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Emergency planning and mgt


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  • 1. 17/06/2010 Emergency Planning and Management Prof. David Alexander University of Florence The essence of emergency management:- management:- To tackle pressing needs with maximum efficiency and speed but with scarce resources and in the absence of necessary information BUT this is still a young field that lacks international consensus on standards, procedures, and legal and institutional imperatives. 1
  • 2. 17/06/2010 Some characteristics of large emergencies • events that cannot be managed with normal resources • 90% of emergencies do not require special procedures • 10% require a qualitative change in management techniques • the context of risk and vulnerability can transform an incident into a disaster. Local incident Local response A Threshold of local capacity Small regional Co-ordinated local response B incident Threshold of intermunicipal capacity Major regional Intermunicipal and B incident regional response Threshold of regional capacity National Intermunicipal, regional C disaster and national response Threshold of national capacity International Ditto, with more C catastrophe international assistance 2
  • 3. 17/06/2010 International: exchange and support Nation: policies of Volontary compatibility, harmonisation sector: and co-ordination support and integration Province, region, state, county: co-ordination, assistance Private Municipality or other local sector: authority: emergency operations integration Disaster Hazard monitoring & Disaster forecasting management Policies Major Plans Human & incident Procedures material management Protocols resources Incident management Population (community) protection 3
  • 4. 17/06/2010 Population (community) Plans, protection procedures, protocols Hazard forecasting, Major event monitoring, management etc. Human and material Incident resources management Emergency preparedness has reached a crossroads.... 4
  • 5. 17/06/2010 "Civil Civil contingencies" protection The management security industry Emergencies and disasters "Homeland Business security" continuity Complex management emergencies Natural Anthropogenic Techno- Inten- Natural Social logical tional disasters disasters disasters disasters Civil defence Civil protection "Civil contingencies" "Homeland Security" 5
  • 6. 17/06/2010 Civil contingencies Business Civil Civil continuity protection defence management Resilience The risk environment Counter terrorism 6
  • 7. 17/06/2010 Terrorism is a form of teleological disaster (i.e., piloted) • it is potentially infinitely mutable • designing remedies is a very expensive process • the scenarios are highly debatable. EXAMPLE: the Aum Shinrikyo attack in the Toyko subway with the nerve gas Sarin (1995): • 12 dead • 4900 people went to hospital, of whom... • about 1000 were genuinely injured • ...about 3900 were suffering from MIPS - multiple ideopathic physical symptoms: symptoms: i.e., hypochondria. hypochondria. 7
  • 8. 17/06/2010 The principal effect of terrorism on the general public could be, not any direct involvement of people in an incident, but the disruption of normal daily life... ...with huge costs to society. Armed aggression on the part of states Natural disasters Civil defence Civil protection "Homeland security" "Civil contingencies" (civil defence) (resilience) Armed aggression "Generic" disasters on the part of groups of dissidents 8
  • 9. 17/06/2010 Emergency management: an evolutionary approach Civil defence...............Civil protection Proxy Participatory Command and control Collaboration Vertical chain Task forces of command Population consulted Population excluded and included Law and order Problem solving Secrecy Openness Counter- Counter-terrorism activity Organisation Stockpiling • procedures • equipment • event scenarios • supplies • emergency plans Intelligence Training • collection • plan dissemination • interpretation • exercises • warning Involvement of civil protection Surveillance Analysis • automatic (CCTV) • laboratory • manual (personnel) • forensic 9
  • 10. 17/06/2010 Military Civilian Armed Civil administration forces Volunteers (civil society) Emergency services (army) [residual role] Civil defence Civil protection Command and control Co-ordination and co-operation Chain of command Autonomy Information 10
  • 11. 17/06/2010 Shortage of Excess of information information Information critical but lacking Impact of disaster Time But public perception of disasters continues to be dominated by myths and inaccuracies enthusiastically propagated by the mass media. 11
  • 12. 17/06/2010 "Myth" no. 1: In general terms, disasters are truly exceptional events. "Myth" no. 2: Disasters kill people without respect to differences of social class. 12
  • 13. 17/06/2010 "Myth" no. 3: Hiding under desks offers good protection if there is an earthquake. "Myth" no. 4: Trapped people survive for many days under the rubble of collapsed buildings. 13
