so...
The Italian approach: the guidelines
are incomplete and out of date,
and the training has been foisted
onto the regional g...
The Italian approach: in less than a
decade 600 ordinances have authorised
the expenditure of more than €10 billion,
some ...
The Italian approach: disasters open
a Pandora's box of bad practice.
The orthodox approach: disasters lead
to improvement...
The Italian approach: three municipalities
out of 8,104 have taken this to heart.
The UN's Making Cities Resilient initiat...
• 1980s Pastorelli era - aid to Irpinia
• 1990s Barberi era - aid to Albania
• 2000s Bertolaso era
- misuse of ordinances
...
Conclusions
When the next disaster occurs...
• firemen and military personnel
will be in short supply
• volunteers will be better trai...
Paramilitary forces
(National Guard)
Military
forces
Police
forces
Fire
brigades
Public
administrations
Civilian volunteer...
• Italian civil protection is democratic
and well-organised at the local level.
• Much is known about hazards in
Italy - s...
• Disasters are excellent opportunities for
corruption and theft of public money,
largely because surveillance of, and
con...
The development of a viable civil
protection system in Italy has been
impelled (rather selectively) by certain
key disaste...
• separation of civil protection from single
ministries and its attachment to the
national Cabinet (Council of Ministers):...
The recent Italian experiences of
disaster illustrate the importance
of creating a locally-based emergency
management syst...
The Italian civil protection is
sophisticated, well-developed and
based on proper democratic principles.
Through the volun...
2009->: Neoliberalism or more
assistentialism? Vote garnering
versus economic stringency.
1908: Liberalism - the state is
...
david.alexander@ucl.ac.uk
protezione-civile-italia.blogspot.com
emergency-planning.blogspot.com
www.slideshare.com/dealexa...
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Models of Civil Protection and Their Italian Applications

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Models of Civil Protection and Their Italian Applications

  1. 1. Models of Civil Protection: The Italian Case Modelli di Protezione Civile: Il Caso Italia David Alexander University College London
  2. 2. Caveat lector: this 2010 publication is based on self-assessment.
  3. 3. The theoretical stuff (la roba teorica)
  4. 4. VulnerabilityHazard An asset is not vulnerable unless it is threatened by something A hazard is not hazardous unless it threatens something RISK Extreme events Elements at risk Resilience Exposure
  5. 5. Organisational systems: management Social systems: behaviour Natural systems: function Technical systems: malfunction VulnerabilityHazard Resilience
  6. 6. Emergency isolation The Phases of Disaster
  7. 7. needs to be shortenedneeds to be lengthened preparation for the next event warning and evacuation recovery and reconstruction repair of basic services emergency management and rescue isolation impact needs to be strengthenedRisk reduction and disaster mitigation
  8. 8. Armed aggression on the part of states Civil defence Natural disasters Civil protection "Homeland security" (civil defence) Armed aggression on the part of groups of dissidents "Generic" disasters "Civil contingencies" (resilience)
  9. 9. Civil defence Hazard Vulnerability Threat Exposure Risk Response Mitigation Protection Civil protection
  10. 10. Civil Defence Civil Protection Instability threats Enhanced natural hazards Complex hazards Natural hazards Evolving strategic situation Large technological hazards Evolving climate change 'Na-tech' (hybrid) hazards Major geophysical events
  11. 11. Civil contingencies Resilience management The risk environment Business continuity Civil protection Civil defence
  12. 12. DRR Knowledge of community vulerability Knowledge of hazards and their impacts Knowledge of coping capacity and resilience Disaster Risk Reduction
  13. 13. • civilian vs military command structure • command function principle versus support function principle • centrism versus devolution. Some dilemmas
  14. 14. Disaster risk reduction Incident management Population (community) protection Plans, procedures, protocols Human and material resources Hazard forecasting, monitoring, etc.
