Food Safety and Strawberries Trevor Phister, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Food Science [email_address]
Why Should We Care? <ul><li>Every year foodborne illnesses  result in an estimated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>76 million cases...
Produce Associated Outbreaks Affect Business <ul><li>Strawberry industry lost an estimated $50 million in 1996 after mista...
Microbes That Cause Foodborne Illness <ul><li>Bacteria  – Single-celled organisms that live independently. </li></ul><ul><...
Number of Produce Associated Outbreaks by Decade,  1973 - 1997 3.7 6.5 10.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 1973-79 1980-89 1990-97 Decade...
Main produce items  <ul><li>Leafy greens </li></ul><ul><li>Tomato </li></ul><ul><li>Sprouts </li></ul><ul><li>Berries </li...
Harmful Microorganisms & Outbreaks Associated with Produce l f a s p r o u t s , r o o t v e g e t a b l e s , d r i e d s...
Frequency of Pathogens on Produce <ul><li>Vegetables (from literature): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salmonella   1- 8% </li></ul...
The Problem Charles Dharapak/Associated Press
Strawberries <ul><li>1992 Hepatitis A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>35 infected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1997 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
What can we do?
Taken up through roots JFP vol65 p18-23
Solutions
Washes and rinses <ul><li>Chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone </li></ul><ul><li>Acetic aci...
Good Agricultural Practices
Good agricultural practices <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer  </li></ul><ul><li>Animal feces </li></ul><ul><li>W...
Good management practices <ul><li>Growers and packers who successfully pass will be listed on the USDA and NCDA web site <...
Good management practices
Good agricultural practices <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer and animal feces </li></ul><ul><li>Worker health an...
water <ul><li>Anytime water comes in contact with fresh produce, its quality determines the potential for pathogen contami...
<ul><li>Usually, water for agricultural uses comes from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface sources such as rivers, streams, ir...
Make sure you know your water system
Ground water may be contaminated by a variety of biological and chemical hazards, which include:   <ul><li>Bacteria and vi...
Microbiological Testing   <ul><li>Microbiological testing is used in the verification steps of a safety assurance program....
Water Source Will Determine the Possible Frequency of Testing * Obtained from California Strawberry Commission (1998) Qual...
Sampling criteria can differ greatly <126 MPN for 5 samples <235 single NA NA CLGMA 50%<100 50%<100 50%<1000 Buyer 2 <10 <...
Frost protection <ul><li>Water should meet pre-harvest criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>126  E. coli  per 100 mL </li></ul><...
Drip irrigation <ul><li>More efficient irrigation method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less water lost to evaporation </li></ul></...
Conclusions <ul><li>GAPs best way to prevent foodborne illness </li></ul><ul><li>Water quality for irrigation should be 12...
Acknowledgments Water Mark A. Ritenour, Ph.D. University of Florida, Indian River Research & Education Center, Fort Pierce...
Resources http://www. ncagr . com/markets/gradnreg/foodsafety/index . htm Trevor Phister  Phone: 919-513-1644 Email: tgphi...
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Food Safety Basics Trevor Phister

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Food Safety Basics

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  • Food Safety Basics Trevor Phister