  • 14. 17/06/2010 alive from under collapsed builings Percentage of people brought out 100 50 0 0.5 1 3 12 1 2 3 4 5 7 10 15 Hours Days Survival time "Myth" no. 5: Usually, the first assistance in disaster is supplied by the emergency services. 14
  • 15. 17/06/2010 "Myth" no. 6: no. When a disaster occurs there is usually a shortage of resources and for this reason the event cannot be managed well. "Myth" no. 7: no. When disasters occur people should donate used clothes. 15
  • 16. 17/06/2010 "Myth" no. 8: no. Businesses, associations and governments are always generous when disaster occurs. "Myth" no. 9: no. When disaster happens, people tend to panic. 16
  • 17. 17/06/2010 "Myth" no. 10: no. People will flee in large numbers from a disaster area. "Myth" no. 11: no. After disaster has struck, people tend to be dazed and apathetic. 17
  • 18. 17/06/2010 "Myth" no. 12: no. Disasters commonly give rise to spontaneous manifestations of antisocial, behaviour, such as outbreaks of looting. Instead we have the therapeutic community "Myth" no. 13: no. Unburied dead bodies constitute a health hazard and will contaminate water supplies. 18
  • 19. 17/06/2010 "Myth" no. 14: no. Spraying bodies, rubble and survivors with disinfectant stops the spread of disease. "Myth" no. 15: no. Disease epidemics are a very common result of the disruption and poor health caused by major disasters. 19
  • 20. 17/06/2010 "Myth" no. 16: no. Field hospitals are useful for the treatment of the injured. "Myth" no. 17: no. Great quantities and assortments of medicines should be sent to disaster areas. 20
  • 21. 17/06/2010 "Myth" no. 18: no. Anthrax is a white powder. "Myth" no. 19: no. Technology will save the world from disasters. 21
  • 22. 17/06/2010 "Myth" no. 20: no. Tsunamis are tidal waves. "Myth" no. 21: no. Earthquake magnitude is always measured on the Richter scale. 22
  • 23. 17/06/2010 always happen to someone else. Myth no. 22: Major disasters Silverpit Crater, North Sea basin Tsunami hazard in Scotland Volcanic eruption hazard in Germany Earthquake hazard in Belgium, the Irish Sea, London, central England no. CBRN terrorism hazard anywhere. anywhere. Our image of disasters is conditioned far too much by Hollywood! 23
  • 24. 17/06/2010 Obligation Editorial to inform independence the public and freedom Mutual Emergency antipathy Representatives and disaster or of the mass managers collaborative media relationship? Public information Sales and centres; warnings ratings; and alerts; reputation; informing the revenue from relatives of victims advertising Wisdom: ability to take decisions on the basis of principles, principles, experience and knowledge Knowledge: understanding of how things function (or should function) Information: description of physical and social situations Data: basic facts and statistics COMMUNICATION 24
  • 25. 17/06/2010 Old ideas... • rigid structure • hierarchy • military doctrine • secrecy • cordon • command and control • security • civil defence. New ideas... • planning • collaboration • flexible, adaptable management • limited "span of control" • information sharing • IT support • accredited journalists • involving the public • civil protection. 25
  • 26. 17/06/2010 Some effects of the information and communications technology revolution • flattening of the chain of command • IT support for disaster response • overload of information delivery systems • artificiality and isolation from the reality on the ground • the emergency manager must study new ways to inform himself and others. others. The Emergency Planning Process 26
  • 27. 17/06/2010 Emergency Emergency procedures co-ordination plan Spontaneous improvisation Emergency environment 27
  • 28. 17/06/2010 Policies Command systems • operations centres Plans • task forces • communications • chains of command Procedures Operations Results shortage reduced by supply efficient shortage mobilisation urban SAR supply demand demand time time Disaster Disaster In emergency planning efficiency is measured in terms of lives saved and damage avoided. 28
  • 29. 17/06/2010 Three canons of emergency planning (1) aid from outside the disaster area should reinforce, not replace, local reinforce, resources (2) the objectives are to develop a state of local self-sufficiency and maintain self- public order (3) the most efficient emergency preparedness is generic, all-hazards planning. all- planning. The challenges of emergency planning Reduce unmet needs unmet needs needs Rationalise imported assistance imported assistance and make it more timely QUANTITY Increase local self-sufficiency local self-help self- TIME 29
  • 30. 17/06/2010 The emergency operations centre is usually the most appropriate place to create and maintain the emergency plan Field command post • interface between command centre and site of the impact • located on the periphery of the main impact zone • co-ordinates emergency work on basis co- of directions received from the EOC. EOC. 30
