Earthquakes And Housing

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Earthquakes And Housing

  1. 1. Prof. David AlexanderProf. David Alexander CESPROCESPRO - University of Florence- University of Florence Earthquakes and HousingEarthquakes and Housing How to Develop a Survival StrategyHow to Develop a Survival Strategy
  2. 2. PastPast eventsevents PastPast eventsevents AnalysisAnalysis • registeredregistered • archivedarchived • forgottenforgotten • ignoredignored • registeredregistered • archivedarchived • forgottenforgotten • ignoredignored VulnerabilityVulnerability maintainedmaintained..-- • utilisedutilised • adoptedadopted • learnedlearned • utilisedutilised • adoptedadopted • learnedlearned DisasterDisaster riskrisk reducedreduced ++ LessonsLessonsLessonsLessons
  3. 3. • 3030 disasters (including seismic seawaves)disasters (including seismic seawaves)• 3030 disasters (including seismic seawaves)disasters (including seismic seawaves) • 47,35047,350 deaths (varies from year todeaths (varies from year to year by two orders of magnitude)year by two orders of magnitude) • 47,35047,350 deaths (varies from year todeaths (varies from year to year by two orders of magnitude)year by two orders of magnitude) • 8.58.5 million people affectedmillion people affected• 8.58.5 million people affectedmillion people affected • $23$23 billion in damagebillion in damage (second only to hurricanes)(second only to hurricanes) • $23$23 billion in damagebillion in damage (second only to hurricanes)(second only to hurricanes) • 60%60% of disasters occurred in Asiaof disasters occurred in Asia..• 60%60% of disasters occurred in Asiaof disasters occurred in Asia.. Mean annual impact of earthquakes (1999-2008 data)
  4. 4. At the world scale, most injuriesAt the world scale, most injuries occur in nocturnal earthquakes:occur in nocturnal earthquakes: • a sleeping person is nota sleeping person is not able to react rapidlyable to react rapidly • vernacular housing is particularly at riskvernacular housing is particularly at risk • 50-90% of mortality is nocturnal50-90% of mortality is nocturnal..
  5. 5. VernacularVernacular housing:housing: the mainthe main sourcesource of riskof risk
  6. 6. A scale for damage and personal risk levelA scale for damage and personal risk level Damage level:Damage level: [1][1] minimum damageminimum damage to walls, fitments and furniture.to walls, fitments and furniture. Personal risk level:Personal risk level: prudentprudent behaviour will minimise risksbehaviour will minimise risks..
  7. 7. Damage level:Damage level: [2][2] significant damage to structures, cladding and fitments. Personal risk level:Personal risk level: significant risk of injury but not of death.. A scale for damage and personal risk levelA scale for damage and personal risk level
  8. 8. Damage level:Damage level: [3][3] general damage and collapse of architectural elements. Personal risk level:Personal risk level: significant risk of injury but relatively low risk of death. A scale for damage and personal risk levelA scale for damage and personal risk level
  9. 9. Damage level:Damage level: [4][4] serious damage or partial collapse of building. Personal risk level:Personal risk level: strong risk of injury and significant risk of death. A scale for damage and personal risk levelA scale for damage and personal risk level
  10. 10. Damage level:Damage level: [5][5] collapse of more than 50% of the structure. Personal risk level:Personal risk level: limited and mainly unpredictable probability of survival. A scale for damage and personal risk levelA scale for damage and personal risk level
  11. 11. Survival strategies could be improved for levels 1-4 but perhaps not for level 5 (total collapse)