  15. 15. Broader scope and outcomes Changing objectives of emergency management Civil Protection Disaster Management Resilience Civil Contingencies Management Disaster Risk Reduction
  16. 16. Hierarchical divisions National, regional, local, etc. Geographical divisions Catchments, jurisdictions, areas, etc.Organisational divisions Police, Ambulance, Fire, etc. Functional divisions Government, healthcare, commerce, etc. Division and integration
  17. 17. Organised Spontaneous Established Kinship groups Individual citizens Disaster subcultures Emergent groups Citizens' organisations Charitable NGOs Some public stakeholders in disaster response Schools Workplace groups
  18. 18. Governance: democratic participation in decision making Livelihoods: diversity and security Hazards and risks: disaster preparedness RESILIENCE: managing risks adapting to change securing resources Uncertain future: long-term trends climate change capacity to adapt
  19. 19. Organisation Resources Self-organisation Imposed organisation Volunteerism Community disaster planning Laws, protocols, directives Standards, norms, guidelines Community resources Governmental resources Donations International resources
  20. 20. Military Civilian Armed Civil administration forces Volunteers (civil society) Emergency services (army) [residual role] Civil defence Civil protection Command and control Co-ordination and co-operation Chain of command Autonomy
  21. 21. Locus of control Locus of collaboration (support) Tension of opposites Command function principle Support function principle Spectrum of alternatives
  22. 22. Harmonisation from above (national or regional levels) Organisation and growth from below (local level: municipalities, volunteers, etc.) Central control Devolution
  23. 23. The natural tendency from above subordinate control repress restrict The less than natural tendency from above harmonise negotiate support accommodate act autonomously empower enable liberate The natural tendency from below conform cede comply submit The less than natural tendency from below The pressures of devolution and centrism
  24. 24. Global Supernational National National Regional Local Disaster relief as a barter market for resources DONATE REQUEST ALLOCATE DEMAND
  25. 25. Local incident Local response A Threshold of local capacity Small regional incident Co-ordinated local response B Threshold of intermunicipal capacity Major regional incident Intermunicipal and regional response B Threshold of regional capacity National disaster Intermunicipal, regional and national response C Threshold of national capacity International catastrophe Ditto, with more international assistance C
  26. 26. Around Italy in 80 disasters (giro d'Italia in 80 disastri)
  27. 27. Earthquakes: • Belice Valley, Sicily, 1968 • Friuli, NE Italy, 1976 • Irpinia-Basilicata, S. Italy, 1980 • Umbria-Marche, central Italy, 1997 Floods: • River Arno, 1966 (Florence), 1991-3 • Versilia, W. Tuscany, 1996 Landslides: • Valtellina landslide dam, N. Italy, 1987 • Sarno, Campania, S. Central Italy, 1998 Industrial hazards: • Seveso dioxin incident, Lombardy, 1976
  28. 28. Forgotten disasters: • Balvano 1944: world's worst rail disaster • dam collapse and mudflow at Val di Stava, Lombardy, 1985: 264 dead • etc., etc.
  29. 29. The death of Alfredino Rampi in a well at Vermicino, 1981: the "emotional birth" of modern Italian civil protection Molise 2002 earthquake collapse of a school: 26 children killed.
  30. 30. In Italy 60,000 schools are attended by 6.6 million children: 18,000 of the schools (30%) are located in the country's main seismic areas. Avaliable funds are insufficient for a complete retrofit.
  31. 31. 70% of population lives in seismically active areas, 40% in the 2965 municipalities subject to moderate and high seismicity. 13.8% of homes are anti-seismic (but 35.3% of those in the main seismic zones).
  32. 32. There are now an estimated 10,000 cars in the city centre of Florence Florence floods, 4-5 November 1966
  33. 33. Somma-Vesuvius Portici (pop. 80,000) 1631 pyroclastic flow
  34. 34. Few areas of the world have such complex and intractable volcanic problems.
  35. 35. Etna: population on flanks 700,000 In 1993-4 lava flowed for 431 days.
