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Emergency Operations Centres
 

Emergency Operations Centres

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    Emergency Operations Centres Emergency Operations Centres Presentation Transcript

    • The Emergency
      Operations Centre
      Prof. David Alexander
      D.Alexander@alice.it
    • Emergency
      co-ordination
      plans
      Emergency
      procedures
      The emergency
      environment
      Contingency
      planning in
      real time
      Spontaneous
      improvisation
    • Policies
      Command systems
      • operations centres
      • task forces
      • communications
      • chains of command
      Plans
      Procedures
      Results
      Operations
    • Two models of organisation
      of civil protection services
      Command function principle: allocating
      tasks according to level and objectives
      of decision-making
      (strategic, tactical, operational).
      Support function principle: allocating
      tasks according to functional sector
      (e.g. communications, logistics, utilities).
    • P
      ESTOR
      Policies/Ethics
      Strategies
      Tactics
      Operations
      Results
      Technical
      emergency services
      General
      public
      Administrators
      and politicians
    • The command function (PESTOR)
      • based on command and control
      • a clear division of responsibilities
      • a residual component of authoritarianism
      • hierarchical decision-making processes
      • possibly not compatible
      with collaborative models.
    • The support function principle
      • non hierarchical and based on networks
      • encourages fllows and
      cascades of information
      • it is easy to identify the managerof a
      particular function in a different unit
      • difficult to apply the principle of
      command, which is poorly articulated
      • difficult or impossible to integrate
      with command function-based systems.
    • Strategic command
      operations centre
      conference room
      Management
      system
      Mutual
      assistance
      agreements
      Communications protocols
      Tactical command
      operations centre
      operations room
      Tactical command
      operations centre
      operations room
      Communications protocols
      Operations command
      command post
      Ops command
      command post
      Operations command
      command post
      Communications protocols
      Task force
      site of incident
      Task force
      site of incident
      Task force
      site of incident
    • Mobile command structures
    • Mortuary
      area
      First aid
      medical post
      Primary
      assembly
      area
      Medical post
      for rescuers
      Incident
      command
      post
      Triage
      area
      Secondary
      assembly
      area
      Road block
      Ambulance
      loading area
      Rescue
      loop
      Minor
      injuries
      treatment
      Mass
      media
      post
      INCIDENT
      WITH VICTIMS
      Helicopter
      External
      cordon
      Main cordon
    • Emergency
      Operations
      Centre (EOC)
      "When disaster
      strikes, the
      best protection
      is to know
      what to do."
      - FEMA
    • Definition:-
      "A central structure of command and
      control which exercises the principles of
      planning and management of major events
      at the strategic level in crisis situations
      or other emergencies with the objective
      of ensuring continuity of operations
      for public and private organisations."
    • Definition:-
      "A physical locality housing elements
      of the organisation that
      co-ordinates emergency responses,
      allocates resources and
      conducts recovery actions."
    • Operations centres are of two types:
      always open (24hr) or to be
      activated in the case of an emergency.
      In an emergency or crisis it is important
      to activate the EOC as soon as possible
      such as to initiate the decision-making
      process promptly.
    • Emergency
      operations
      room
      Rest and
      recreation room
      Emergency Operation Centre
      Conference
      and decisions
      room
      ("situation
      room")
      Architecture of an
      operations centre
    • Conference room, DPC, Rome, Italy
    • The location of the
      Emergency Operations Centre (EOC):-
      • in a congestion-free area
      • usually outside the city centre (?)
      • at a communications node
      • where telecommunications are good
      • in a building that is not at risk.
    • The operations centre is responsible for
      the strategic management of the event
      - the "big picture": usually, it does not
      have direct command of operations at
      the site. Thus it is not an incident
      command post.
      A well-designed operations centre that
      is well run will be a major asset
      in the management and co-ordination
      of emergency operations.
    • As it is the focal point
      of civil protection, the
      emergency operations
      centre is used as a
      laboratory for all
      activities in the field.
    • Things to know in the EOC:-
      • the local emergency plan
      • local cartography and topography
      • the services infrastructure
      • hazards and vulnerability of
      the local area under surveillance
      • monitoring networks
      • procedures and protocols to be
      followed in the case of emergencies
      • communications systems.
    • Functions of the EOC:-
      • management
      - direction of operations
      • monitoring and direction
      - of situations
      - of the safety of operations
      • communication
      - directly (bilateral)
      - through networks
      • co-operation and co-ordination
      • registration
      - of decisions
      - of actions.
    • Some functions of the EOC:-
      • collect and evaluate information
      on developing situations
      • determine the responsibilities in
      various sectors, including private sector
      • maintain constant contact
      with other operations centres
      • understand and update procedures.
    • Some functions of the EOC:-
      • compile a daily report on
      events as they take place
      • update the registration of
      damage to people and things
      • produce press briefings and reports
      • compile a daily situation report.
    • Communications systems:-
      • used to collect informationon the
      developing situation and relay
      instructions and strategic orders
      • should be equipped with a
      good measure of redundancy
      • should be robust regarding the risk
