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Use wall and floor tiling tools and equipment

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Basic Tiling Equipment

Basic Tiling Equipment

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Use  wall and floor tiling tools and equipment Use wall and floor tiling tools and equipment Presentation Transcript

  • ©TAFE NSW South Western Sydney Institute Wall and Floor Tiling Version 1 –February 2010
  • Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1
    • This unit of competency will address the following elements            
    • Plan and prepare.
    • Identify hand and power tools.
    • Select tools for project
    • Use tools
    • Select plant and equipment
    • Use plant and equipment
    • Clean up.
  • 4. Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1
    • Plan and prepare
    • Planning and preparing for a job is, in many ways, more important than the job itself. A well-planned job can save time, money, resources and, most importantly, lives — if safety issues are responsibly dealt with.
    • Occupational Health and Safety is a vital part of your knowledge in the workplace. More than most occupations, trades workers are faced with many challenges and hazards that form part of the daily duty of doing one's job.
    • For example ,
    • Tradespeople generally work in more unstable/less secure environments.
    • Tradespeople generally work with tools that are capable of profound injury, if mismanaged.
    • Tradespeople are more likely to need and use or come into contact with harmful substances and materials.
    Figure 5.1-Angle grinder, drills Figure 5.2 Tile saw Figure 5.3 -adhesive mixer View slide
  • Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 Identify hand and power tools . Power tools Electricity can be dangerous and care should be taken in its use. Even if you have worked in the industry a long time or feel you know about electrical safety, do not take risks with electricity. To prevent accidental electrocution, always use earth leakage circuit breakers (ELCBs) Before power tools are used , operators must be given extensive instruction in the safe use of each power tool to be used Figure 5.4 -Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB) As part of the Wall and Floor Tiling Trade course, students will be instructed in the safe use of numerous power tools, including: Basic electrical safety Earth Leakage Circuit Breakers (ELCBs) Extension leads Drills Rotary hammer Figure 5.4-Earth Leakage Circuit Breakers (ELCBs) View slide
  • Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 Select tools for project There are many other tools that a tiler may need to carry out wall and floor tiling. Specific tasks may require the use of special tools that can be purchased as needed. When purchasing tools always select a quality brand that ensures long term use Do not use a tool that is not designed to do the job. Using tools incorrectly, can cause damage to the tool and can also be a danger to the user. Accident statistics are surprisingly high in the tiling trade. Tradespersons should be safety conscious at all times. Use tools as instructed and safety gear when necessary.
  • Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 Hand cutting tools Accessories Tungsten tip scriber Tape measure Tungsten-carbide tipped pincers (round-nose or off-set type) Hole cutter Rod saw Parrot or beak nose pincers Pick hammer Strip Breakers Tri square Tile file Sanding block
  • a) These are the tools you will be using for cutting tiles by hand b) c) Available in - Wood - Plastic - metal 1 Metre Fold Rule Tape measure Dividers 4.2 Tools 4. Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1
  • Straight piece of timber - Steel rule - Template - Sliding bevel - Gauge board d) Guides e) Hole Cutting Equipment 1. 2. 3. Pick Hammer Rod Saw Also used with the Pick Hammer Tile Clamp Sliding bevel Steel rule 4 Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1
  • f) Shaping and finishing equipment Sanding block – Abrasive cloth – carborundum stone Tile files g) Scribers Tile Files Abrasive cloth Carborundum stone 4. Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1
  • h) Hand operated cutting machines 4. Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1
  • Tile nippers have a variety of shapes and are used to form shapes and holes in tiles to place around fitting in tiled walls and floors. A square edge nipper is used to create a square or rectangular shapes A round edge nipper is used to create circular shapes holes in a tile A parrot nose nipper is used to start shaping a hole after using a pick hammer i) Side Nippers Parrot Nippers Strip Breaker Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 straight round
  • 4.1 Trade Terms a)
    • guide or mould used for cutting tiles to the size
    • and shape that you need for the job.
    a)
    • guide or mould used for cutting tiles to the size
    • and shape that you need for the job.