  36. 36. Some emergency preparedness lessons: • emergency planning is limited by physical, cultural and conceptual constraints • a major eruption of Vesuvius would instantly be a national and European emergency • the relationship between prediction and warning is absolutely critical here, especially with regard to timing • the relationship between reference scenario and response is critical: wrong scenario equals inefficient response.
  37. 37. The practical stuff (la roba pratica)
  38. 38. What is welfare? The provision of care to a minimum acceptable standard to people who are unable adequately to look after themselves. But we also need to focus on what welfare is NOT...
  39. 39. Analysis • registered • archived • forgotten • ignored Vulnerability maintained. - • utilised • adopted • learned Disaster risk reduced + Lessons Past events The process of disaster risk reduction (DRR)
  40. 40. • magnitude 6.3, duration 25 seconds • acceleration on hard rock 0.3g, on soft sediments 0.7-1.0g • part of an earthquake swarm that has lasted many months • the first earthquake with epicentre very near a major urban centre in Italy since 1915. The L'Aquila earthquake of 6 April 2009
  41. 41. • 308 deaths • 1,500 injuries: 202 serious, 550 moderate, 750 light • 67,000 homeless survivors • 100,000 buildings seriously damaged • 16 towns devastated, 33 damaged. Impact of the L'Aquila earthquake
  42. 42. • c.21,000 people in tents for summer months, April-September 2009 • c. 22,000 people in hotels, some far away from L'Aquila • rapid construction of transitional accommodation for 65% of survivors. Government policy on shelter
  43. 43. • 4,600 apartments in 184 buildings on 19 sites • €280,607 per apartment (€3,875 per square meter of living space). C.A.S.E. - Complessi Antisismici Sostenibili ed Ecocompatibili
  44. 44. • €1,427 per base isolator @40 per bldg.
  45. 45. C.A.S.E. at Assergi - built on an unstabilised asbestos dump.
  46. 46. Lack of wastewater treatment facilities.
  47. 47. • standard prefabs without base isolation • 54 sites, half of them in L'Aquila city • 8,500 people accommodated. M.A.P. - Moduli abitativi provvisori
  48. 48. • social fragmentation leads to depression, isolation and marginalisation • total lack of services and transportation • induced dependence on private transport without infrastructure improvement • exclusion of single person 'families'. Problems with CASE and MAP sites
  49. 49. • stagnation of reconstruction through lack of funds and planning • political paralysis and intimidation by central government • massive rise in unemployment • local inflation, especially of house rents • loss of basic services. Problems with L'Aquila recovery policy
  50. 50. The L'Aquila recovery process is driven by short-term political expediency, leading to the repetition of ancient policy errors, particularly lack of democratic governance
  51. 51. Organisation Resources Self-organisation Imposed organisation Volunteerism Community disaster planning Laws, protocols, directives Standards, norms, guidelines Community resources Governmental resources Donations International resources
  52. 52. Earth- quake Political response National Regional Local Permanent reconstruction Bad (functional problems) Good (functionality maintained) Elections Public image of politicians Amelioration Political impact on reconstruction Suff- ering Reco- veryTransitional housing and settlement
  53. 53. Without participatory governance, disasters can open a Pandora's box of irrational, debatable, deleterious, noxious and arbitrary consequences.
  54. 54. Public participation in decision making Government paternalism Inclusive outcomes Social exclusion Discontent Satisfaction Discontent ...or...
  55. 55. The orthodox approach: emergency response begins at the local level. The Italian approach: in L'Aquila local administration was swept aside and remained paralysed for a long time.
  56. 56. The Italian approach: overwhelming force, regardless of cost. The orthodox approach: response should be proportional to the size of the emergency.
  57. 57. The Italian approach: there isn't one. The orthodox approach: emergencies need an incident command structure.
  58. 58. The Italian approach: either supply it all from Rome or abandon the local forces to their own devices. The orthodox approach: local self-sufficiency and autonomous decision making must be encouraged.
