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Disaster Risk Reduction<br />Does Culture Determine Perception?<br />David Alexander<br />Global Risk Forum - Davos<br />
Culture:the customs, ideas<br />and social behaviour of a<br />particular people or group (OED)<br />
Culture is often the missing element<br />in the social analysis of disasters<br />
Images<br />of reality<br />Symbolic<br />constructions<br />Diffusion of information<br />Emergency not decoded<br />Igno...
Sociocentrism<br />Technocentrism<br />Technology<br />as risk<br />mitigation<br />individual<br />family<br />peer group...
Technology<br />as a source of<br />risk reduction<br />Technology as<br />an inadvertent<br />source of risk<br />Technol...
Long term<br />Emic components<br />Short term<br />Etic components<br />Ideological<br />(non-scientific)<br />interpreta...
National             culture<br />Family<br />culture<br />Regional            culture<br />Peer<br />group<br />culture<b...
Risk perception<br />factors<br />-<br />+<br />positive<br />negative<br />Total<br />vulnerability<br />Risk<br />amplif...
Risk<br />Perception<br />Filter<br />Culture<br />Accurate<br />Inaccurate<br />Decision<br />Action<br />Result<br />Pos...
Knowledge of community<br />vulerability<br />Knowledge<br />of hazards<br />and their impacts<br />DRR<br />Knowledge<br ...
Technology<br />organisations<br />safety culture<br />Ethnology<br />societies<br />community culture<br />Communication<...
Culture of<br />resilience<br />Resilient<br />culture<br />
Portent<br />Retribution<br />Judgement<br />DISASTER<br />ACCEPTANCE<br />MEANING<br />Retrospective<br />interpretation<...
Haas, Kates and<br />Bowden 1977<br />Reconstruction<br />Following Disaster<br />Norberg-Schulz 1980<br />
Haas et al. 1977<br />Lisbon: monumental reconstruction and<br />regeneration of the genius loci of a place.<br />
Preservation of the<br />genius loci of Lioni<br />(Avellino) after the<br />1980 southern Italy<br />earthquake<br />
Does this place still have a genius loci?<br />
Romagnano al Monte: ruined in 1980<br />the struggle for genius loci<br /><ul><li>spontaneous abandonment, 23-11-1980
no resettlement for 30 years
plans for gradual recolonisation
process entirely driven by funding
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Culture and Disasters

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Transcript of "Culture and Disasters"

  1. 1. Disaster Risk Reduction<br />Does Culture Determine Perception?<br />David Alexander<br />Global Risk Forum - Davos<br />
  2. 2. Culture:the customs, ideas<br />and social behaviour of a<br />particular people or group (OED)<br />
  3. 3. Culture is often the missing element<br />in the social analysis of disasters<br />
  4. 4. Images<br />of reality<br />Symbolic<br />constructions<br />Diffusion of information<br />Emergency not decoded<br />Ignorance<br />Cultural filter<br />Information flux<br />Perceptual filter<br />Enlightenment<br />Emergency decoded<br />
  5. 5. Sociocentrism<br />Technocentrism<br />Technology<br />as risk<br />mitigation<br />individual<br />family<br />peer group<br />organisation<br />community<br />society<br />international<br />Research,<br />development<br />and investment<br />in technology<br />Cultural filter<br />Technology<br />as a source<br />of vulnerability<br />
  6. 6. Technology<br />as a source of<br />risk reduction<br />Technology as<br />an inadvertent<br />source of risk<br />Technology<br />as a deliberate<br />source of risk<br />decision<br />perception<br />Risk<br />management<br />practices<br />Cultural<br />filter<br />Ceaseless<br />development<br />of technology<br />Benign<br />Malignant<br />
  7. 7. Long term<br />Emic components<br />Short term<br />Etic components<br />Ideological<br />(non-scientific)<br />interpretations<br />of disaster<br />Learned<br />(scientific)<br />interpretations<br />of disaster<br />METAMORPHOSISOF CULTURE<br />Experiences of culture<br />[mass-media and consumer culture]<br />Accumulated cultural traits and beliefs<br />Inherited cultural background<br />
  8. 8. National culture<br />Family<br />culture<br />Regional culture<br />Peer<br />group<br />culture<br />Value<br />system<br />Personal<br />culture<br />Civil Protection culture<br />Consumer<br />culture<br />Work<br />culture<br />
  9. 9. Risk perception<br />factors<br />-<br />+<br />positive<br />negative<br />Total<br />vulnerability<br />Risk<br />amplification<br />factors<br />Risk<br />mitigation<br />factors<br />DIALECTIC<br />
  10. 10. Risk<br />Perception<br />Filter<br />Culture<br />Accurate<br />Inaccurate<br />Decision<br />Action<br />Result<br />Positive<br />Negative<br />
  11. 11. Knowledge of community<br />vulerability<br />Knowledge<br />of hazards<br />and their impacts<br />DRR<br />Knowledge<br />of coping<br />capacity and<br />resilience<br />Disaster<br />Risk<br />Reduction<br />
  12. 12. Technology<br />organisations<br />safety culture<br />Ethnology<br />societies<br />community culture<br />Communication<br />mass media<br />multicultural societies<br />Psychology<br />ethnic groups<br />individual culture<br />
  13. 13. Culture of<br />resilience<br />Resilient<br />culture<br />
  14. 14. Portent<br />Retribution<br />Judgement<br />DISASTER<br />ACCEPTANCE<br />MEANING<br />Retrospective<br />interpretation<br />Predictive<br />interpretation<br />Traditional view of disaster - modern parallels?<br />
  15. 15. Haas, Kates and<br />Bowden 1977<br />Reconstruction<br />Following Disaster<br />Norberg-Schulz 1980<br />
  16. 16. Haas et al. 1977<br />Lisbon: monumental reconstruction and<br />regeneration of the genius loci of a place.<br />
  17. 17. Preservation of the<br />genius loci of Lioni<br />(Avellino) after the<br />1980 southern Italy<br />earthquake<br />
  18. 18. Does this place still have a genius loci?<br />
  19. 19. Romagnano al Monte: ruined in 1980<br />the struggle for genius loci<br /><ul><li>spontaneous abandonment, 23-11-1980
  20. 20. no resettlement for 30 years
  21. 21. plans for gradual recolonisation
  22. 22. process entirely driven by funding
  23. 23. funding sources obscure,</li></ul> scarce and stop-start.<br />
  24. 24. Further reading: <br />www.emergency-planning.blogspot.com<br />
  25. 25. culture<br />technology and<br />technocentrism<br />symbolic<br />significance<br />disaster<br />Further reading<br />
  26. 26. Thank you for your attention!<br />david.alexander@grforum.org<br />www.slideshare.net/dealexander<br />emergency-planning.blogspot.com<br />
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