  • 31. 17/06/2010 Secondary staging Mortuary area area Medical post medical post for personnel Advance Minor injuries Incident Triage Primary treatment command area staging area post Ambulance Control post Rescue loop loading area Mass MASS CASUALTY media INCIDENT post Helicopter ambulance Inner cordon Rescuers' Points of assembly point access to Public cordoned assembly area off areas Incident Cordon I Only rescuers Cordon Only authorised III for personnel Cordon II traffic control Multi- Multi-agency operations Pedestrians only command. command. 31
  • 32. 17/06/2010 Generalised Detailed Details: Synthesis: Plan: data, abbreviated structure annexes, plan appendices SUDDEN-IMPACT DISASTER OCCURS Immediately THE MAYOR the crisis - goes to the Emergency Operations Centre begins - makes contact with the regional authorities - sends personnel to assembly areas EMERGENCY SUPPORT FUNCTION DIRECTORS MUNICIPAL EMERGENCY - go to the emergency operations room OPERATIONS CENTRE - in the Town Hall EMERGENCY SUPPORT FUNCTION OPERATORS - go to the emergency operations centre and follow the orders of the Mayor MUNICIPAL WORKERS ASSEMBLY POINTS - Group A meets in --------- Street in front of Town Hall AND AREAS - Group B goes to the principal assembly area ----- Building VOLUNTEERS OF THE "----- GROUP" ----- Street - take control of the assembly areas ----- Square ----- Street THE POPULATION ----- Building - is led to the public assembly areas ----- Square THE MUNICIPAL POLICE FORCE - takes control of key points in the centre of town and directs the population to the assembly points TOWN CENTRE - sends situation reports periodically by radio to the emergency operations centre 32
  • 33. 17/06/2010 HEALTH AIRPORT AND SYSTEM AND TRAFFIC HOSPITAL EMERGENCY EMERGENCY PLANS PLANS MUTUAL MUNICIPAL REGIONAL AND NATIONAL ASSISTANCE EMERGENCY PROVINCIAL EMERGENCY PLAN PACTS PLAN EMERGENCY PLAN EMERGENCY EMERGENCY PLANS FOR PLANS FOR COMMERCIAL MUSEUMS, AND INDUSTRIAL GALLERIES FACILITIES AND SITES Disaster Co-ordinated Disaster EMS Disaster in the system in the medical plans of medical centre centres Disaster Disaster Disaster planning planning for in the external for the system the medical environment of medical centre centres Disaster planning for the external environment 33
  • 34. 17/06/2010 Emergency response planning Incident Permanent emergency plan Contingency planning in the pre-emergency phase (days) pre- days) Operational planning Short- Short-term strategic planning (hours -> days) (hours days) Short- Short-term tactical planning (hours) (hours) Permanent emergency plan Aftermath Monitoring Strategic, prediction tactical & operational & warning planning Business continuity plan Recovery and reconstruction planning Disaster 34
  • 35. 17/06/2010 Planning: Likely event: use reference scenario Improbable event: use generic procedures hypothetical historical Scenario ingredients analysis methodology initial reference time conditions event zero consequences evaluation of at time 1 the progress evolution of the scenario consequences develop- develop- at time 2 ment evolution of the consequences scenario at time n formal evaluation of the outcome of the scenario 35
  • 36. 17/06/2010 Existence of various states of hazard and vulnerability Construction of operational scenarios of hazard, risk, impact Processes of constant adaptation of the plan and emergency response Census of available resources Plan of action for emergencies Preparatory study Creation and Stakeholders' updating Training opinions of plan Revision Dissemination Information Exercising Evaluation Activation Disaster 36
  • 37. 17/06/2010 Feedback and revision Apparent chaos Model Plan and revision Testing Feedback Evalutation Disaster Result Conclusions 37
  • 38. 17/06/2010 • losses in disaster will FUTUROLOGY continue to increase steeply • poverty and vulnerability will define ever more closely the areas of greatest susceptibility to disasters • at the world scale, one or more great events will cause a drastic reorganisation disaster preparedness • the catalyst event may be a volcanic eruption, an earthquake, or a biological or radioactive incident. • the job of the emergency manager will become more and more complex • emergency planning will have to tackle new kinds of event • emergency management will very slowly become a profession • the level of international participation in disasters will rise. rise. 38
  • 39. 17/06/2010 Emergency Restoration of planning and basic services organisation of security systems Safety and security measures Emergency Warning and action and preparations; damage damage limitation prevention measures measures Sustainable emergency management:- management:- • is centred upon the local level (but is harmonised from above) above) • has the support and involvement of the population • is based on plans that are fully disseminated and frequently revised • is a fundamental, every-day service every- for the population and is taken seriously. seriously. 39
  • 40. 17/06/2010 Thank you for your attention! Prof. David Alexander 40