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EarthquakesEarthquakes
- significant issues -- significant issues -
David AlexanderDavid Alexander
Construction failureConstruction failure poses theposes the
greatest threat to life ingreatest threat to life in
earthquak...
Structural integrityStructural integrity::
a building's physical adequacya building's physical adequacy
for its intended p...
Seismic damage to buildings
is a function of:-
• seismic energy expenditure:
magnitude
duration of strong motion
maximum a...
In the Tangshan (China) earthquakeIn the Tangshan (China) earthquake
of July 1976 (magnitude 7.6),of July 1976 (magnitude ...
Knowledge must be gained of how to:-
• buttress buildings temporarily
• repair buildings permanently
• design and construc...
Antiseismic design utilizes:-
• experience of a building's
seismic performance
• hypotheses about a building's
seismic res...
The largest urban seismic riskThe largest urban seismic risk
is in Istanbul and Tehranis in Istanbul and Tehran
Major eart...
The international relief system is
hugely expensive and inefficient
$1,000,000 per life saved!
• in the 20th century 46 lethal
earthquakes caused 128,000 deaths
• in the 20th century 46 lethal
earthquakes caused 128,0...
VICTIM
UNINJURED INJURED
HEALTHY INFECTED
WORSENING
OF CONDITION
IMPROVEMENT
OF CONDITION
HEALTHY
IMPROVEMENT
OF CONDITION...
No damage
to buildings
Damage
to buildings
Injuries
Emergency room
injuries
Hospital
admissions
Source: Linda Bourque, UCLA
In the El Salvador earthquake
of 1986 hospitals collapsedhospitals collapsed.
In the El Salvador earthquake
of 1986 hospit...
"At Olive View Medical Center, two buildings"At Olive View Medical Center, two buildings
collapsed in 1971, and three peop...
Of the 58 fatalities caused by building damage, 50 occurred
in hospitals. The worst damage to medical facilities
occurred ...
Seismic hazards to hospitals:-
• loss ofloss of structural integritystructural integrity
and building functionalityand bui...
UnaccaptableUnaccaptable
performanceperformance
UnaccaptableUnaccaptable
performanceperformance
UnaccaptableUnaccaptable
p...
Capacity:Capacity:
• beds (beds (expandableexpandable))• beds (beds (expandableexpandable))
• surgical and curative (surgi...
ResilienceResilienceResilienceResilience
• ensuringensuring continuitycontinuity ofof
services and medical suppliesservice...
MeasuresMeasuresMeasuresMeasures
• seismic integrityseismic integrity surveyssurveys
(structural and non-structural)(struc...
Health facility networkHealth facility network
emergency planemergency plan
OtherOther
hospitalshospitals
and clinicsand c...
Disaster
in the medical
centre
Disaster
in the system
of medical
centres
Disaster
in the external
environment
Disaster
pla...
Disaster
T1
T1 T2
T2
T2
T2
Helicopter links
Telecommunications links
Ambulance routes Emergency bus transportation
Primary...
NowNow
overover
toto
you!you!
1.1. A major earthquake has severelyA major earthquake has severely
damaged a hospital which has a largedamaged a hospital...
Your resources:-Your resources:-
• PeoplePeople - personnel, experts, manpower- personnel, experts, manpower
• SuppliesSup...
Earthquakes: Significant Issues
Earthquakes: Significant Issues
Earthquakes: Significant Issues
Earthquakes: Significant Issues
Earthquakes: Significant Issues
Earthquakes: Significant Issues
Earthquakes: Significant Issues
Earthquakes: Significant Issues
Earthquakes: Significant Issues
Earthquakes: Significant Issues
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Earthquakes: Significant Issues

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Transcript of "Earthquakes: Significant Issues"

  1. 1. EarthquakesEarthquakes - significant issues -- significant issues - David AlexanderDavid Alexander
  2. 2. Construction failureConstruction failure poses theposes the greatest threat to life ingreatest threat to life in earthquakesearthquakes
  3. 3. Structural integrityStructural integrity:: a building's physical adequacya building's physical adequacy for its intended purposefor its intended purpose FailureFailure: total or partial: total or partial collapse, or the destruction orcollapse, or the destruction or non-functionality of a buildingnon-functionality of a building..
  4. 4. Seismic damage to buildings is a function of:- • seismic energy expenditure: magnitude duration of strong motion maximum acceleration • distance from epicentre • surface geology (soft sediments amplify waves) • effect of construction type • regularity of building form • state of maintenance of building.
  5. 5. In the Tangshan (China) earthquakeIn the Tangshan (China) earthquake of July 1976 (magnitude 7.6),of July 1976 (magnitude 7.6), of 352 multi-storey buildings:of 352 multi-storey buildings: • 44 (1%)(1%) maintained theirmaintained their structural integritystructural integrity • 177177 (50%)(50%) collapsed completelycollapsed completely • 8585 (24%)(24%) collapsed partiallycollapsed partially • 8686 (25%)(25%) were severely damagedwere severely damaged
  6. 6. Knowledge must be gained of how to:- • buttress buildings temporarily • repair buildings permanently • design and construct buildings antiseismically.