    Template Gauge Board 4. Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 Template Gauge board
  • Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 A gauging trowel is an important part of a tiler’s tool box It is a multipurpose tool that is used for mixing small amount s of mortar(mud) and is also used for o apply mortar to the back of tiles when fixing tiles using the thick bed method  
    • Spirit levels
    • Spirit Levels can be obtained in sizes ranging from 300mm to 1200mm . It is called a spirit level because alcohol is contained in the bubble used to measure level and plumb . The alcohol in the bubble is very stable in extreme temperatures and will not expand in extreme heat or freeze in extreme cold. The spirit level is a very accurate tool and if handled with care , you should have lifelong use of this
    • tool
    Figure 5.15 – Spirit level
  • Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1
    • Plumb bob
    • A plumb bob is a weight attached to the end of a stringline that hangs freely to line up vertical surfaces . It works on the principle of gravity holding it plumb
    Figure 5.16 – Plumb bob
    • Water level
    • This level consists of a length of clear plastic tubing filled with water . It is used to transfer levels to wall surfaces and is particularly useful when there are obstructions between level points. This type of levelling device is cheap and it is used with a high degree of accuracy
  • Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1
    • Straight-Edge- (aluminium or timber)
    • Used in conjunction with a level and pencil to transfer levels to surfaces, Also used to check surfaces for alignment as well screeding off mortar when preparing surface for tiling. Edges must be parallel and timber must be straight grained
    Figure 5.18 – Straight-edge
    • Lump/Mash hammer
    • The lump hammer is used for any heavy duty work . It is often used with a chisel or bolster to remove tiles or cut bricks
    Figure 5.19 – Lump/mash hammer
  • Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1
    • Rubber Mallet
    • A rubber mallet is used to beat tiles into the bedding to enable a strong and solid bond
    Figure 5,20 – Rubber mallet Chalk line A chalk line is a container that has a reel of stringline fitted in the inside o the container. The container is also filled with coloured chalk powder that attaches to the string-line when it is pulled out. The “chalked” line used to mark level lines on wall surfaces as well to mark set out lines on floors Figure 5.21 – Chalk line
  • Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 Squeegee A squeegee is used to compress the grout into the tile joints as well as to remove excess grouting material before wiping the tile surface Figure 5.22 – Grout squeegee Sponge A sponge and water is to clean off the tile surface and should be kept clean Figure 5.23– Cleaning sponge Bucket- can be used for water or for mixing adhesives or grout Figure 5.24 – Water bucket
  • Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 Tungsten tip chisel These chisels are used to chisel out or remove damaged tiles from the centre of the tile causing minimal damage to surrounding tiles Figure 5.25 – Tungsten chisel Cold chisels Preparing surfaces, recessing walls, stripping old tile work Figure 5.2 – Cold steel chisel Scutch hammer & comb A Scutch hammer is fitted with a tungsten comb which is used for preparing surfaces such as removing paint and cement dags from wall surfaces Figure 5.27 – Scutch hammer and comb
  • Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 Figure 5.28– Builders Square “ D handle shovels Used for mixing sand cement, these are also available as a long handle shovel Figure 5.29-‘D’ handle shovel Builders steel square Used in setting out ,when checking substrates for square and parallel alignment
  • Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 Use tools General procedure for hand cutting dust-pressed tiles The glaze of the tile is cut or scored by drawing the cutting tool firmly across the glaze (once should be all that is needed). This then becomes a weak point in the glaze and when pressure is applied by placing that line on a nail (or similar) and exerting a firm downward pressure, the tile will break along that line. Ascertain the size needed, either by measuring the area where the cut is going or by putting the tile on the space and marking the tile directly. After the tile has been marked, place a guide on that mark. Draw the cutter firmly along the guide, once only should be enough. Place the line of the cut over a nail (or similar object). Place the base of the thumbs (or the top of the thumbs if the cut is small) on either side of the cut or apply steady, downward pressure. Rub down the edges of the cut (if necessary) with carborundum block, (or similar). If a number of tiles are to be cut at the same size use one tile as a * template and cut the rest on a * gauge board .