  59. 59. The Italian approach: mind-boggling sums of money have been spent on transitional settlement, and so far very few funds have been allotted to reconstruction. The orthodox approach: transitional settle- ment should not impede reconstruction.
  60. 60. The Italian approach: in L'Aquila no thought whatsoever was given to this problem and the result is a high incidence of socio-psychological pathologies among the survivors. The orthodox approach: in transitional settlement the social fabric should be preserved.
  61. 61. The Italian approach: the guidelines are incomplete and out of date, and the training has been foisted onto the regional governments without providing any harmonising criteria. The orthodox approach: guidelines, standards and norms should be issued to ensure integrated disaster response and training.
  62. 62. The Italian approach: in less than a decade 600 ordinances have authorised the expenditure of more than €10 billion, some of that on projects that had nothing to do with emergencies and were not really useful at all. The orthodox approach: emergency measures should be used when normal measures cannot be.
  63. 63. The Italian approach: disasters open a Pandora's box of bad practice. The orthodox approach: disasters lead to improvements in safety and security.
  64. 64. The Italian approach: three municipalities out of 8,104 have taken this to heart. The UN's Making Cities Resilient initiative has only one Italian signatory - Venice. The orthodox approach: disaster risk reduction (DRR) is a comprehensive process of creating resilience.
  65. 65. • 1980s Pastorelli era - aid to Irpinia • 1990s Barberi era - aid to Albania • 2000s Bertolaso era - misuse of ordinances • Zamberletti era - a remarkable interlude. Scandals:-
  66. 66. Conclusions
  67. 67. When the next disaster occurs... • firemen and military personnel will be in short supply • volunteers will be better trained and equipped than ever before • there are now trained emergency planners and managers • there is a national civil protection system Will that be sufficient?
  68. 68. Paramilitary forces (National Guard) Military forces Police forces Fire brigades Public administrations Civilian volunteer forces PMF MF FB PA CVF PF Italy PMF MF FB PA CVF PF UK CVF PMF MF FB PA PF USA
  69. 69. • Italian civil protection is democratic and well-organised at the local level. • Much is known about hazards in Italy - so it ought to be, as they are the most dangerous in Europe. • Despite the plethora of courses (1000 in Lombardy region alone), there is little effective training in emergency planning and management and no adequate standards exist. Conclusions
  70. 70. • Disasters are excellent opportunities for corruption and theft of public money, largely because surveillance of, and controls upon, expenditure are relaxed. • The concept of personal responsibility is not part of the civil protection culture. • Italian civil protection responds to a logic of political short-termism. Conclusions
  71. 71. The development of a viable civil protection system in Italy has been impelled (rather selectively) by certain key disasters, but the system is incomplete and its maturity varies considerably from one jurisdiction to another at all levels. Great improvements have been achieved in the professionalism of emergency planners and responders, but in a major event it is not clear whether this would compensate for the reduction in forces.
  72. 72. • separation of civil protection from single ministries and its attachment to the national Cabinet (Council of Ministers): non-binding EC national-level directive • fusion of domestic civil protection and international humanitarian work: EC CP/ECHO Directorate. Italian gifts to European civil protection
  73. 73. The recent Italian experiences of disaster illustrate the importance of creating a locally-based emergency management system and of involving the population in the creation of resilience.
  74. 74. The Italian civil protection is sophisticated, well-developed and based on proper democratic principles. Through the voluntary sector and growth of local structures, headed by elected mayors, it is well placed to tackle the main challenge of the 20th century in civil protection: the involvement of the general population in the maintenance of its own security.
  75. 75. 2009->: Neoliberalism or more assistentialism? Vote garnering versus economic stringency. 1908: Liberalism - the state is not a big source of disaster relief 1980: Assistentialism - the state is a major source of largesse.
  76. 76. david.alexander@ucl.ac.uk protezione-civile-italia.blogspot.com emergency-planning.blogspot.com www.slideshare.com/dealexander

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