  12. 12. Poor buildingPoor building qualityquality (low seismic(low seismic resistance)resistance) ProximityProximity to epicentreto epicentre and faultand fault rupturerupture TopographicTopographic amplificationamplification SedimentarySedimentary amplificationamplification QQ EE TT SS ConcentrationConcentration of casualtiesof casualties CC C =C = ff { E,Q,S,T }{ E,Q,S,T }
  13. 13. Building quality and seismic resistance:Building quality and seismic resistance:Building quality and seismic resistance:Building quality and seismic resistance: • site factorssite factors
  14. 14. Building quality and seismic resistance:Building quality and seismic resistance:Building quality and seismic resistance:Building quality and seismic resistance: • building type and materialsbuilding type and materials [Masonry] [Reinforced concrete][Masonry] [Reinforced concrete]
  15. 15. • plan and elevation of buildingplan and elevation of building Building quality and seismic resistance:Building quality and seismic resistance:Building quality and seismic resistance:Building quality and seismic resistance:
  16. 16. Building quality and seismic resistance:Building quality and seismic resistance:Building quality and seismic resistance:Building quality and seismic resistance: • urban form factorsurban form factors [battering[battering byby adjacentadjacent buildings]buildings]
  17. 17. Building quality and seismic resistance:Building quality and seismic resistance:Building quality and seismic resistance:Building quality and seismic resistance: • mixed construction?mixed construction? [Stone and[Stone and concreteconcrete block]block]
  18. 18. Building quality and seismic resistance:Building quality and seismic resistance:Building quality and seismic resistance:Building quality and seismic resistance: • state of maintenancestate of maintenance
  19. 19. Building quality and seismic resistance:Building quality and seismic resistance:Building quality and seismic resistance:Building quality and seismic resistance: • occupancy factorsoccupancy factors
  20. 20. An example:An example: the L'Aquila (Italy)the L'Aquila (Italy) earthquake of 6 April 2009earthquake of 6 April 2009 An example:An example: the L'Aquila (Italy)the L'Aquila (Italy) earthquake of 6 April 2009earthquake of 6 April 2009
  21. 21. L'Aquila:-L'Aquila:- • a university citya university city • population 72,800population 72,800 • 14 outlying villages14 outlying villages 96 municipalities reported damage96 municipalities reported damage
  22. 22. The earthquakeThe earthquakeThe earthquakeThe earthquake 03.32 hrs, Monday 6 April 200903.32 hrs, Monday 6 April 2009 Magnitude MMagnitude Mww 6,36,3 Duration 25 secondsDuration 25 seconds Acceleration on hard rock 0,3gAcceleration on hard rock 0,3g Acceleration on sediments 0,7-1,0gAcceleration on sediments 0,7-1,0g Part of an earthquake swarm fromPart of an earthquake swarm from October 2008 to July 2009October 2008 to July 2009.. 03.32 hrs, Monday 6 April 200903.32 hrs, Monday 6 April 2009 Magnitude MMagnitude Mww 6,36,3 Duration 25 secondsDuration 25 seconds Acceleration on hard rock 0,3gAcceleration on hard rock 0,3g Acceleration on sediments 0,7-1,0gAcceleration on sediments 0,7-1,0g Part of an earthquake swarm fromPart of an earthquake swarm from October 2008 to July 2009October 2008 to July 2009..
  23. 23. Significance of the L'Aquila disaster:Significance of the L'Aquila disaster: • It was a relativelyIt was a relatively small eventsmall event withwith a disproportionatelya disproportionately large impactlarge impact • It was a relativelyIt was a relatively small eventsmall event withwith a disproportionatelya disproportionately large impactlarge impact • Medium-size earthquake disastersMedium-size earthquake disasters are more common than large onesare more common than large ones and deserve to beand deserve to be studied morestudied more.. • Medium-size earthquake disastersMedium-size earthquake disasters are more common than large onesare more common than large ones and deserve to beand deserve to be studied morestudied more..