  7. 7. Antiseismic design utilizes:- • experience of a building's seismic performance • hypotheses about a building's seismic response • design techniques to combat weaknesses in buildings induced by earthquakes.
  8. 8. The largest urban seismic riskThe largest urban seismic risk is in Istanbul and Tehranis in Istanbul and Tehran Major earthquakes represent an enormous urban search-and-rescue (USAR) challenge
  9. 9. The international relief system is hugely expensive and inefficient $1,000,000 per life saved!
  10. 10. • in the 20th century 46 lethal earthquakes caused 128,000 deaths • in the 20th century 46 lethal earthquakes caused 128,000 deaths • a damaging quake once in 24-56 months• a damaging quake once in 24-56 months • 70%70% of the population lives inof the population lives in municipalities classified seismic;municipalities classified seismic; 40%40% in 2,965 highly seismic onesin 2,965 highly seismic ones • 70%70% of the population lives inof the population lives in municipalities classified seismic;municipalities classified seismic; 40%40% in 2,965 highly seismic onesin 2,965 highly seismic ones • greatest risk is in thegreatest risk is in the 22,000 historical town centres22,000 historical town centres • greatest risk is in thegreatest risk is in the 22,000 historical town centres22,000 historical town centres • 35.3%35.3% of homes in earthquake zonesof homes in earthquake zones are anti-seismically constructedare anti-seismically constructed.. • 35.3%35.3% of homes in earthquake zonesof homes in earthquake zones are anti-seismically constructedare anti-seismically constructed.. In Italy...In Italy...
  11. 11. VICTIM UNINJURED INJURED HEALTHY INFECTED WORSENING OF CONDITION IMPROVEMENT OF CONDITION HEALTHY IMPROVEMENT OF CONDITION DISEASES INJURIES Public health measures Search and rescue Medical assistance Medical aid Mortuarial and funeral services WORSENING OF CONDITION DEATH DISASTER
  12. 12. No damage to buildings Damage to buildings Injuries Emergency room injuries Hospital admissions Source: Linda Bourque, UCLA
  13. 13. In the El Salvador earthquake of 1986 hospitals collapsedhospitals collapsed. In the El Salvador earthquake of 1986 hospitals collapsedhospitals collapsed. In the El Salvador earthquake of 2001 hospitals collapsedhospitals collapsed. In the El Salvador earthquake of 2001 hospitals collapsedhospitals collapsed. In the Bam, Iran, earthquake of 2003 hospitals collapsedhospitals collapsed. In the Bam, Iran, earthquake of 2003 hospitals collapsedhospitals collapsed. In the Italian Irpinia-Basilicata earthquake of 1980 hospitals collapsedhospitals collapsed. In the Italian Irpinia-Basilicata earthquake of 1980 hospitals collapsedhospitals collapsed. ....haven't we learnt anything at all?
  14. 14. "At Olive View Medical Center, two buildings"At Olive View Medical Center, two buildings collapsed in 1971, and three people died,collapsed in 1971, and three people died, including two patients on life-support systemsincluding two patients on life-support systems that failed when auxiliary generators did notthat failed when auxiliary generators did not start. The third was an ambulance driver whostart. The third was an ambulance driver who was crushed by a falling wall. Olive View waswas crushed by a falling wall. Olive View was an 888-bed hospital then. It had only beenan 888-bed hospital then. It had only been open a month when the quake hit. Because ofopen a month when the quake hit. Because of extensive damage, the hospital was rebuilt,extensive damage, the hospital was rebuilt, with attention to strengthening it against anywith attention to strengthening it against any future quake. But it was much smaller. Now itfuture quake. But it was much smaller. Now it has a capacity of 377 patients."has a capacity of 377 patients." [Sylmar, California, history file]
  15. 15. Of the 58 fatalities caused by building damage, 50 occurred in hospitals. The worst damage to medical facilities occurred at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Sylmar where two large buildings collapsed. Even though the hospital site was right on the edge of the heavily urbanized San Fernando Valley, it took one hour and 22 minutes before a fire department helicopter happened to spot the collapses and send help. The reason for such a delay? The phones didn’t work, the hospital’s radio was in one of the collapsed buildings, and the first message orally delivered by a hospital staff member to a nearby government facility was confused with an already received report of damage to a different nearby hospital. [Reitherman 2004]
  16. 16. Seismic hazards to hospitals:- • loss ofloss of structural integritystructural integrity and building functionalityand building functionality • seismically-inducedseismically-induced floodingflooding,, landsliding and subsidencelandsliding and subsidence • loss of trainedloss of trained personnelpersonnel • loss of medical andloss of medical and surgical capacitysurgical capacity • loss ofloss of suppliessupplies (including utilities)(including utilities) and failure of supply chainsand failure of supply chains • inaccessibilityinaccessibility..