  • Procedure for cutting tiles by hand . Determine the size of the tile by measuring or marking. Mark tile with pencil. Do not use a permanent marker Place on top of the tile. 4.4 Basic Tile Cutting by Hand 1 2 3 4 Score along the edge of the guide with your scriber. Do this Firmly and Once Only WHY do we score only ones? Answer: 1) 2) scoring guide Score More scoring does not make it easier to break the tiles Extra scoring might cause more damage to the tile Teacher click on Photo 4. Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 6 Steps
  • Pressure breaks the tile - not scoring: REMEMBER WHY does the tile break along the score mark? 5 Place the tile directly over the and break with your hands as shown. 2 things to snap the tile evenly REMEMBER The score on the surface of the tiles will make that the weakest point and the tile will break along that line under pressure. nail Put thumbs and fingers on both sides of the score. Put equal pressure on both sides and push down 4. Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1
  • Using the strip breaker . 6 Smooth the with an abrasive cloth or tile file.
    • Important points to REMEMBER.
    • Use this method on dust pressed tiles.
    • Tiles should be marked as lightly as possible.
    • Too much pressure can damage the edge of the cut.
    edge of the cut This method is easy and safe if multiple thin strips are required. Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 Take note of the edge of the template.
  • Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 Reverse marking - to cut tiles to suit walls and floors that are out of alignment Use this technique when objects are not parallel to the body of the tile work such as Door Jambs, windows and internal corners as well as walls and floors to be tiled Figure 5.31 – Reverse marking wall and floor tiles Reverse marking Place the tile upside down and at the bottom of the tile you want to cut and mark where the cut would be Slide the tile up and mark the top Draw in the line and cut the tile Turn the tile over and check to see if it fits. Make any adjustments if necessary. Repeat that process for the rest of the corner
  • HOW 4.5 Making straight cuts
    • Edges should be…..
    Answer: 1. 2. 3. do we check for parallel? If the tiles are on top of each other, you can’t tell if the 2 long sides are parallel but…… If they are placed beside each other…… Parallel Not Parallel Straight Smooth Parallel 4. Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 A B A B A B A B A B A B wider here
  • WHERE would you need to cut rebates out of the tile work? A rebate is a small part of the tile which is cut away 1. 2. 3. 4. Light switches Taps and pipes Power points Ceramic fittings 4. Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1
  • REMEMBER Answer 1 Procedure for cutting rebates. Measure out or mark the size and shape of the cut. 2 Leave a 5mm clearance around pipes and . 3 If you can, score along the marked line. 4 Nip out small pieces of tile DO THIS SLOWLY (small bites with the nippers). Do you need to care extra when you are nipping out near the finished edge? Keep checking your rebate against the object you are cutting around. stop cocks If you cut too much it can’t be replaced – you will have to start again. 4. Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 4 Steps WHY ?
  • 7 Keep checking the size of the hole as you enlarge the rebate. 6 Pick out a hole big enough for the enlarging tool ( ) to fit through. 5 Pick away at the glaze in a area only. small parrot nippers This method also allows you to make square holes 4. Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1
  • Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 Procedure for cutting recesses with pincers Mark on the tile the size and shape of recess that needs to be cut. Use a pencil or felt tipped pen for this purpose. Score along those marks with a tungsten tipped scriber. Slowly nip away at the tile with the pincers, removing small amounts with each nip. Take extra care when getting near the finish marks. When cutting around taps you should leave a small gap so the tap bodies can be removed for servicing.
  • Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 Cutting tiles with manual tile cutting machines Dust pressed wall tiles are easily cut by scribing the glazed surface with a tungsten carbide tipped cutter and snapping the tile either by hand or placing the scribe mark over some sort of raised section placed under the tile. Holes can be cut using the tile pick and stand. However, monocuttura tiles that are commonly used now need to be cut with a tile cutting machine
  • 4.6 Mechanical hand cutters There are many types of machines for cutting tiles. They will cut MOST ceramic floor and wall tiles. 4. Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1
  • Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 Scoring and breaking the tile The machines usually have a base plate (can be fixed or flexible). A guide arm and handle and a tungsten carbide cutting wheel . Measure and mark the size of the cut Place the tile on the base of the cutter Line up the mar with the scoring wheel The wheel is drawn over the surface of the tile and another part of the guide arm then applies pressure to the tile which snaps over a raised section in the base plate. Holes can only be made in these tiles with a tungsten carbide or diamond tipped hole saw .