  24. 24. 24 km 11km Distribution of deaths in the L'Aquila earthquake of 6/4/09 L'AquilaL'Aquila OnnaOnna
  25. 25. 6-25 deaths 3-5 deaths 1-2 deaths No deathsNo deaths One or two individualsOne or two individuals ClustersClusters of multipleof multiple deathsdeaths n=202 L'Aquila city
  26. 26. No deaths:No deaths: housing stock washousing stock was in relatively goodin relatively good condition andcondition and damage was limiteddamage was limited No deaths:No deaths: housing stock washousing stock was in relatively goodin relatively good condition andcondition and damage was limiteddamage was limited Damage/riskDamage/risk scale: 1-2scale: 1-2
  27. 27. One or two individuals:One or two individuals: people rushed outsidepeople rushed outside and were killed byand were killed by falling masonryfalling masonry One or two individuals:One or two individuals: people rushed outsidepeople rushed outside and were killed byand were killed by falling masonryfalling masonry Damage/riskDamage/risk scale: 3-4scale: 3-4
  28. 28. Clusters ofClusters of multiple deaths:multiple deaths: spectacular collapsesspectacular collapses of multi-occupancyof multi-occupancy buildings with upbuildings with up to 25 deaths each:to 25 deaths each: topographictopographic amplification was anamplification was an additional factoradditional factor.. Clusters ofClusters of multiple deaths:multiple deaths: spectacular collapsesspectacular collapses of multi-occupancyof multi-occupancy buildings with upbuildings with up to 25 deaths each:to 25 deaths each: topographictopographic amplification was anamplification was an additional factoradditional factor.. Damage/riskDamage/risk scale: 5scale: 5
  29. 29. Mid-floor damage to multi-occupancy bldg: Intertia effectIntertia effect Basal accelerationBasal acceleration Interaction = damageInteraction = damage Lack of stiffness in frameLack of stiffness in frame
  30. 30. Incipient collapse of intermediate floorsIncipient collapse of intermediate floors caused by lack of stiffness in structure.caused by lack of stiffness in structure. Column breakageColumn breakage Typical forms of damage in RCTypical forms of damage in RCTypical forms of damage in RCTypical forms of damage in RC
  31. 31. Collapse of intermediate floor causedCollapse of intermediate floor caused by battering by adjacent retaining wall.by battering by adjacent retaining wall. Typical forms of damage in RCTypical forms of damage in RCTypical forms of damage in RCTypical forms of damage in RC Two deathsTwo deaths
  32. 32. Collapse of 'soft storey' groundCollapse of 'soft storey' ground floor which had insufficient stiffness.floor which had insufficient stiffness. Typical forms of damage in RCTypical forms of damage in RCTypical forms of damage in RCTypical forms of damage in RC TotalTotal compressioncompression of floorof floor
  33. 33. Typical forms of damage in RCTypical forms of damage in RCTypical forms of damage in RCTypical forms of damage in RC Detachment, fragmentationDetachment, fragmentation and expulsion of infill walls.and expulsion of infill walls. Racking failure
  34. 34. Typical forms of damage in URMBTypical forms of damage in URMBTypical forms of damage in URMBTypical forms of damage in URMB Load-bearing walls disintegrate at angles.Load-bearing walls disintegrate at angles.
  35. 35. Typical forms of damage in masonryTypical forms of damage in masonryTypical forms of damage in masonryTypical forms of damage in masonry Excessively heavy roof in RC: subsides.Excessively heavy roof in RC: subsides.
  36. 36. Typical forms of damage in masonryTypical forms of damage in masonryTypical forms of damage in masonryTypical forms of damage in masonry Detachment of facade elementsDetachment of facade elements and fall of roof tiles.and fall of roof tiles.
  37. 37. People are killed or injuredPeople are killed or injured because theybecause they lack:lack: • experienceexperience of earthquakesof earthquakes • perceptionperception of seismic riskof seismic risk • adaptabilityadaptability to the risksto the risks • social discussionsocial discussion of theof the seismic risk problemseismic risk problem • wealth accumulation andwealth accumulation and investmentinvestment in protectionin protection • training andtraining and practicepractice in dealingin dealing with earthquake hazardswith earthquake hazards • socialsocial supportsupport networksnetworks..
  38. 38. Unexpected earthquakeUnexpected earthquakeUnexpected earthquakeUnexpected earthquake MildMild impactimpact SevereSevere impactimpact CatastrophicCatastrophic impactimpact VeryVery limitedlimited damagedamage Fall ofFall of heavyheavy objectsobjects PartialPartial collapsecollapse TotalTotal collapsecollapse Absolute immobilityAbsolute immobility Frantic egressFrantic egress UninjuredUninjured LightlyLightly injuredinjured SeriouslySeriously injuredinjured KilledKilled
  39. 39. Models of typicalModels of typical vernacular housingvernacular housing building typesbuilding types Analysis ofAnalysis of characteristiccharacteristic failure modesfailure modes DeterminationDetermination of appropriateof appropriate crisis behaviourcrisis behaviour Education andEducation and training oftraining of householdshouseholds Culture ofCulture of protectionprotection and resilienceand resilience
  40. 40. Kang, NW Iran a mountain village in a seismic area
  41. 41. emergency-planning.blogspot.com www.slideshare.net/dealexanderwww.slideshare.net/dealexander D.Alexander@alice.it
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