  17. 17. UnaccaptableUnaccaptable performanceperformance UnaccaptableUnaccaptable performanceperformance UnaccaptableUnaccaptable performanceperformance FullyFully operationaloperational OperationalOperational LifeLife safesafe NearNear collapsecollapse CollapseCollapse RareRare 60%g60%g VeryVery rarerare 80%g80%g Seismic design levelSeismic design level HospitalsHospitals
  18. 18. Capacity:Capacity: • beds (beds (expandableexpandable))• beds (beds (expandableexpandable)) • surgical and curative (surgical and curative (fixedfixed oror diminisheddiminished in the short term)in the short term).. • surgical and curative (surgical and curative (fixedfixed oror diminisheddiminished in the short term)in the short term)..
  19. 19. ResilienceResilienceResilienceResilience • ensuringensuring continuitycontinuity ofof services and medical suppliesservices and medical supplies • ensuringensuring continuitycontinuity ofof services and medical suppliesservices and medical supplies • ability to cope with veryability to cope with very largelarge surges in demandsurges in demand • ability to cope with veryability to cope with very largelarge surges in demandsurges in demand • protectingprotecting personnelpersonnel andand their immediate familiestheir immediate families • protectingprotecting personnelpersonnel andand their immediate familiestheir immediate families • protectingprotecting lifelineslifelines that enable thethat enable the injured to access medical careinjured to access medical care.. • protectingprotecting lifelineslifelines that enable thethat enable the injured to access medical careinjured to access medical care.. • ensuring theensuring the structural integritystructural integrity of the medical facilityof the medical facility • ensuring theensuring the structural integritystructural integrity of the medical facilityof the medical facility
  20. 20. MeasuresMeasuresMeasuresMeasures • seismic integrityseismic integrity surveyssurveys (structural and non-structural)(structural and non-structural) • seismic integrityseismic integrity surveyssurveys (structural and non-structural)(structural and non-structural) • emergencyemergency planningplanning (...testing,(...testing, revising, diffusing plans...)revising, diffusing plans...) • emergencyemergency planningplanning (...testing,(...testing, revising, diffusing plans...)revising, diffusing plans...) • estimate medical, surgical,estimate medical, surgical, pharmaceutical and logisticalpharmaceutical and logistical needsneeds • estimate medical, surgical,estimate medical, surgical, pharmaceutical and logisticalpharmaceutical and logistical needsneeds • earthquakeearthquake casualtycasualty estimationestimation..• earthquakeearthquake casualtycasualty estimationestimation..
  21. 21. Health facility networkHealth facility network emergency planemergency plan OtherOther hospitalshospitals and clinicsand clinics in the areain the area ExternalExternal emergency planemergency plan Site of theSite of the disasterdisaster Internal emergency planInternal emergency plan The three foci of medical emergency planningThe three foci of medical emergency planning
  22. 22. Disaster in the medical centre Disaster in the system of medical centres Disaster in the external environment Disaster planning for the medical centre Disaster planning for the system of medical centres Disaster planning for the external environment Co-ordinated EMS Disaster plans
  23. 23. Disaster T1 T1 T2 T2 T2 T2 Helicopter links Telecommunications links Ambulance routes Emergency bus transportation Primary triage point Secondary triage points Pulmonary specialists Burns unit Emergency operations commander Coroner Next-of-kin Incident command post Incident commander Hospital I Hospital II Mortuary Secondary treatment centre Emergency operations centre Staging area
  24. 24. NowNow overover toto you!you!
  25. 25. 1.1. A major earthquake has severelyA major earthquake has severely damaged a hospital which has a largedamaged a hospital which has a large Accident & Emergency department and isAccident & Emergency department and is located in the heart of a metropolitan area.located in the heart of a metropolitan area. Describe how you would manage the situation.Describe how you would manage the situation. 2.2. A major earthquake has caused a row ofA major earthquake has caused a row of tall apartment blocks to collapse. They weretall apartment blocks to collapse. They were inhabited. Describe how you would manageinhabited. Describe how you would manage the emergency response.the emergency response. 3.3. A major earthquake has left 15,000 peopleA major earthquake has left 15,000 people unable or unwilling to return to their homes.unable or unwilling to return to their homes. Describe how you would manage the shelterDescribe how you would manage the shelter and structural survey problem.and structural survey problem.
  26. 26. Your resources:-Your resources:- • PeoplePeople - personnel, experts, manpower- personnel, experts, manpower • SuppliesSupplies - consumables, medicines, fuel- consumables, medicines, fuel • EquipmentEquipment, vehicles, vehicles • FacilitiesFacilities - buildings- buildings • CommunicationsCommunications..
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