  • HINT 4.6 Mechanical hand cutters Procedure for using Mechanical tile cutters 1 Measure or mark the size of your cut. 2 Place the tile on the base of the cutter. If your cutting more than 1 tile put a mark on the measuring guide – this way you don’t have to measure your tile every time …. or fix the guide into the correct position. Tile 3 Line up the mark with the scoring wheel. 4. Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 5 Steps Scoring wheel Feet
  • REMEMBER NOTE WHY 4 Score the tile from top to bottom. Put equal pressure downwards and towards yourself. Don’t use too much force – mark the tile lightly mark lightly? Answer: 5 Do this by resting the feet of the lever at the top or bottom of the tile and about 15 – 20mm from the edge. Then push down steadily. In some cases you might have to hit it firmly, but gently. Some machines have a height adjustment setting to help with that step. You might damage the glaze on both sides of the mark Break the tile 4. Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1
  • 1 Procedure for holes Measure or mark the size and shape of the cut. 2 Place the tile against the pipe stand 3 Hold the tile firmly, this will stop the tile from bouncing on the pipe when you pick at it. Cutting holes 4 Start picking at the hole over where the centre of the hole would be. Is it important to stop the tile from bouncing? Answer: Bouncing will put the tile under stress and might break. 4. Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 WHY ? 7 Steps
  • WHY ? REMEMBER Too much = too late = two jobs 2 things 1. Check as you go. 2. Be accurate. i. ii iii Looks good Saves time Saves material 4. Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1
  • Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 Select plant and equipment Brick saw Tile wet saw Marble cutter jack-hammer Generator Figure 6.4 – Tiling plant and equipment
    • Before you start using any equipment, have a look and ask yourself…
    • Is the equipment in good working condition?
    • Has the equipment been serviced tested and cords tagged?
    • Is the power supply point safe and in good condition?
    • Are electrical cords in anyone’s way?
  • Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 Electrical equipment: Do not tamper with any electrical equipment, if it does not work, have it checked by an electrician. Keep extension leads off the ground, if you happen to see a lead on the ground, and then pick it up, never wheel barrows or other equipment across extension leads. When using power tools always use an Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB), this is especially important when using power tools in damp areas. Protect your fellow workers – if you become aware of any dangers, don’t keep it to yourself – either remove the danger or bring it to the attention of someone who can fix the problem.
  • Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 Use plant and equipment Do not improvise with equipment, use the proper equipment or tools for specific tasks, don’t try and force machinery or other equipment to do a job that it was not designed to do. Do not operate any equipment in the workshop or on the job site unless you have been trained in its operation. Most machines have guards to protect the operator, make sure you use them. Wear appropriate clothing and shoes – use protective clothing whenever necessary. Never work under, or even walk under, suspended loads. When working overhead, watch out for others below. Take care of your tools – maintain them in good condition. Adopt the correct posture when lifting weights – use the legs to lift – not your back. Use your common sense at all times on the job site – you will not get into trouble for being cautious – you most certainly will get into trouble if your actions cause injury or inconvenience to others.
  • Use Wall and Floor tiling tools and equipment 1 Cleaning and maintenance of tools Construction tools and equipment are expensive and/ or fragile. Adequate, regular cleaning and maintenance will prolong their lifespan. Maintenance normally involves returning tools to professionals for calibration; however some devices may be maintained by following manufacturers’ handbook instructions. Tools should be kept clean and dry when not in use. A light application of oil to all steel based tools, as this will prevent rust . Always ensure that tools are in good working order before using and stored away safely after use Visually inspect, clean and maintain tools, leads and equipment prior to storing them, then clear the work area of waste materials Cleaning operations include; Tools and equipment must be cleaned, maintained and stored correctly Metal blades can be with mineral oil Wooden handles on tools can be wiped with raw linseed oils Safety signs and barricades must be remove and stored for later use
  •