    1. 1. Food Safety and Strawberries Trevor Phister, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Food Science [email_address]
    2. 2. Why Should We Care? <ul><li>Every year foodborne illnesses result in an estimated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>76 million cases of foodborne illness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>325,000 people hospitalized for foodborne illness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5,200 needless deaths each year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic losses between 10-83 billion dollars. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Produce Associated Outbreaks Affect Business <ul><li>Strawberry industry lost an estimated $50 million in 1996 after mistakenly being indicated as the source of pathogens in an outbreak. </li></ul><ul><li>Odwalla shareholder value dropped approximately 41% ($12.4 million) in six months after outbreak. </li></ul><ul><li>Work against produce promotions campaigns. </li></ul><ul><li>May result in unwanted legislation or regulation. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Microbes That Cause Foodborne Illness <ul><li>Bacteria – Single-celled organisms that live independently. </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses - small particles that live and replicate in a host. </li></ul><ul><li>Parasites - intestinal worms or protozoa that live in a host animal or human. </li></ul>Parasites Viruses Bacteria
    5. 5. Number of Produce Associated Outbreaks by Decade, 1973 - 1997 3.7 6.5 10.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 1973-79 1980-89 1990-97 Decade Outbreaks / year
    6. 6. Main produce items <ul><li>Leafy greens </li></ul><ul><li>Tomato </li></ul><ul><li>Sprouts </li></ul><ul><li>Berries </li></ul><ul><li>Melons </li></ul>
    7. 7. Harmful Microorganisms & Outbreaks Associated with Produce l f a s p r o u t s , r o o t v e g e t a b l e s , d r i e d s e a w e e d L m o n o c y t o g e n e s C a b b a g e B . c e r e u s S p r o u t s H e p a t i t i s A v i r u s I c e b e r g l e t t u c e , r a s p b e r r i e s , s t r a w b e r r i e s C r y p t o s p o r i d i u m A p p l e c i d e r C y c l o s p o r a R a s p b e r r i e s P a t h o g e n P r o d u c e E . c o l i O 1 5 7 : H 7 I c e b e r g l e t t u c e , r a d i s h s p r o u t s , u n p a s t e u r i z e d a p p l e c i d e r / j u i c e S a l m o n e l l a s p p . T o m a t o e s , b e a n s p r o u t s , s l i c e d w a t e r m e l o n , s l i c e d c a n t a l o u p e , c o l e s l a w & o n i o n s , a l f a
    8. 8. Frequency of Pathogens on Produce <ul><li>Vegetables (from literature): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salmonella 1- 8% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L. monocytogenes 2- 30% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shigella 1% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No difference was found between organic and conventional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FDA Produce Surveillance Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imports - 4% positive rate ( Salmonella & Shigella ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic - currently being conducted </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. The Problem Charles Dharapak/Associated Press
    10. 10. Strawberries <ul><li>1992 Hepatitis A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>35 infected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1997 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.6 million pounds frozen strawberries recalled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thousands of children exposed to Hepatitis A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>262 children infected </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. What can we do?
    12. 12. Taken up through roots JFP vol65 p18-23
    13. 13. Solutions
    14. 14. Washes and rinses <ul><li>Chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone </li></ul><ul><li>Acetic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Electrolized water </li></ul>
    15. 15. Good Agricultural Practices
    16. 16. Good agricultural practices <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>Animal feces </li></ul><ul><li>Worker health and hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Field sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Packing facility </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Traceback </li></ul>
    17. 17. Good management practices <ul><li>Growers and packers who successfully pass will be listed on the USDA and NCDA web site </li></ul><ul><li>Participation is voluntary </li></ul><ul><li>Program initiated by retailers asking for demonstration of adherence to food safety practices </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ncagr.com/markets/gradnreg/foodsafety/index.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Phone: (252)-792-1672 </li></ul>
    18. 18. Good management practices
    19. 19. Good agricultural practices <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer and animal feces </li></ul><ul><li>Worker health and hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Field sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Packing facility </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Traceback </li></ul>
    20. 20. water <ul><li>Anytime water comes in contact with fresh produce, its quality determines the potential for pathogen contamination since water may be a carrier of a number of types of microorganisms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Escherichia coli , Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholerae , Shigella spp, Cryptosporidium parvum , Giardia lamblia , Cyclospora cayetanensis , Toxisplasma gondii , the Norwalk virus and hepatitis A </li></ul></ul>Courtesy of FDA Courtesy University of Florida
    21. 21. <ul><li>Usually, water for agricultural uses comes from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface sources such as rivers, streams, irrigation ditches and canals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reservoirs (open or capped) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipal water systems </li></ul></ul>water Courtesy of FDA Courtesy University of Florida
    22. 22. Make sure you know your water system
    23. 23. Ground water may be contaminated by a variety of biological and chemical hazards, which include: <ul><li>Bacteria and viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic waste </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrate nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic organic chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy metals </li></ul><ul><li>Petroleum residues </li></ul><ul><li>Combustion products from roadways </li></ul>Courtesy of FDA
    24. 24. Microbiological Testing <ul><li>Microbiological testing is used in the verification steps of a safety assurance program. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to document the frequency and results of each water test for comparison purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>These records would become very important in the event of a microbiological outbreak investigation. </li></ul>Courtesy of FDA Courtesy University of Florida
    25. 25. Water Source Will Determine the Possible Frequency of Testing * Obtained from California Strawberry Commission (1998) Quality Assurance Program Courtesy of FDA Courtesy University of Florida Keep records from the municipality/district water system (monthly, quarterly or annual report) Municipal/District water system Beginning, middle and week before harvest Uncovered well, open canal, water reservoir, collection pond One annual test at the beginning of season Closed system, under the ground or covered tank Possible Water Testing Frequency* Source
    26. 26. Sampling criteria can differ greatly <126 MPN for 5 samples <235 single NA NA CLGMA 50%<100 50%<100 50%<1000 Buyer 2 <10 <10 <100 Buyer 1 E. coli (CFU/100mL) Thermotolerant coliforms Cfu/100 mL) Total coliforms (cfu/100 mL)
    27. 27. Frost protection <ul><li>Water should meet pre-harvest criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>126 E. coli per 100 mL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If it is over this limit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not use water until problem corrected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine water source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After actions taken retest water at sampling point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test water for 5 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sample the crop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If crops positive do not use </li></ul></ul></ul>Photo by Donnie Fulks, Belvedere Plantation, Fredricksburg, VA
    28. 28. Drip irrigation <ul><li>More efficient irrigation method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less water lost to evaporation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Less transfer of pathogens to plant </li></ul>
    29. 29. Conclusions <ul><li>GAPs best way to prevent foodborne illness </li></ul><ul><li>Water quality for irrigation should be 126 MPN/5 samples ( E.coli ) although this may vary </li></ul><ul><li>Drip irrigation safer than overhead </li></ul>
    30. 30. Acknowledgments Water Mark A. Ritenour, Ph.D. University of Florida, Indian River Research & Education Center, Fort Pierce Elizabeth A. Bihn and Robert B. Gravani National GAPs Program Cornell University
    31. 31. Resources http://www. ncagr . com/markets/gradnreg/foodsafety/index . htm Trevor Phister Phone: 919-513-1644 Email: tgphiste@ncsu.edu www.extensionfoodsafety.org
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