      of deterioration of its capacity:
      saturation of networks, damage to
      equipment, incompatible frequencies, etc.
    • Decision-making and
      monitoring processes should:-
      • be easy to use and efficient
      • collect information on breakdowns,
      inefficiencies and failures in order
      to respond rapidly to contingencies
      • track multiple incidents and resources
      • comunicate over a wide geographical area
      • document everything.
    • Software for emergency management
      should offer support to the following
      functions:-
      • operate a network of alerts
      • evaluate events and determine
      priorities for action
      • register events and decisions
      • assign tasks to operational units
      • assign resources and monitor their use.
    • Software for emergency management
      should offer support to the following
      functions:-
      • snapshop of state of operations
      • executive briefing
      • documentation of
      emergency response actions
      • a "virtual operations centre" for
      distance collaboration and co-ordination
      • sharing of data through
      Internet and other networks.
    • The information management
      system should be able to provide:-
      • bidirectional communications
      • a well-structured mechanism to
      send and receive information
      • some automatic responses
      • responses that conform
      to management protocols
      • a system for alerting personnel.
    • Both the event and the emergency
      responses need to be followed in
      real time: resources will be scarce when
      requests for help are accumulating
      rapidly.
      A register of decisions and operations
      is essential to document, follow and
      manage the response to a great number
      of simultaneous events. It is preferable
      to have this in digital form, which is
      flexible and easily shared.
    • Essential elements of the EOC
    • Management structure:
      • scope and objectives for the
      management of emergencies
      • order of priority of actions
      • documents and reference
      instruments for management
      (emergency plan and protocols).
    • Responsibilities:-
      • executive commission or committee
      • group or task force
      for emergency management
      • operations management
      (support functions or sectors).
    • Processes of activating the EOC
      or starting an emergency phase:-
      • criteria for emergency activation
      • how to estimate damage
      and harm to people and things
      • priorities in recovery
      • allocation of resources
      • information flows
      • progress report onoperations
      and the status of the emergency.
    • Key information:-
      • contact numbers and addresses
      (internal and external) of key personnel
      • information to contact materials
      suppliers, with alternative sources
      • roles and responsibilities for transport,
      data management, communications, etc.
      • warehousing, retrieval
      and use of equipment
      • computer modules and programs.
    • While some parts of the EOC may be
      noisy and full of activity, a principal
      function is to wait and watch
      (i.e. to monitor the situation).
    • Physical layout of the operations centre
      The physical form of the EOC
      should reflect the organisational
      processes going on within it.
      There are five or six possible models.
    • "Direction room": the staff of the centre
      are grouped around a single table or a
      few tables with an oval or horseshoe
      form that faces the centre.
    • "Direction room"
      • emphasises interaction and collaboration
      • good for groups that are not too large
      • the focal point is the end of the table
      • the bigger the group, the more
      important is the head at end of table
      • screens, blackboards and pinboards at
      end of table behind chairman's seat
      or opposite so that he or she can see it
      • a very popular form of layout.
    • "Mission Control"
    • "Mission control"
      • a military model used in the
      management of space missions
      • each participant sits next to another,
      with screens, etc., on the wall in front
      • human interactions are mediated
      through information technology.
    • "Mission control"
      • interaction processes are dominated
      by electronic communication methods
      • inspired by the classroom layout
      • facilitates technical tasks but is
      a poor set up for human interactions.
    • "Market place": various tables
      distributed in a large space
    • "Market place"
      • each desk has a particular function
      • co-ordination occurs through
      physical movements(walking
      from one table to another)
      • emphasises strict collaboration
      between specialists sitting at
      each group of tables, with flexible
      interaction between groups
      • helps to maintain the autonomy
      of groups and needs management
      by moving between the tables.
    • "Bull's eye": the desks of various
      units are organised in a concentric
      form around a central table.
    • "Bull's eye"
      • the head of each section
      sits behind a representative
      at the central table
      • appropriate to the centralised
      management of a series of large
      organisationswith many participants
      • facilitates consultation between
      organisations with the participation
      of each one's suppoer staff
      • requires large phsyical spaces.
    • "Virtual": some participants are not
      physically present and are thus
      integrated into the structure of the
      operations centre by telephone,
      video-conference or computer.
      The "anchor desk"
    • "Virtual"
      • very rarely an alternative
      to a normal operations centre
      • adds an element of flexibility
      in the composition of task forces
      • comanders at the site can be
      included directly in discussions
      • participants can be added
      to the groupone at a time.
    • "Tin of sardines": too many people
      in too small a physical space.
    • "Tin of sardines"
      • desks and chairs at maximum density
      • wires everywhere, likewise documents
      • once set up, it is difficult to change.
    • Some challenges for EOCs:
      • concerns about the reliability and
      security of support technologies
      • limits on the availability of connections
      • loss of the human factor of
      communication as a result of
      the use of electronic means
      • it is not easy to manage groups on line.
      [x]
    • Thank you
      kindly for
      listening!
      d.alexander@alice.it